Learning Lessons From The Past IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Learning Lessons From The Past được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Practice Test Plus 3 - Test 5 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Learning Lessons From The Past IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Learning lessons from the past
Many past societies collapsed or vanished, leaving behind monumental ruins such as those that the poet Shelley imagined in his sonnet, Ozymandias. By collapse, I mean a drastic decrease in human population size and/or political/economic/social complexity, over a considerable area, for an extended time. By those standards, most people would consider the following past societies to have been famous victims of full-fledged collapses rather than of just minor declines: the Anasazi and Cahokia within the boundaries of the modern US, the Maya cities in Central America, Moche and Tiwanaku societies in South America, Norse Greenland, Mycenean Greece and Minoan Crete in Europe, Great Zimbabwe in Africa, Angkor Wat and the Harappan Indus Valley cities in Asia, and Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean. The monumental ruins left behind by those past societies hold a fascination for all of us. We marvel at them when as children we first learn of them through pictures. When we grow up, many of us plan vacations in order to experience them at first hand. We feel drawn to their often spectacular and haunting beauty, and also to the mysteries that they pose. The scales of the ruins testify to the former wealth and power of their builders. Yet these builders vanished, abandoning the great structures that they had created at such effort. How could a society that was once so mighty end up collapsing? It has long been suspected that many of those mysterious abandonments were at least partly triggered by ecological problems: people inadvertently destroying the environmental resources on which their societies depended. This suspicion of unintended ecological suicide (ecocide) has been confirmed by discoveries made in recent decades by archaeologists, climatologists, historians, paleontologists, and palynologists (pollen scientists). The processes through which past societies have undermined themselves by damaging their environments fall into eight categories, whose relative importance differs from case to case: deforestation and habitat destruction, soil problems, water management problems, overhunting, overfishing, effects of introduced species on native species, human population growth, and increased impact of people. Those past collapses tended to follow somewhat similar courses constituting variations on a theme. Writers find it tempting to draw analogies between the course of human societies and the course of individual human lives - to talk of a society’s birth, growth, peak, old age and eventual death. But that metaphor proves erroneous for many past societies: they declined rapidly after reaching peak numbers and power, and those rapid declines must have come as a surprise and shock to their citizens. Obviously, too, this trajectory is not one that all past societies followed unvaryingly to completion: different societies collapsed to different degrees and in somewhat different ways, while many societies did not collapse at all. Today many people feel that environmental problems overshadow all the other threats to global civilisation. These environmental problems include the same eight that undermined past societies, plus four new ones: human-caused climate change, build up of toxic chemicals in the environment, energy shortages, and full human utilisation of the Earth’s photosynthetic capacity. But the seriousness of these current environmental problems is vigorously debated. Are the risks greatly exaggerated, or conversely are they underestimated? Will modern technology solve our problems, or is it creating new problems faster than it solves old ones? When we deplete one resource (e.g. wood, oil, or ocean fish), can we count on being able to substitute some new resource (e.g. plastics, wind and solar energy, or farmed fish)? Isn’t the rate of human population growth declining, such that we’re already on course for the world’s population to level off at some manageable number of people? Questions like this illustrate why those famous collapses of past civilisations have taken on more meaning than just that of a romantic mystery. Perhaps there are some practical lessons that we could learn from all those past collapses. But there are also differences between the modern world and its problems, and those past societies and their problems. We shouldn't be so naive as to think that study of the past will yield simple solutions, directly transferable to our societies today. We differ from past societies in some respects that put us at lower risk than them; some of those respects often mentioned include our powerful technology (i.e. its beneficial effects), globalisation, modern medicine, and greater knowledge of past societies and of distant modern societies. We also differ from past societies in some respects that put us at greater risk than them: again, our potent technology (i.e., its unintended destructive effects), globalisation (such that now a problem in one part of the world affects all the rest), the dependence of millions of us on modern medicine for our survival, and our much larger human population. Perhaps we can still learn from the past, but only if we think carefully about its lessons.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 3
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
1
When the writer describes the impact of monumental ruins today, he emphasises
A
the income they generate from tourism.
B
the area of land they occupy.
C
their archaeological value.
D
their romantic appeal
2
Recent findings concerning vanished civilisations have
A
overturned long-held beliefs.
B
caused controversy amongst scientists.
C
come from a variety of disciplines.
D
identified one main cause of environmental damage.
3
What does the writer say about ways in which former societies collapsed?
A
The pace of decline was usually similar.
B
The likelihood of collapse would have been foreseeable.
C
Deterioration invariably led to total collapse.
D
Individual citizens could sometimes influence the course of events.
Question 4 - 8
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
4
It is widely believed that environmental problems represent the main danger faced by the modern world.
5
The accumulation of poisonous substances is a relatively modern problem.
6
There is general agreement that the threats posed by environmental problems are very serious.
7
Some past societies resembled present-day societies more closely than others.
8
We should be careful when drawing comparisons between past and present.
Question 9 - 13
Complete each sentences with correct ending
List of Endings
A
is not necessarily valid.
B
provides grounds for an optimistic outlook.
C
exists in the form of physical structures.
D
is potentially both positive and negative.
E
will not provide direct solutions for present problems.
F
is greater now than in the past.
Evidence of the greatness of some former civilizations
9
The parallel between an individual’s life and the life of a society
10
The number of environmental problems that societies face
11
The power of technology
12
A consideration of historical events and trends
13
Question 14
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
14
What is the main argument of Reading Passage 3?
A
There are differences as well as similarities between past and present societies.
B
More should be done to preserve the physical remains of earlier civilisations.
C
Some historical accounts of great civilisations are inaccurate.
D
Modern societies are dependent on each other for their continuing survival.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta dẽ dàng tìm thấy thông tin 'monumental ruins' ở đầu đoạn 2, sau đó tác giả nói về cảm nhận đối với chúng



Ta đọc connection với Linearthinking để xem tác giả nhấn mạnh vào khía cạnh nào

 1 We feel drawn to their often spectacular and haunting beauty , and also to the mysteries that they pose. 

 2 The scales of the ruins testify to the former wealth and power of their builders

=> Câu 1 cho biết ta hứng thú với the ruins' beauty + mysteries

Xem full giải thích
2
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Vì thông tin phân mảnh, ta đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 It has long been suspected that many of those mysterious abandonments were at least partly triggered by ecological problem

 2 This suspicion of unintended ecological suicide has been confirmed by discoveries made in recent decades

=> Câu 1 + 2 : Suspicion về việc - ecological problem gây ra mysterious abandonment - đã được confirmed - bởi các nghiên cứu gần đây

=> Abandonment trong bài đang nói tới việc xã hội văn minh biết mất, khiến cho các công trình bị bỏ rơi -> Trở thành ruins (tàn tích)

Xem full giải thích
3
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Vì thông tin phân mảnh, ta đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Those past collapses tended to follow somewhat similar courses constituting variations on a theme. 

 2 ...many past societies they declined rapidly  after reaching peak numbers and power

=> Câu 1 cho biết những xã hội sụp đổ ngày trước thường theo một quy trình giống nhau

=> Câu 2 nói rằng: past societies suy yếu nhanh chóng - sau khi đạt tới số lượng cũng như quyền lực cao nhất

Xem full giải thích
4
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ở đây các cụm paraphrase khá đơn giản, cho dù không biết từ 'overshadow', ta hoàn toàn có thể đoán được dựa trên nghĩa đen:

=> Vì đây là động từ, ta có thể hiểu 'shadow' phủ bóng

=> Tiền tố 'over-' để thể hiện cái gì đó mạnh hơn, nhiều hơn -> Từ đó đoán được 'overshadow'che khuất



>>>

Từ đó ta có thể hiểu nghĩa của câu như sau:

Xem full giải thích
5
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 These environmental problems include the same eight (problems) that undermined past societies , plus four new ones : human-caused climate change, build up of toxic chemicals in the environment,....

=> Có 8 problems ngày trước + 4 problems mới (modern) - và trong đó có 'build up of toxic chemicals'

=> Có thể không hiểu 'accumulation', nhưng toxic chemicals = poisonous substances chắc chắn ai cũng biết

=> Chọn YES



Xem full giải thích
6
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 But the seriousness of these current environmental problems is vigorously debated.

=> Mức độ nghiêm trọng - của- environmental problems - thì được tranh cãi gay gắt

=> Nói cách khác, không có general agreement về mức độ nghiêm trọng của environmental problems

=> Chọn NO



Xem full giải thích
7
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ở câu này nếu chỉ skim&scan mà không đọc kĩ sẽ có khả năng cao chọn nhầm NO khi thấy 'resembled' ngược với 'differ from'



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Bài đọc: We also differ from past societies in some respects

=> Chúng ta - khác với xã hội ngày trước - ở một vài khía cạnh

Câu hỏi: Some past societies resembled present-day societies more closely than others.

Xem full giải thích
8
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Perhaps we can still learn from the past , but only if we think carefully about its lessons.

=> Có lẽ - chúng ta có thể học hỏi từ quá khứ - nhưng - chỉ khi - chúng ta suy nghĩ cẩn thận về bài học của người xưa

=> Học hỏi từ quá khứ cũng có nghĩa là so sánh với quá khứ và áp dụng vào hiện tại

=> Chọn YES



Xem full giải thích
9
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Khi thấy thông tin 'evidence of the greatness of some former civilizations', ta nghĩ đến những gì còn xót lại của người xưa

=> Từ đó tìm được thông tin 'monumental ruins'

=> 'Monumental runins'những tàn tích - chẳng hạn như các công trình

=> So với đáp án -> Phù hợp nhất là ending C - exists in the form of physical structures



Xem full giải thích
10
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: The parallel between an individual’s life and the life of a society

=> Parallel có nghĩa là 'song song' -> Ý nói sự giống hệt nhau giữa individual's life và life of a society

=> Từ câu hỏi, ta có thể tìm thấy thông tin 'human societies' + 'individual human lives'





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
11
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 These environmental problems include the same eight (problems) that undermined past societies , plus four new ones

=> Ngày trước8 environmental problems - ngày nay có thêm 4 problems nữa

=> Ngày nay có nhiều environmental problems hơn ngày xưa

=> Chọn ending F - is greater now than in the past



Xem full giải thích
12
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Vì thông tin phân mảnh, ta đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 We differ from past societies in some respects that put us at lower risk than them ; some of those respects often mentioned include our powerful technology 

 2 We also differ from past societies in some respects that put us at greater risk than them : again , our potent technology

=> 1 + 2 : Powerful (=potent) technology - mang lại cả lower risk lẫn greater risk cho chúng ta

=> Ứng với ending D - is potentially both positive and negative



Xem full giải thích
13
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 We shouldn't be so naive as to think that study of the past will yield simple solutions , directly transferable to our societies today.

=> Đừng nên ngây thơ tin rằng - việc nghiên cứu về quá khứ - có thể mang lại các giải pháp - mà có thể áp dụng trực tiếp lên xã hội ngày nay

=> Nói cách khác, a consideration of historical events and trends will not provide direct solutions for present problems.

=> Chọn E



Xem full giải thích
14
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Khi gặp câu này, ta cần đọc qua một lượt các đáp án trước

Đáp án A: There are differences as well as similarities between past and present societies.

=> Tác giả thật sự có nói về vấn đề này, khi nghĩ về thông tin đã đọc ta sẽ thấy:

  • Ngày trước chỉ có 8 environmental problems - còn ngày nay vẫn vậy nhưng có thêm 4 environmental problems nữa

  • Chúng ta có powerful technology -> Khiến chúng ta có thể có higher/lower risks so với ngày nữa

  • Ta có 'modern medicine' + 'much larger human population'

=> Ở cuối bài, tác giả còn chốt lại 'Perhaps we can still learn from the past, but only if we think carefully about its lessons.'

Xem full giải thích

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