Henry Moore (1898-1986) IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Henry Moore (1898-1986) được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Cambridge IELTS Practice Test 15 - Test 3 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Henry Moore (1898-1986) IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Henry Moore (1898-1986)
The British sculptor Henry Moore was a leading figure in the 20th-century art world
Henry Moore was born in Castleford, a small town near Leeds in the north of England. He was the seventh child of Raymond Moore and his wife Mary Baker. He studied at Castleford Grammar School from 1909 to 1915, where his early interest in art was encouraged by his teacher Alice Gostick. After leaving school, Moore hoped to become a sculptor, but instead, he complied with his father’s wish that he train as a schoolteacher. He had to abandon his training in 1917 when he was sent to France to fight in the First World War. After the war, Moore enrolled at the Leeds School of Art, where he studied for two years. In his first year, he spent most of his time drawing. Although he wanted to study sculpture, no teacher was appointed until his second year. At the end of that year, he passed the sculpture examination and was awarded a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London. In September 1921, he moved to London and began three years of advanced study in sculpture. Alongside the instruction he received at the Royal College, Moore visited many of the London museums, particularly the British Museum, which had a wide-ranging collection of ancient sculpture. During these visits, he discovered the power and beauty of ancient Egyptian and African sculpture. As he became increasingly interested in these ‘primitive’ forms of art, he turned away from European sculptural traditions. After graduating, Moore spent the first six months of 1925 traveling in France. When he visited the Trocadero Museum in Paris, he was impressed by a cast of a Mayan* sculpture of the rain spirit. It was a male reclining figure with its knees drawn up together, and it's head at a right angle to its body. Moore became fascinated with this stone sculpture, which he thought had power and originality that no other stone sculpture possessed. He himself started carving a variety of subjects in stone, including a depiction of reclining women, mother-and-child groups, and masks. Moore’s exceptional talent soon gained recognition, and in 1926 he started work as a sculpture instructor at the Royal College. In 1933, he became a member of a group of young artists called Unit One. The aim of the group was to convince the English public of the merits of the emerging international movement in modern art and architecture. Around this time, Moore moved away from the human figure to experiment with abstract shapes. In 1931, he held an exhibition at the Leicester Galleries in London. His work was enthusiastically welcomed by fellow sculptors, but the reviews in the press were extremely negative and turned Moore into a notorious figure. There were calls for his resignation from the Royal College, and the following year, when his contract expired, he left to start a sculpture department at the Chelsea School of Art in London. Throughout the 1930s, Moore did not show any inclination to please the British public. He became interested in the paintings of the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, whose work inspired him to distort the human body in a radical way. At times, he seemed to abandon the human figure altogether. The pages of his sketchbooks from this period show his ideas for abstract sculptures that bore little resemblance to the human form. In 1940, during the Second World War, Moore stopped teaching at the Chelsea School and moved to a farmhouse about 20 miles north of London. A shortage of materials forced him to focus on drawing. He did numerous small sketches of Londoners, later turning these ideas into large colored drawings in his studio. In 1942, he returned to Castleford to make a series of sketches of the miners who worked there. In 1944, Harlow, a town near London, offered Moore a commission for a sculpture depicting a family. The resulting work signifies a dramatic change in Moore’s style, away from the experimentation of the 1930s towards a more natural and humanistic subject matter. He did dozens of studies in clay for the sculpture, and these were cast in bronze and issued in editions of seven to nine copies each. In this way, Moore’s work became available to collectors all over the world. The boost to his income enabled him to take on ambitious projects and start working on the scale he felt his sculpture demanded. Critics who had begun to think that Moore had become less revolutionary were proven wrong by the appearance, in 1950, of the first of Moore’s series of standing figures in bronze, with their harsh and angular pierced forms and distinct impression of menace. Moore also varied his subject matter in the 1950s with such works as Warrior with Shield and Falling Warrior. These were rare examples of Moore’s use of the male figure and owe something to his visit to Greece in 1951 when he had the opportunity to study ancient works of art. In his final years, Moore created the Henry Moore Foundation to promote art appreciation and to display his work. Moore was the first modern English sculptor to achieve international critical acclaim and he is still regarded as one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. — *Mayan: belonging to an ancient civilization that inhabited parts of current-day Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
On leaving school, Moore did what his father wanted him to do.
2
Moore began studying sculpture in his first term at the Leeds School of Art.
3
When Moore started at the Royal College of Art, its reputation for teaching sculpture was excellent.
4
Moore became aware of ancient sculpture as a result of visiting the London Museums.
5
The Trocadero Museum’s Mayan sculpture attracted a lot of public interest.
6
Moore thought the Mayan sculpture was similar in certain respects to other stone sculptures.
7
The artists who belonged to Unit One wanted to make modern art and architecture more popular.
Question 8 - 13
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Moore’s career as an artist
1930s

● Moore’s exhibition at the Leicester Galleries is criticized by the press

● Moore is urged to offer his
8
and leave the Royal College.

1940s

● Moore turns to draw because
9
for sculpting are not readily available

● While visiting his hometown, Moore does some drawings of
10


● Moore is employed to produce a sculpture of a
11


12
start to buy Moore’s work

● Moore’s increased
13
makes it possible for him to do more ambitious sculptures

1950s

● Moore’s series of bronze figures marks a further change in his style

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
True
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nhiều bạn có thể ngập ngừng vì không hiểu nghĩa của “comply with”, nên khó chọn true/false. 



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



 After leaving school , Moore hoped to become... but instead he complied with his father’s wish that… 

-> dù không hiểu “comply with”, nhưng chú ý tới “but instead” bạn sẽ hiểu nội dung vế sau ngược lại với vế trước

-> vế trước là Moore mong muốn làm gì, nhưng “but instead” thì vế sau ám chỉ là Moore không thực hiện điều đó mà trở thành giáo viên như ý cha mình muốn!

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2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ dựa vào skim, scan keyword, thí sinh có khả năng sẽ chọn "True"

vì đoạn 2 có chứa các keyword tương ứng với câu hỏi: "In September 1921, he moved to London and began three years of advanced study in sculpture".


Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Moore enrolled at the Leeds School of Art ...

 Although he wanted to study sculpture , no teacher was appointed until his second year. 

-> Dù không biết "was appointed" là gì, bạn vẫn có thể dựa vào "although" để biết Moore không học điêu khắc "until his second year"

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3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

He was awared a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London ... he began study in sculpture 

-> Moore nhận học bổng và học điêu khắc tại trường.

-> Danh tiếng của trường về việc dạy điêu khắc hoàn toàn không được nhắc tới.

So với câu hỏi:  its reputation for teaching sculpture was excellent

-> Danh tiếng xuất sắc của trường về việc giảng dạy điêu khắc

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4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Moore visited London museums . During these visits , he discovered beauty of ancient sculpture .

-> Ta có during these visit = as a result of visiting London museusms, discover sth = be aware of sth -> Main idea: Moore visited London museums and as a result, he became aware of the beauty of ancient sculpture

So với câu hỏi:  Moore become aware of ancient sculpture , as a result of visiting London museums .

-> Main idea: Moore biết đến tác phẩm điêu khắc cổ đại, do đi thăm các viện bảo tàng ở London

-> Thông tin trong câu hỏi khớp với thông tin trong bài

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5
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu đọc lướt, mình dễ thấy be impressed gần nghĩa attract rồi chọn True là sai


Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 he was impressed by a cast of a Mayan* sculpture of the rain spirit.

-> Ông bị ấn tượng bởi a cast of a Mayan* sculpture of the rain spirit

Nhưng câu hỏi lại đề cập đến Mayan sculpture attract pubic interest

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6
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Moore fascinated with this sculpture , which he thought had originality that no other sculptures possessed -> this sculpture had originality that no other sculptures had. -> this sculpture was NOT simliar to other sculptures = tác phẩm điêu khắc này KHÔNG giống với các tác phẩm điêu khắc khác

So với câu hỏi:  Moore thought the Mayan sculpture was similar to other sculptures . -> this sculpture was similar to other scultures. = tác phẩm điêu khắc này giống với các tác phẩm điêu khắc khác

=> Đáp án: FALSE



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7
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Nếu không biết "merit" là gì, có thể dựa vào đọc connection ở các câu trước: Moore rất có tài -> gia nhập nhóm các nghệ nhân khác -> thuyết phục công chúng Anh về merit của nghệ thuật đương đại... -> "merit" có nghĩa tích cực The aim of the group was to convince English public of merits of international movement in modern art and architecture -> Nhóm muốn công chúng Anh đón nhận nghệ thuật và kiến trúc hiện đại hơn. -> The aim of the group was to make modern art and architecture more popular.

So với câu hỏi:  The artists who belonged to Unit One wanted to make modern art and architecture more popular .

-> Main idea: Các nghệ sĩ thuộc Unit One muốn làm cho nghệ thuật và kiến trúc hiện đại trở nên phổ biến hơn. -> main idea tương tự như của Passage

=> Đáp án: TRUE



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8
resignation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

he held an exhibition ...

 but the reviews in the press were negative ..

 There were calls for his resignation from the Royal College

* Lưu ý word structure resignation: resignation from sth.

-> "sth" ở đây là "chức vụ", "công ty", v..v

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9
materials
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



Có mốc thời gian 1940s nên ta sẽ locate info dựa trên mốc thời gian này cho dễ dàng

 A shortage of materials forced him to focus on drawing.

-> Main idea: Nguyên liệu thiếu thốn buộc ông phải tập trung vào việc vẽ.

So với câu hỏi:  Moore turns to drawing because ______ for sculpting are not available.

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10
miners
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

he returned to Castleford to make a series of sketches of the miners -> Ngay đầu bài có nói Moore được sinh ra ở Castleford -> Castleford chính là hometown -> Nếu không biết "sketches" là gì, có thể đọc connection các câu trước đó (từ câu forced him to focus on drawings) để đoán được nó liên quan tới việc vẽ tranh. -> Main idea: At his hometown, Moore did some drawings of miners = Tại quê hương của mình, Moore đã thực hiện một số bức vẽ về những người thợ mỏ

So với câu hỏi:  While visiting his hometown , Moore does some drawings of______

-> Trong khi về thăm quê hương của mình, Moore vẽ một số bức vẽ về ___

=> Đáp án là miners



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11
family
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Harlow offered Moore a commission for a sculpture depicting a family ->Nếu không biết "commission" , vẫn có thể dựa vào connection để nắm ý chính là Moore được trao cái gì đó để làm tượng. -> Nếu không biết "depicting" thì dựa vào đọc cấu trúc câu: depicting a family là mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn bổ nghĩa cho sculpture -> tượng liên quan tới một gia đình -> Main idea: Moore is offered .... for a sculture of a family

So với câu hỏi: Moore is employed to produce a sculpture of a __________

-> Moore được thuê để vẽ một tác phẩm điêu khắc của một ___________

=> Đáp án: family



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12
collectors
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Moore’s work became available to collectors -> "availabe to sb" : that sb can get, buy or find -> Main idea: Collectors could buy Moore's work

So với câu hỏi: _________ start to buy Moore’s work

-> ______________ bắt đầu mua những tác phẩm của Moore

=> Đáp án: collectors



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13
income
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

boost to income enabled him to take on ambitious projects -> Không biết "boost" hay "income" là gì có thể dựa vào: 1. đọc cấu trúc để nhận diện "boost to income" là noun phrase 2. đọc connection ở câu trước: Collectors khắp nơi mua tác phẩm của Moore -> đoán được "boots to income" chỉ việc Moore có thêm tiền

So với câu hỏi:  Moore’s increased __________ makes it possible for him to do more ambitious sculptures -> Đọc cấu trúc để nhận ra subject của câu hỏi là cả cụm "Moore's increased_______" (không đọc cấu trúc dễ nhầm increased là động từ chính -> hiểu sai ý, không locate được đáp án -> ________ (đáp án) phải là danh từ

=> Đáp án là income



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