From A Novice To An Expert IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage From A Novice To An Expert được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 3 - Test 5 - Passage 2 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
From A Novice To An Expert IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

From A Novice to An Expert
Expertise is commitment coupled with creativity. Specifically, it is the commitment of time, energy, and resources to a relatively narrow field of study and the creative energy necessary to generate new knowledge in that field. It takes a considerable amount of time and regular exposure to a large number of cases to become an expert. An individual enters a field of study as a novice. The novice needs to learn the guiding principles and rules of a given task in order to perform that task. Concurrently, the novice needs to he exposed to specific cases, or instances, that lest the boundaries of such principles. Generally, a novice will find a mentor to guide her through the process of acquiring new knowledge. A fairly simple example would be someone learning to play chess. The novice chess player seeks a mentor to leach her the object of the game, the number of spaces, the names of the pieces, the function of each piece, how each piece is moved, and the necessary conditions for winning, or losing the game. In time, and with much practice, the novice begins to recognise patterns of behavior within cases and, thus, becomes a journeyman. With more practice and exposure to increasingly complex cases, The journeyman finds patterns not only within cases but also between cases. More importantly, the journeyman learns that these patterns often repeat themselves over time. The journeyman still maintains regular contact with a mentor to solve specific problems and learn more complex strategies. Returning to the example of the chess player, the individual begins to learn patterns of opening moves, offensive and defensive game-playing, strategies, and patterns of victory and defeat. When a journeyman starts to make and test hypotheses about future behavior based on past experiences, she begins the next transition. Once she creatively generates knowledge, rather than simply matching, superficial patterns, she becomes an expert. At this point, she is confident in her knowledge and no longer needs a mentor as a guide she becomes responsible for her own knowledge. In the chess example, once a journeyman begins competing against experts, makes predictions based on patterns, and tests those predictions against actual behavior, she is generating new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the game. She is creating her own case, rather than relying on the cases of others. The Power of Expertise An expert perceives meaningful patterns in her domain better than non-experts. Where a novice perceives random or disconnected data points, an expert connects regular patterns within and between cases. This ability to identify patterns is not an innate perceptual skill; rather it reflects the organisation of knowledge after exposure to and experience with thou-sands of cases. Experts have a deeper understanding of their domains than novices do, and utilise higher-order principles to solve- problems. A novice, for example, might group objects together by color or size, whereas an expert would group the same objects according to their function or utility. Experts comprehend the meaning of data and weigh variables with different criteria within their domains belter than novices. Experts recognise variables that have the largest influence on a particular problem and focus their attention on those variables. Experts have better domain-specific short-term and long-term memory than novices do. Moreover, experts perform tasks in their domains faster than novices and commit fewer errors while problem solving. Interestingly, experts go about solving problems differently than novices. Experts spend more time thinking, about a problem to fully understand it at the beginning of a task than do novices, who immediately seek to find a solution, Experts use their knowledge of previous cases as context tor creating mental models to solve given problems. Better at self-monitoring than novices, experts are more aware of instances where they have committed errors or failed to understand a problem. Experts check their solution more often than novices and recognise when they are missing, information necessary for solving a problem. Experts are aware of the limits of their domain knowledge and apply their domain's heuristics to solve problems that fall outside of their experience base. The Paradox of Expertise The strengths of expertise can also be weaknesses. Although one would expect experts to be good forecasters, they are not particularly good at making predictions about the future. Since the 1930s, researchers have been testing, the ability of experts to make forecasts. The performance of experts has been tested against actuarial tables to determine if they are better at making predictions than simple statistical models. Seventy years later, with more than two hundred experiments in different domains, it is clear that the answer is no. If sup-plied with an equal amount of data about a particular case, an actuarial table is as good, or better, than an expert at making, calls about the future. Even if an expert is given more spe-cific case information than is available to the statistical model, the expert does not tend to outperform the actuarial table. Theorists and researchers differ when trying, to explain why experts are less accurate forecasters than statistical models. Some have argued that experts, like all humans, are inconsistent when using mental models to make predictions. That is, the model an expert uses for predicting X in one month is different from the model used for predicting X in a following, month, although precisely the same case and same data set are used in both instances. A number of researchers point to human biases to explain unreliable expert predictions. During, the last 30 years, researchers have categorised, experimented, and theorised about the cognitive aspects of forecasting. Despite such efforts, the literature shows little consensus regarding the causes or manifestations of human bias.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Complete the flow-chart below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
i-resizable-alignable
1
2
3
4
5










Question 6 - 10
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
6
Novices and experts use the same system to classify objects.
7
A novice’s training is focused on memory skills.
8
Experts have higher efficiency than novices when solving problems in their own field.
9
When facing a problem, a novices always tries to solve it straight away.
10
Experts are better at recognising their own mistakes and limits.
Question 11 - 13
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Though experts are quite effective at solving problems in their own domains, their strengths can also be turned against them. Studies have shown that experts are less 
11
at making predictions than statistical models. Some researchers theorise it is because experts can also be inconsistent like all others. Yet some believe it is due to 
12
, but there isn’t a great deal of 
13
 as to its cause and manifestation.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
guiding principles/rules
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Vì đối tượng là 'novice', ta biết thông tin cần đọc ở đoạn 2



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The novice needs to learn the guiding principles and rules of a given task in order to perform that task.

=> Người mới - cần học - guiding principles and rules - để thực hiện một công việc

=> So với câu hỏi, ta dễ dàng nhận ra cần điền 'guiding principles and rules'

Xem full giải thích
2
mentor
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 a novice will find a mentor to guide her through the process of acquiring new knowledge.

=> Novice sẽ nhờ mentor dẫn dắt - qua quá trình tiếp thu kiến thúc mới (=learning)

=> Nói cách khác, Novice sẽ được dẫn dắt bởi mentor

=> Qua những cụm paraphrase khá đơn giản, ta dễ dàng rút ra được đáp án

Xem full giải thích
3
patterns of behavior/patterns
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 the novice begins to recognize patterns of behavior within cases and, thus, becomes a journeyman

=> Novice - begins to recognize - patterns of behavior - giữa các trường hợp -> từ đó trở thành Journeyman

=> Vậy một người được xem là Journeyman khi - có thể regconize patterns of behavior

=> Với begins to recognize = starts to identify, ta dễ dàng đề được đáp án

Xem full giải thích
4
complex
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này tương đối dễ vì họ chỉ đổi loại từ của 'exposed' -> Dựa vào đó nhanh chóng tìm ra được 'exposure'

>>> Cho dù có không hiểu 'exposed' là gì, ta vẫn confirm được nó giống với 'exposure' qua những nét tương đồng như giới từ 'to' + trạng từ 'often'





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu hỏi: often exposed to _____ cases 

Xem full giải thích
5
knowledge
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Expert: creates predictions and new _____

=> Đáp án là danh từ - thứ gì đó mới mà expert tạo ra

=> Câu này đã được paraphrase khá nhiều, sẽ không tìm được các từ như 'creates' hay 'predictions' nếu chỉ scan&skim





Do đó, ta áp dụng đọc simplify + connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
6
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'classify objects' , ta dễ dàng tìm được cụm 'group objects'



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Novices and experts use the same system to classify objects

=> Novices và experts có cùng cách phân loại vật phẩm

Phân tích info:

Xem full giải thích
7
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: A novice’s training is focused on memory skills.

=> Việc luyện tập của novice tập trung vào các kỹ năng ghi nhớ

=> Dựa vào 'memory' ta có thể tìm được một phần thông tin nhỏ trong bài đọc đề cập tới 'short-term and long-term memory'

=> Tuy nhiên thông tin đó không liên quan gì tới 'novice's training' , và hầu như cũng không nhắc tới việc training

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
8
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Experts have higher efficiency than novices when solving problems in their own field

=> Experts - có năng suất cao hơn - novices - khi giải quyết vấn đề trong lĩnh vực của mình

Phân tích info: experts perform tasks in their domains faster than novices and commit fewer errors while problem solving

=> Perform taks in their domains (=field) nhanh hơn + mắc ít lỗi hơn = năng suất hơn

Xem full giải thích
9
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Experts spend more time thinking about a problem to fully understand it than do novices , who immediately seek to find a solution

=> Experts dành nhiều thời gian cân nhắc về problem hơn - còn novice lại cố giải quyết ngay lập tức

=> find a solution = solve ; straight away = immediately

=> Ứng với câu hỏi -> Chọn TRUE



Xem full giải thích
10
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này nếu skim&scankhông cẩn thận, khi thấy từ 'recognize' trong bài, mà theo sau không phải 'mistakes and limits'

=> Vội chọn FALSE -> Sai





Để hiểu rõ bài đoc, ta áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Experts are better at recognizing their own mistakes and limits.

Xem full giải thích
11
accurate
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào câu đầu tiên của đoạn summary: '....their (experts') strengths can also be turned against them'

=> Những điểm mạnh sẽ gây bất lợi cho họ -> Nghịch lý -> Đọc phần Paradox of Expertise

=> Nếu không hiểu từ 'paradox', ta đọc câu đầu tiên của đoạn đó: 'The strengths of expertise can also be weaknesses'





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
12
human biases
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Khi đọc tiếp từ câu trước, ta sẽ bắt gặp thông tin '...experts, like all humans, are inconsistent...', ứng với thông tin trên summary

=> Từ đó đọc tiếp sẽ thấy thông tin cần tìm





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 A number of researchers point to human biases to explain unreliable expert predictions. 

Xem full giải thích
13
consensus
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào các từ 'causes' + 'manifestation', ta nhanh chóng locate được thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: there isn’t a great deal of _____ as to its cause and manifestation. 

=> Đáp án là danh từ - cái gì đó không có nhiều - liên quan tới cause and manifestation

Phân tích info: the literature shows little consensus regarding the causes or manifestations of human bias.

Xem full giải thích

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