A Neuroscientist Reveals How To Think Differently IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage A Neuroscientist Reveals How To Think Differently được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Cambridge IELTS Practice Test 9 - Test 2 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
A Neuroscientist Reveals How To Think Differently IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently
In the last decade a revolution has occurred In the way that scientists think about the brain.
We now know that the decisions humans make can be traced to the firing patterns of neurons in specific parts of the brain. These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics, which studies the brain's secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors. A brain that can do this is an iconoclastic one. Briefly, an iconoclast is a person who does something that others say can't be done. This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence. Each of these three functions utilizes a different circuit in the brain. Naysayers might suggest that the brain is irrelevant, that thinking in an original, even revolutionary, way is more a matter of personality than brain function. But the field of neuroeconomics was born out of the realization that the physical workings of the brain place limitations on the way we make decisions. By understanding these constraints, we begin to understand why some people march to a different drumbeat. The first thing to realize is that the brain suffers from limited resources. It has a fixed energy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to work as efficiently as possible. This is where most people are impeded from being an iconoclast. For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information, such as what other people say, to make sense of what it is seeing. This happens all the time. The brain takes shortcuts that work so well we are hardly ever aware of them. We think our perceptions of the world are real, but they are only biological and electrical rumblings. Perception is not simply a product of what your eyes or ears transmit to your brain. More than the physical reality of photons or sound waves, perception is a product of the brain. Perception is central to iconoclasm. Iconoclasts see things differently to other people. Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average person's brain. Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people. Perception is not something that is hardwired into the brain. It is a learned process, which is both a curse and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the fundamental problem of interpreting physical stimuli from the senses. Everything the brain sees, hears, or touches has multiple interpretations. The one that is ultimately chosen is simply the brain's best theory. In technical terms, these conjectures have their basis in the statistical likelihood of one interpretation over another and are heavily influenced by past experience and, importantly for potential iconoclasts, what other people say. The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments. Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different. The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the brain's fear system. Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks. There are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking and people generally find difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule. These may seem like trivial phobias. But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions. Finally, to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in. Social intelligence is the ability to understand and manage people in a business setting. In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas. Perception is important in social cognition too. The perception of someone's enthusiasm, or reputation, can make or break a deal. Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare. Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Rules aren't important to them. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be a major asset to any organization. It is crucial for success in any field to understand how the iconoclastic mind works.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
1
Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to
A
cause a change in how scientists understand brain chemistry.
B
understand how good decisions are made in the brain.
C
understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.
D
trace the specific firing patterns of neurons in different areas of the brain.
2
According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because
A
they create unusual brain circuits.
B
their brains function differently.
C
their personalities are distinctive.
D
they make decisions easily.
3
According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because
A
it uses the eyes quickly.
B
it interprets data logically.
C
it generates its own energy.
D
it relies on previous events.
4
The writer says that perception is
A
a combination of photons and sound waves.
B
a reliable product of what your senses transmit
C
a result of brain processes.
D
a process we are usually conscious of.
5
According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker
A
centralises perceptual thinking in one part of the brain.
B
avoids cognitive traps.
C
has a brain that is hardwired for learning.
D
has more opportunities than the average person.
Question 6 - 11
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
6
Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.
7
Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.
8
Most people are too shy to try different things.
9
If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.
10
When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.
11
Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.
Question 12 - 14
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.
Write the correct letter, A-E
List of Endings
A
requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.
B
focuses on how groups decide on an action.
C
works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.
D
leaves one open to criticism and rejection.
E
involves understanding how organisations manage people.
Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it
12
The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it
13
Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking
14

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Cách locate info: dựa vào key words neuroeconomics

→ Neuroeconomics thuộc ngành nghiên cứu mà tìm kiếm

Apply Linear thinking

- Read in structure

 1 We now know that the decisions humans make can be traced to the firing patterns of neurons...

 2 These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics , which studies the brain's secrets ... 

Xem full giải thích
2
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu scan/skim bạn sẽ tìm được keyword: distinctive tương ứng giữa câu hỏi và đáp án. Tuy nhiên đáp án C nói về personality

-> Sai



Mình có thể phân tích câu này như sau:

 This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people , but more precisely , it is their brains that are different 

→  iconoclasts are different from other people nhưng đúng hơn là não của họ khác biệt

Xem full giải thích
3
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Apply Linearthinking 



 1 For example , when confronted with information streaming from the eyes , the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible .

 2 Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information , such as...

 3 This happens all the time .

 4 The brain takes shortcuts that work so well we are hardly ever aware of them. 

Xem full giải thích
4
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Apply Linearthinking

- Read in structure

 1 We think our perceptions of the world are real but they are only biological and electrical rumblings.

 2 Perception is not simply a product of what your eyes or ears transmit to your brain

 3 More than the physical reality of photons or sound waves perception is a product of a brain 

→ perception không phải là a product mà mắt chuyển tới bộ não

Xem full giải thích
5
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Apply Linearthinking

- Read in structure

 1 Perception is central to iconoclasm  

 2 Iconoclasts see things differently to other people

 3 Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average person's brain

 4 Iconoclasts because they... => giải thích thêm về sự khác thường của Iconoclasts

Xem full giải thích
6
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Trong câu này nếu cố tìm keywords bằng cách skim/scan thì bạn sẽ không tìm được những từ như: exposure to different events hay think differently

-> Chọn NO -> Sai



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



 The best way to see things differently is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before  

→ cách tốt nhất để see things differently là bombard bộ não với những thứ mà nó chưa bao giờ gặp

Xem full giải thích
7
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Chúng ta có thể dễ dàng locate được info như sau:

 Successful iconoclasts have extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different 

iconoclasts tiếp nhận những trải nghiệm mới nhiều hơn bình thường

Successful iconoclasts có 1 sự hứng thú cực kì lớn khi mà được tiếp xúc với fresh và different events

→ same meaning 

Xem full giải thích
8
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Sau khi đối chiếu chúng ta có thể hiểu là:

→ Observation of iconoclasts cho thấy rằng they embrace novelty while most people lãng tránh những điều khác lạ

=> iconoclasts embrace novelty # most people avoid things that are different

→ có đề cập tới việc try different things = embrace novelty

→ nhưng không đề cập việc có “shy” hay không

Xem full giải thích
9
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



 Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks. 

→ nếu suy nghĩ theo iconoclastic way, bạn có thể dễ dàng vượt qua được nỗi sợ

Structure: S-V and V → nếu không hiểu vế đầu có thể đọc vế sau vì 2 vế tương đương

impediment là vật cản, cản trở chúng ta think like an iconoclast

Xem full giải thích
10
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu trong bài:

 There are many types of fear , but the two - that people generally find difficult to deal with - are fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule 

→ Có nhiều loại fears , nhưng loại fears mà mọi người khó deal with là  fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule

→ Có thể hiểu fear of public ridiculeEmbarrassment matters 

Nhưng câu hỏi đưa ra là:

Xem full giải thích
11
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này được phân tích dưới dạng structure như sau:

 1 But fear of public speaking which...

 2 This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder

 3 It is simply a common variant of human nature one which... 

→ không hiểu nghĩa afflicts không sao, bạn vẫn có thể hiểu “fear of public speaking có liên quan tới ⅓ dân số"

Xem full giải thích
12
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Apply Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm sự đề cập về: lý do tại sao thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding

Xem full giải thích
13
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Với Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm sự đề cập về: những lý do tại sao concept of the social brain useful

Xem full giải thích
14
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Với Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm sự đề cập về: những lý do tại sao iconoclasts are generally an asset

Imagine: Iconoclasts are generally an asset bởi vì lối suy nghĩ của họ

Xem full giải thích

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