Practice Test Plus 3 - Reading Test 6 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Practice Test Plus 3 - Reading Test 6 được lấy từ cuốn sách Practice Test Plus 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Practice Test Plus 3 - Reading Test 6 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Trends in the Indian fashion and textile industries
During the 1950s, the Indian fashion scene was exciting, stylish and very graceful. There were no celebrity designers or models, nor were there any labels that were widely recognised. The value of a garment was judged by its style and fabric rather than by who made it. It was regarded as perfectly acceptable, even for high-society women, to approach an unknown tailor who could make a garment for a few rupees, providing the perfect fit, finish and style. They were proud of getting a bargain, and of giving their own name to the end result. The 1960s was an era full of mischievousness and celebration in the arts, music and cinema. The period was characterised by freedom from restrictions and, in the fashion world, an acceptance of innovative types of material such as plastic and coated polyester. Tight-fitting kurtas[1] and churidars[2] and high coiffures were a trend among women. The following decade witnessed an increase in the export of traditional materials, and the arrival in India of international fashion. Synthetics became trendy, and the disco culture affected the fashion scene. It was in the early 80s when the first fashion store ‘Ravissant’ opened in Mumbai. At that time garments were retailed for a four-figure price tag. American designers like Calvin Klein became popular. In India too, contours became more masculine, and even the salwar kameez[3] was designed with shoulder pads. With the evolution of designer stores came the culture of designer fashion, along with its hefty price tags. Whatever a garment was like, consumers were convinced that a higher price tag signified elegant designer fashion, so garments were sold at unbelievable prices. Meanwhile, designers decided to get themselves noticed by making showy outfits and associating with the right celebrities. Soon, fashion shows became competitive, each designer attempting to out-do the other in theme, guest list and media coverage. In the last decade of the millennium, the market shrank and ethnic wear made a comeback. During the recession, there was a push to sell at any cost. With fierce competition the inevitable occurred: the once hefty price tags began their downward journey, and the fashion-show industry followed suit. However, the liveliness of the Indian fashion scene had not ended - it had merely reached a stable level. At the beginning of the 21st century, with new designers and models, and more sensible designs, the fashion industry accelerated once again. As far as the global fashion industry is concerned, Indian ethnic designs and materials are currently in demand from fashion houses and garment manufacturers. India is the third largest producer of cotton, the second largest producer of silk, and the fifth largest producer of man-made fibres in the world. The Indian garment and fabric industries have many fundamental advantages, in terms of a cheaper, skilled work force, cost-effective production, raw materials, flexibility, and a wide range of designs with sequins, beadwork, and embroidery. In addition, that India provides garments to international fashion houses at competitive prices, with a shorter lead time, and an effective monopoly on certain designs, is accepted the whole world over. India has always been regarded as the default source in the embroidered garments segment, but changes in the rate of exchange between the rupee and the dollar has further depressed prices, thereby attracting more buyers. So the international fashion houses walk away with customized goods, and craftwork is sold at very low rates. As far as the fabric market is concerned, the range available in India can attract as well as confuse the buyer. Much of the production takes place in the small town of Chapa in the eastern state of Bihar, a name one might never have heard of. Here fabric-making is a family industry; the range and quality of raw silks churned out here belie the crude production methods and equipment. Surat in Gujarat, is the supplier of an amazing set of jacquards, moss crepes and georgette sheers - all fabrics in high demand. Another Indian fabric design that has been adopted by the fashion industry is the ‘Madras check’, originally utilized for the universal lungi, a simple lower-body wrap worn in southern India. This design has now found its way on to bandannas, blouses, home furnishings and almost anything one can think of. Ethnic Indian designs with batik and hand-embroidered motifs have also become popular across the world. Decorative bead work is another product in demand in the international market. Beads are used to prepare accessory items like belts and bags, and beadwork is now available for haute couture evening wear too. [1] knee-length tunics [2] trousers [3] trouser suit

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 7
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Indian fashion: 1950-2000
1950s
No well-known designers, models or
1
Elegant clothing cost little
Women were pleased to get clothes for a
2
price

1960s
New materials, e.g.
3
and polyester
Fitted clothing and tall hairstyles

1970s
Overseas sales of
4
fabrics rose
Influence of international fashion

1980s
Opening of fashion store in Mumbai
Popularity of American designers
Clothing had a
5
shape
Designers tried to attract attention by presenting
6
clothes and mixing with stars

1990s
Fall in demand for expensive fashion wear
Return to
7
clothing
Question 8 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
8
At the start of the 21st century, key elements in the Indian fashion industry changed.
9
India now exports more than half of the cotton it produces.
10
Conditions in India are generally well suited to the manufacture of clothing.
11
Indian clothing exports have suffered from changes in the value of its currency.
12
Modern machinery accounts for the high quality of Chapa’s silk.
13
Some types of Indian craftwork which are internationally popular had humble origins.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
labels
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc với Linearthinking:

 There were no celebrity designers or models , nor were there any labels that were widely recognized.

=> Ta có cấu trúc: there were no + N1, nor were there + N2 = không có N1, cũng không có N2

(Vì nor đặt ở đầu nên phải đảo ngữ thành 'were there'

)

=> Không có designers, models, hay labels nổi tiếng nào

Xem full giải thích
2
bargain
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 It was regarded as perfectly acceptable , even for high-society women , to approach an unknown tailor who could make a garment for a few rupees

 2 They were proud of getting a bargain

=> 1 + 2 : Ngay cả high-society women - cũng mua quần áo từ những unknown tailor - và họ tự hào khi mua được a bargain

=> Đáp án là danh/tính từ bồ nghĩa cho price -> Phù hợp nhất là: bargain

Xem full giải thích
3
plastic
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào năm '1960s' + 'material', ta dễ dàng tìm được thông tin cần đọc



Câu này rất dễ vì ta chỉ cần xác định đáp án là một danh từ được liệt kê chung với polyester

=> Từ đó nhanh chóng nhận ra đáp án là: plastic



>>> Sẽ khó hơn nếu họ nói về một vật ở 1 câunói về vật khác ở câu khác -> Lúc đó thì ta cần đọc connection giữa các câu



Xem full giải thích
4
traditional
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Overseas sales of ______ fabrics rose 

=> Đáp án là tính/danh từ - bổ nghĩa cho fabrics

Phân tích info: The following decade witnessed an increase in the export of traditional materials.

=> Ta có cấu trúc: witness an increase in N = N increase (=rise)

Xem full giải thích
5
masculine
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta lần theo thông tin summary, thấy 'American designers like Calvin Klein became popular' ứng với thông tin 'Popularity of American designers'

=> Biết đáp án cần điền ở ngay phía sau





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 In India too , contours became more masculine , and even the salwar kameez[3] was designed with shoulder pads.

Xem full giải thích
6
showy
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Bài đọc và câu hỏi có cấu trúc khá tương đồng nhau, chỉ cần so sánh ta sẽ dễ dàng nhận ra đáp án

Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc với Linearthinking:

Câu hỏi: Designers tried to attract attention by presenting _____ clothes and mixing with stars 

Bài đọc: designers decided to get themselves noticed by making showy outfits and associating with the right celebrities. 

=> Đáp án là tính từ bổ nghĩa cho clothes -> Clothes = outfits -> Answer: showy



Xem full giải thích
7
ethnic
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 In the last decade of the millennium , the market shrank and ethnic wear made a comeback.

=> Thập kỷ cuối của thiên niên kỷ -> 1990s

=> Vào 1990s, thị trường bị thu hẹp - và - ethnic wear đã quay trở lại

=> Đáp án là danh/tính từ bổ nghĩa cho clothing (=wear) -> Answer: ethnic

Xem full giải thích
8
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 At the beginning of the 21st century , with new designers and models , and more sensible designs , the fashion industry accelerated once again.

=> Desingers + models + designs là những key elements trong ngành thời trang

=> New + more sensible tức là đã có những thay đổi ở các khía cạnh này

=> Chọn TRUE



Xem full giải thích
9
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: India now exports more than half of the cotton it produces.

=> Ấn Độ xuất khẩu hơn một nửa số cotton họ sản xuất

=> Ta có thể tìm thấy thông tin về cotton, nhưng bài đọc chỉ nói 'Ấn Độ là quốc gia sản xuất cotton lớn nhất'

=> Không đề cập tới lượng cotton họ xuất khẩu

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
10
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng đọc simplify với Linearthinking

 The Indian garment and fabric industries have many fundamental advantages , in terms of a cheaper, skilled work force, ...

=> Câu này dài chủ yếu là do họ liệt kê các lợi thế, ta chỉ cần xem một hai items đầu là hiểu rồi đừng mất thời gian đọc và dịch hết

=> Có nhiều điều kiện mang lại lợi thế cho ngành dệt may ở Ấn Độ

=> Nói cách khác, điều kiệu ở Ấn Độ phù hợp với ngành dệt may

Xem full giải thích
11
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ở đây nếu chỉ skim&scan mà không đọc cẩn thận, nhiều khả năng khi thấy 'has further depressed prices' liền nghĩ rằng giống với 'have suffered' -> Từ đó chọn TRUE -> Sai




Ta phân tích thông tin trên với Linearthinking

 India has always been regarded as the default source in the embroidered garments segment , but changes in the rate of exchange between the rupee and the dollar has further depressed prices , thereby attracting more buyers.

=> Được xem là nguồn cung cấp mặc định -> Mọi người thường nhập khẩu embroided garments từ Ấn Độ

=> Tuy nhiên, changes in the rate of exchange -> làm giá sản phẩm thấp đi -> Từ đó thu hút nhiều người mua hơn

Xem full giải thích
12
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Here fabric-making is a family industry ; the range and quality of raw silks churned out here belie the crude production methods and equipment.

=> Khi thấy 'family industry' ta cũng đã cảm nhận là không chuyên nghiệp rồi

=> Sau đó thấy 'crude production methods and equipment' -> Crude là thô sơ - ngược với - modern

=> Chọn FALSE



Xem full giải thích
13
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking dể nắm main idea:

 1 Decorative bead work is another product in demand in the international market. 

 2  Beads are used to prepare accessory items like belts and bags , and beadwork is now available for haute couture evening wear too.

=> 1 + 2 : các sản phẩm thủ công Ấn độ được ưa chuộng trên thị trường quốc tế - được làm từ beads

=> Mà 'beads' là một sản phẩm bình thường và dễ tìm - không phải từ một vật liệu xa xỉ đắt đỏ gì cả

Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Sustainable growth at Didcot The outline of a report by South Oxfordshire District Council
A
A. The UK Government’s South East Plan proposes additional housing growth in the town of Didcot, which has been a designated growth area since 1979. We in South Oxfordshire District Council consider that, although Didcot does have potential for further growth, such development should be sustainable, well-planned, and supported by adequate infrastructure and community services.
B
B. Recent experience in Didcot has demonstrated that large greenfield [1] developments cannot resource all the necessary infrastructure and low-cost housing requirements. The ensuing compromises create a legacy of local transport, infrastructure and community services deficits, with no obvious means of correction. We wish to ensure that there is greater recognition of the cost attached to housing growth, and that a means is found to resource the establishment of sustainable communities in growth areas.
C
C. Until the 1950s, the development of job opportunities in the railway industry, and in a large, military ordnance depot, was the spur to Didcot’s expansion. Development at that time was geared to providing homes for the railway and depot workers, with limited investment in shopping and other services for the local population. Didcot failed to develop Broadway as a compact town centre, and achieved only a strip of shops along one side of the main street hemmed in by low density housing and service trade uses.
D
D. From the 1970s, strategic planning policies directed significant new housing development to Didcot. Planners recognised Didcot’s potential, with rapid growth in local job opportunities and good rail connections for those choosing to work farther afield. However, the town is bisected by the east-west railway, and people living in Ladygrove, the urban extension to the north which has been built since the 1980s, felt, and still feel, cut off from the town and its community.
E
E. Population growth in the new housing areas failed to spark adequate private-sector investment in town centre uses, and the limited investment which did take place - Didcot Market Place development in 1982, for instance - did not succeed in delivering the number and range of town centre uses needed by the growing population. In 1990, public-sector finance was used to buy the land required for the Orchard Centre development, comprising a superstore, parking and a new street of stores running parallel to Broadway. The development took 13 years to complete.
F
F. The idea that, by obliging developers of new housing to contribute to the cost of infrastructure and service requirements, all the necessary finance could be raised, has proved unachievable. Substantial public finance was still needed to deliver major projects such as the new link road to the A34 on the outskirts of the town at Milton, the improved railway crossing at Marsh Bridge and new schools. Such projects were delayed due to difficulties in securing public finance. The same problem also held back expansion of health and social services in the town.
G
G. In recent years, government policy, in particular the requirement for developers that forty percent of the units in a new housing development should be low cost homes, has had a major impact on the economics of such development, as it has limited the developers’ contribution to the costs of infrastructure. The planning authorities are facing difficult choices in prioritizing the items of infrastructure which must be funded by development, and this, in turn, means that from now on public finance will need to provide a greater proportion of infrastructure project costs.
H
H. The Government’s Sustainable Communities Plan seeks a holistic approach to new urban development in which housing, employment, services and infrastructure of all kinds are carefully planned and delivered in a way which avoids the infrastructure deficits that have occurred in places like Didcot in the past. This report, therefore, is structured around the individual components of a sustainable community, and shows the baseline position for each component.
I
I. Didcot has been identified as one of the towns with which the Government is working to evaluate whether additional growth will strengthen the economic potential of the town, deliver the necessary infrastructure and improve environmental standards. A programme of work, including discussions with the local community about their aspirations for the town as well as other stakeholders, will be undertaken over the coming months, and will lead to the development of a strategic master plan. The challenge will be in optimising scarce resources to achieve maximum benefits for the town. [1] land that has never previously been built on

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 19
Reading Passage has 9 paragraphs, A-l.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-l.
14
reference to the way the council’s report is organised
15
the reason why inhabitants in one part of Didcot are isolated
16
a statement concerning future sources of investment
17
the identification of two major employers at Didcot
18
reference to groups who will be consulted about a new development plan
19
an account of how additional town centre facilities were previously funded
Question 20 - 23
Look at the following places and the list of statements below.
Match each place with the correct statement, A-F.
Write the correct letter, A-F.
List of Findings
A
It provided extra facilities for shopping and cars.
B
Its location took a long time to agree
C
Its layout was unsuitable.
D
Its construction was held up due to funding problems.
E
It was privately funded.
F
It failed to get Council approval at first.
20
Broadway
21
Market Place
22
Orchard Centre
23
Marsh Bridge
Question 24 - 26
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
24
A certain proportion of houses in any new development now have to be of the 
24
  type.
25
The government is keen to ensure that adequate 
25
  will be provided for future housing developments.
26
The views of Didcot’s inhabitants and others will form the basis of a 
26
   for the town.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
H
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

  • the way -> nghĩ đến mô tả cụ thể về cách thức mà report được organized

  • the council’s report -> tìm các thông tin liên quan

  • is organized -> bài đọc có thể paraphrase từ này

Xem full giải thích
15
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

  • the reason -> nghĩ vệ một mô tả cụ thể - giải thích vì sao lại có sự cô lập

  • inhabitants in one part of Didcot -> nghĩ về tên một vùng cụ thể ở Didcot

  • are isolated -> nghĩ xem bị cô lập là sẽ như thế nào

Xem full giải thích
16
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

  • future -> nghĩ về các từ ám chỉ đến tương lai

  • sources of investment -> tìm thông tin về một nguồn đầu tư (private investment, public investment,...)

Xem full giải thích
17
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn





Dựa vào thông tin 'major employer', ta tìm các thông tin liên quan đến nghề nghiệp, các nhà tuyển dụng lớn

=> Từ đó thấy thông tin 'job opportunities in the railway industry' + 'a large, military ordnance depot'

Xem full giải thích
18
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

  • groups who will be consulted -> nghĩ về những nhóm người được hỏi ý kiến

  • a new development plan -> nghĩ về những thông tin liên quan đến các dự án phát triển mới

Xem full giải thích
19
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

  • additional town centre facilities -> tìm thông tin về các cơ sở vật chất cụ thể

  • were previously funded -> tìm đoạn chứa thông tin về ngày trước, quá khứ

Xem full giải thích
20
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Didcot failed to develop Broadway as a compact town centre , and achieved only a strip of shops along one side of the main street hemmed in by low density housing and service trade uses.

=> Ta thấy bài đọc nói về bố cục của Broadway: a strip of shops along one side of the main street hemmed in by low density housing and service trade uses

=> Và cho biết 'Didcot failed to develop Broadway'

=> So với danh sách đáp án -> Phù hợp nhất là đáp án C - Its layout was unsuitable

Xem full giải thích
21
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu này tương đối dài nên ta tách thành 2 vế nhé

 1 Population growth in the new housing areas failed to spark adequate private-sector investment in town centre uses

 2 and the limited investment - Didcot Market Place development in 1982, for instance - did not succeed in delivering the number and range of town centre uses needed by the growing population.

=> Vế 1 cho biết new housing areas - không thu hút được - đủ lượng private investment

Xem full giải thích
22
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Orchard Centre development , comprising a superstore, parking and a new street of stores running parallel to Broadway.

=> Orchard Centre có nhiều cửa hàng, chỗ đậu xe

=> So với list options -> Dễ dàng chọn được đáp án A - It provided extra facilities for shopping and cars



Xem full giải thích
23
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 ...the improved railway crossing at Marsh Bridge and new schools. 

 2 Such projects were delayed due to difficulties in securing public finance.

=> 1 + 2 : improved railway ở Marsh Bridge - là một trong những dự án - bị delayed vì - difficulties in securing public finance

=> Bị delayed (held up) vì vấn đề finance (funding) -> Chỉ có thể là đáp án D



Xem full giải thích
24
low cost
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: A certain proportion of houses in any new development now have to be of the _____ type.

=> Một tỷ lệ các nhà ở - trong dự án new development - phải là dạng nhà ____

=> Đáp án là tính/danh từ - chỉ một loại nhà ở

=> Dựa vào thông tin 'new development' + 'a certain proportion', ta nghĩ về một con số phần trăm -> Từ đó tìm được thông tin cần đọc



Xem full giải thích
25
infrastruc­ture
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: The government is keen to ensure that adequate ______ will be provided

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một thứ gì đó cần được cung cấp đầy đủ





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The Government seeks a holistic approach to new urban development in which housing, employment, services and infrastructure of all kinds are carefully planned and delivered in a way which avoids the infrastructure deficits

Xem full giải thích
26
strategic master plan
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: The views of Didcot’s inhabitants and others will form the basis of ______ plan for the town.

=> Đáp án là danh từ - cái gì đó được hình thành thông qua ý kiến của inhabitants + others





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 A programme of work , including discussions with the local community ... as well as other stakeholders will lead to the development of a strategic master plan.

Xem full giải thích

Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Language diversity
One of the most influential ideas in the study of languages is that of universal grammar (UG). Put forward by Noam Chomsky in the 1960s, it is widely interpreted as meaning that all languages are basically the same, and that the human brain is born language-ready, with an in-built programme that is able to interpret the common rules underlying any mother tongue. For five decades this idea prevailed, and influenced work in linguistics, psychology and cognitive science. To understand language, it implied, you must sweep aside the huge diversity of languages, and find their common human core. Since the theory of UG was proposed, linguists have identified many universal language rules. However, there are almost always exceptions. It was once believed, for example, that if a language had syllables[1] that begin with a vowel and end with a consonant (VC), it would also have syllables that begin with a consonant and end with a vowel (CV). This universal lasted until 1999, when linguists showed that Arrernte, spoken by Indigenous Australians from the area around Alice Springs in the Northern Territory, has VC syllables but no CV syllables. Other non-universal universals describe the basic rules of putting words together. Take the rule that every language contains four basic word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Work in the past two decades has shown that several languages lack an open adverb class, which means that new adverbs cannot be readily formed, unlike in English where you can turn any adjective into an adverb, for example ‘soft’ into ‘softly’. Others, such as Lao, spoken in Laos, have no adjectives at all. More controversially, some linguists argue that a few languages, such as Straits Salish, spoken by indigenous people from north-western regions of North America, do not even have distinct nouns or verbs. Instead, they have a single class of words to include events, objects and qualities. Even apparently indisputable universals have been found lacking. This includes recursion, or the ability to infinitely place one grammatical unit inside a similar unit, such as ‘Jack thinks that Mary thinks that ... the bus will be on time’. It is widely considered to be the most essential characteristic of human language, one that sets it apart from the communications of all other animals. Yet Dan Everett at Illinois State University recently published controversial work showing that Amazonian Piraha does not have this quality. But what if the very diversity of languages is the key to understanding human communication? Linguists Nicholas Evans of the Australian National University in Canberra, and Stephen Levinson of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, believe that languages do not share a common set of rules. Instead, they say, their sheer variety is a defining feature of human communication - something not seen in other animals. While there is no doubt that human thinking influences the form that language takes, if Evans and Levinson are correct, language in turn shapes our brains. This suggests that humans are more diverse than we thought, with our brains having differences depending on the language environment in which we grew up. And that leads to a disturbing conclusion: every time a language becomes extinct, humanity loses an important piece of diversity. If languages do not obey a single set of shared rules, then how are they created? ‘Instead of universals. you get standard engineering solutions that languages adopt again and again, and then you get outliers.' says Evans. He and Levinson argue that this is because any given language is a complex system shaped by many factors, including culture, genetics and history. There- are no absolutely universal traits of language, they say, only tendencies. And it is a mix of strong and weak tendencies that characterizes the ‘bio-cultural’ mix that we call language. According to the two linguists, the strong tendencies explain why many languages display common patterns. A variety of factors tend to push language in a similar direction, such as the structure of the brain, the biology of speech, and the efficiencies of communication. Widely shared linguistic elements may also be ones that build on a particularly human kind of reasoning. For example, the fact that before we learn to speak we perceive the world as a place full of things causing actions (agents) and things having actions done to them (patients) explains why most languages deploy these grammatical categories. Weak tendencies, in contrast, are explained by the idiosyncrasies of different languages. Evans and Levinson argue that many aspects of the particular natural history of a population may affect its language. For instance, Andy Butcher at Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia, has observed that indigenous Australian children have by far the highest incidence of chronic middle-ear infection of any population on the planet, and that most indigenous Australian languages lack many sounds that are common in other languages, but which are hard to hear with a middle-ear infection. Whether this condition has shaped the sound systems of these languages is unknown, says Evans, but it is important to consider the idea. Levinson and Evans are not the first to question the theory of universal grammar, but no one has summarized these ideas quite as persuasively, and given them as much reach. As a result, their arguments have generated widespread enthusiasm, particularly among those linguists who are tired of trying to squeeze their findings into the straitjacket of ‘absolute universals’. To some, it is the final nail in UG’s coffin. Michael Tomasello, co-director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has been a long-standing critic of the idea that all languages conform to a set of rules. ‘Universal grammar is dead,’ he says. [1] a unit of sound

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
27
In the final decades of the twentieth century, a single theory of language learning was dominant.
28
The majority of UG rules proposed by linguists do apply to all human languages.
29
There is disagreement amongst linguists about an aspect of Straits Salish grammar.
30
The search for new universal language rules has largely ended.
31
If Evans and Levinson are right, people develop in the same way no matter what language they speak.
32
The loss of any single language might have implications for the human race.
Question 33 - 37
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
33
Which of the following views about language are held by Evans and Levinson?
A
Each of the world’s languages develops independently.
B
The differences between languages outweigh the similarities.
C
Only a few language features are universal.
D
Each language is influenced by the characteristics of other languages.
34
According to Evans and Levinson, apparent similarities between languages could be due to
A
close social contact.
B
faulty analysis.
C
shared modes of perception.
D
narrow descriptive systems.
35
In the eighth paragraph, what does the reference to a middle-ear infection serve as?
A
A justification for something.
B
A contrast with something.
C
The possible cause of something.
D
The likely result of something.
36
What does the writer suggest about Evans’ and Levinson’s theory of language development?
A
It had not been previously considered.
B
It is presented in a convincing way.
C
It has been largely rejected by other linguists.
D
It is not supported by the evidence.
37
Which of the following best describes the writer’s purpose?
A
To describe progress in the field of cognitive science.
B
To defend a long-held view of language learning.
C
To identify the similarities between particular languages.
D
To outline opposing views concerning the nature of language.
Question 38 - 40
Complete each sentences with correct ending
List of Endings
A
words of a certain grammatical type.
B
a sequence of sounds predicted by UG.
C
words which can have more than one meaning.
D
the language feature regarded as the most basic.
E
sentences beyond a specified length.
The Arrernte language breaks a ‘rule’ concerning
38
The Lao language has been identified as lacking
39
It has now been suggested that Amazonia Piraha does not have
40

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Ngay đoạn 1 ta thấy có nhắc tới mốc thời gian '1960s'

=> 5 thập kỷ tính từ mốc thời gian '1960s' chính là những thập kỷ cuối cùng của thế kỷ 20





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

For five decades this idea prevailed , and influenced work in linguistics, psychology and cognitive science.

Xem full giải thích
28
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Since the theory of UG was proposed , linguists have identified many universal language rules. 

 2 However , there are almost always exceptions.

=> 1 + 2 : Đối với các universal language rules thì gần như luôn có trường hợp ngoại lệ

=> Nói cách khác, universal language rules - không áp dụng được với tất cả human languages

Xem full giải thích
29
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 More controversially , some linguists argue that a few languages , such as Straits Salish do not even have distinct nouns or verbs.

=> Controversially có nghĩa là gây tranh cãi

=> Về khía cạnh ngữ pháp của Straits Salish thì các linguists có sự bất đồng quan điểm

=> Chọn YES



Xem full giải thích
30
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: The search for new universal language rules has largely ended.

=> Việc tìm kiếm new universal language rules đã chấm dứt

=> Thường thì dạng Y/N/NG sẽ đi theo thứ tự bài đọc từ trên xuống, ta cứ từ câu trước đọc tiếp xuống, không cần phải đọc lên để kiếm thông tin cho câu này

=> Tuy nhiên không thể tìm thấy thông tin này

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
31
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 if Evans and Levinson are correct , language in turn shapes our brains.

=> Language định hình bộ não của chúng ta

=> Nói cách khác, nói ngôn ngữ khác nhau, sẽ có cách tư duy suy nghĩ khác nhau

=> Mâu thuẫn với câu hỏi -> Chọn NO



Xem full giải thích
32
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: The loss of any single language might have implications for the human race.

=> 'Implications' có nghĩa là 'a result or effect'

=> Việc đánh mất ngôn ngữ sẽ để lại hậu quả/tác động đối với loài người





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
33
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta thấy bài đọc bắt đầu nói về Evan and Levinson từ đoạn 5

=> Vì khó xác định được thông tin cụ thể cần đọc, tốt nhất ta nên nhìn qua các đáp án trước, sau đó hẵng bắt đầu đọc tìm thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 He and Levinson argue that this is because any given language is a complex system shaped by many factors , including culture, genetics and history.

=> Theo Evan and Levinson - môi ngôn ngữ là một hệ thống phức tạp - được hình thành qua nhiều yếu tố - bao gồm culture, genetics and history

Xem full giải thích
34
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Widely shared linguistic elements may also be ones that build on a particularly human kind of reasoning. 

 2 For example , the fact that before we learn to speak we perceive the world as a place full of things causing actions and things having actions done to them explains why most languages deploy these grammatical categories.

=> Câu 1 cho biết các đặc tính chung về ngôn ngữ có thể có được từ cách chúng ta lập luận

=> Câu 2 đưa ra ví dụ bổ sung cho câu 1 : trước khi ta học nói - ta đã nhìn nhận thế giới - là một nơi có đầy những vật mà gây ra actions và những vật bị tác động bởi actions

Xem full giải thích
35
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 most indigenous Australian languages lack many sounds that are common in other languages , but which are hard to hear with a middle-ear infection

=> Phần lớn indigenous Australian languages - thiếu nhiều âm - mà phổ biển ở những ngôn ngữ khác - nhưng - khó có thể nghe được nếu bị mắc middle-ear infection

=> Nói cách khác, bị mắc middle-ear infection - sẽ khó nghe được một số âm -> điều này khiến ngôn ngữ của indigenous Australian languages thiếu nhiều âm phổ biến

=> Middle-ear infection là nguyên nhân (cause) của việc ngôn ngữ thiếu nhiều âm phổ biến

Xem full giải thích
36
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Levinson and Evans are not the first to question the theory of universal grammar , but no one has summarized these ideas quite as persuasively

=> Không ai summarized - những ideas về universal grammar - thuyết phục như cách mà Levinson and Evans làm

=> Chọn B - It is presented in a convincing way



Xem full giải thích
37
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ở câu này ta cần đọc qua các đáp án trước sau đó rút ra main idea của từng đoạn đọc connection giữa chúng

Đoạn 1 : nói về một idea phổ biến - cho rằng languages are all the same

Đoạn 2 + 3 + 4 : đưa ra các ví dụ cụ thể - để cho thấy rằng ngôn ngữ không hoàn toàn giống nhau, không có một rule nào áp dụng được cho tất cả ngôn ngữ

Đoạn 5 -> 9 : Evan and Levinson cho rằng ngôn ngữ phát triển độc lập, không tuân theo một luật chung nào

=> Ta có thể dễ dàng thấy được rằng các đoạn sau đưa ra ý kiến trái chiều với đoạn idea phổ biến ở đoạn 1

Xem full giải thích
38
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể dễ dàng tìm ra thông tin về Arrernte ở đoạn 2



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Arrernte , spoken by Indigenous Australians , has VC syllables but no CV syllables.

>>> Background info: theo như UG, nếu một ngôn ngữ có những âm theo nguyên tắc VC (vowel-consonant), thì chắc chắn sẽ có CV

=> Tuy nhiên, Arrente đã phá vỡ quy luật (break the rule): ngôn ngữ này chỉ có VC chứ không có CV syllables

Xem full giải thích
39
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Khi tìm thấy thông tin về Lao, ta dễ dàng nhận ra thứ mà ngôn ngữ này thiếu đó là 'adjectives'

=> Giờ quan trọng là ta tìm được đáp án đúng thôi

=> So với list options -> Phù hợp nhất là đáp án A - words of a certain grammatical type

Xem full giải thích
40
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Khi thấy thông tin về 'Amazonian Piraha', ta biết ngôn ngữ này không có 'this quality'

=> Để biết 'this quality' là gì ta phải đọc ngược lên





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 This includes recursion , or the ability to infinitely place one grammatical unit inside a similar unit 

Xem full giải thích

Download PDF

Bạn có thể tải bản đẹp của đề và đáp án PTP3 - Reading Test 6 tại đây