Đề thi IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 10 - Reading Test 2 - Download PDF Câu hỏi, Transcript và Đáp án

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 10 - Reading Test 2 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 10 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Đề thi IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 10 - Reading Test 2 - Download PDF Câu hỏi, Transcript và Đáp án

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Tea and the Industrial Revolution
A Cambridge professor says that a change in drinking babits was the reason for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Anjana Abuja reports
A
A. Alan Macfarlane, professor of anthropological science at King’s College, Cambridge has, like other historians, spent decades wrestling with the enigma of the Industrial Revolution. Why did this particular Big Bang – the world-changing birth of industry-happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18th century?
B
B. Macfarlane compares the puzzle to a combination lock. ‘There are about 20 different factors and all of them need to be present before the revolution can happen,’ he says. For industry to take off, there needs to be the technology and power to drive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen. While this was the case for England, other nations, such as Japan, the Netherlands and France also met some of these criteria but were not industrialising. All these factors must have been necessary. But not sufficient to cause the revolution, says Macfarlane. ‘After all, Holland had everything except coal while China also had many of these factors. Most historians are convinced there are one or two missing factors that you need to open the lock.’
C
C. The missing factors, he proposes, are to be found in almost even kitchen cupboard. Tea and beer, two of the nation’s favourite drinks, fuelled the revolution. The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery. The theory sounds eccentric but once he starts to explain the detective work that went into his deduction, the scepticism gives way to wary admiration. Macfarlanes case has been strengthened by support from notable quarters – Roy Porter, the distinguished medical historian, recently wrote a favourable appraisal of his research.
D
D. Macfarlane had wondered for a long time how the Industrial Revolution came about. Historians had alighted on one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation. Between about 1650 and 1740the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth. Macfarlane says: ‘The infant mortality rate halved in the space of 20 years, and this happened in both rural areas and cities, and across all classes. People suggested four possible causes. Was there a sudden change in the viruses and bacteria around? Unlikely. Was there a revolution in medical science? But this was a century before Lister’s revolution*. Was there a change in environmental conditions? There were improvements in agriculture that wiped out malaria, but these were small gains. Sanitation did not become widespread until the 19th century. The only option left is food. But the height and weight statistics show a decline. So the food must have got worse. Efforts to explain this sudden reduction in child deaths appeared to draw a blank.’
E
E. This population burst seemed to happen at just the right time to provide labour for the Industrial Revolution. ‘When you start moving towards an industrial revolution, it is economically efficient to have people living close together,’ says Macfarlane. ‘But then you get disease, particularly from human waste.’ Some digging around in historical records revealed that there was a change in the incidence of water-borne disease at that time, especially dysentery. Macfarlane deduced that whatever the British were drinking must have been important in regulating disease. He says, ‘We drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again. Then it suddenly dropped again. What caused this?’
F
F. Macfarlane looked to Japan, which was also developing large cities about the same time, and also had no sanitation. Water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain. Could it be the prevalence of tea in their culture? Macfarlane then noted that the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates. Tea was relatively expensive until Britain started a direct dipper trade with China in the early 18th century. By the 1740s, about the time that infant mortality was dipping, the drink was common. Macfarlane guessed that the fact that water had to be boiled, together with the stomach-purifying properties of tea meant that the breast milk provided by mothers was healthier than it had ever been. No other European nation sipped tea like the British, which, by Macfarlanes logic, pushed these other countries out of contention for the revolution.
G
G. But, if tea is a factor in the combination lock, why didn’t Japan forge ahead in a tea soaked industrial revolution of its own? Macfarlane notes that even though 17th-century Japan had large cities, high literacy rates, even a futures market, it had turned its back on the essence of any work-based revolution by giving up labour-saving devices such as animals, afraid that they would put people out of work. So, the nation that we now think of as one of the most technologically advanced entered the 19th century having ‘abandoned the wheel’.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 7
Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G. 
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-ix
List of Headings
I
The search for the reasons for an increase in population
II
Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment
III
The development of cities in Japan 4 The time and place of the Industrial Revolution
IV
The time and place of the Industrial Revolution
V
The cases of Holland, France and China
VI
Changes in drinking habits in Britain
VII
Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution
VIII
Conditions required for industrialisation
IX
Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer
1
Paragraph A
2
Paragraph B
3
Paragraph C
4
Paragraph D
5
Paragraph E
6
Paragraph F
7
Paragraph G
Question 8 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
8
China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century
9
Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain
10
Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings
11
After 1740, there was a reduction in population in Britain.
12
People in Britain used to make beer at home
13
The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
IV
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Giải thích chi tiết



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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Chúng ta sẽ đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. 

 1 Alan dành rất nhiều thời gian để giải thích the enigma of IR

Xem full giải thích
2
VIII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Chúng ta sẽ đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. 

 1 Macfarlane so sánh the puzzle (enigma) như 1 ổ khóa

 2 20 yếu tố

Xem full giải thích
3
VII
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chúng ta sẽ đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. 

 1 2 missing factors được tìm thấy ở trong nhà bếp

 2 Tea and beer thúc đẩy cuộc cách mạng

Xem full giải thích
4
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chúng ta sẽ đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. 

 1 Macfarlane tự hỏi làm thế nào mà Industrial Revolution xảy ra.

 2 Historians chỉ ra 1 yếu tố thú vị cần được giải thích vào gia đoạn giữa thế kỷ 18

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5
VI
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Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chúng ta sẽ đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. 

 1 2 Lợi ích của việc tăng dân số --> provide labour (cung cấp nhân công)

 3 4 Bất lợi của việc tăng dân số --> People get diseases from human waste (cụ thể: dysentery)

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6
IX
Mở rộng

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Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Chúng ta sẽ đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. 

 1 2   Macfarlan so sánh giữa 2 nước Britain - Japan (tại sao Japan has a looser grip)

 3 Đưa ra câu trả lời: có thể là do sự phổ biến của tea

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7
II
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chúng ta sẽ đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. 

 1 Tại sao Japan không muốn đạt được tiến bộ trong cuộc cách mạng

 2 Lí do: Japan - từ bỏ các thiết bị tiết kiệm sức lao động như động vật - lo sợ rằng mọi người sẽ mất việc

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8
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng câu phức tạp + thông tin dài, bạn nên áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính

 1 For industry to take off , there needs to be the technology and power to drive factories , large urban populations to provide cheap labour , easy transport to move goods around , an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects , a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen.

--> Main idea: Để the industry phát triển, cần có các yếu tố sau: the technology ; large urban populations ; easy transport ; an affluent middle-class ; a market-driven economy ; a political system

 5 After all, Holland had everything except coal while China also had many of these factors .

→ Main idea: China có nhiều yếu tố, mà được đề cập ở câu 1 

Xem full giải thích
9
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

active ingredient in tea and hops in beer allowed communities to flourish without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery 

Main idea : Tea and beer giúp cộng đồng phát triển, và không bị chết do các bệnh từ nước gây ra - Ví dụ: dysentery

So sánh với câu hỏi: Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain

→ Chọn đáp án: TRUE



Xem full giải thích
10
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Macfarlane’s case has been strengthened by support from Roy Porter 

Main idea: Macfarlane's case được ủng hộ bởi Roy Porter

Hay nói cách khác: Roy agreed with Macfarland 

So sánh với câu hỏi: Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings # Roy agreed with Macfarland 

Xem full giải thích
11
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Để câu này bạn vừa nắm ý chính và hiểu sự liên kết của 2 câu, các bạn áp dụng Linearthinking nha:

 Between about 1650 and 1740 the population in Britain was static.

 But then there was a burst in population growth 

→ Vì linking word "but" --> nên sẽ có sự tương phản giữa trước 1740 và sau 1740

Main idea: Trước 1740: dân số ở Britain giữ nguyên -> But then (sau 1740): có sự bùng nổ dân số (dân số tằng)

Xem full giải thích
12
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Macfarlane deduced that whatever the British were drinking must have been important in regulating disease. 

 We drank  beer 

Main idea: British uống gì sẽ rất quan trọng trong việc kiểm soát bệnh tật --> Cụ thể: British uống bia

--> Không có thông tin về British make beer at home

Xem full giải thích
13
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt. 

 The poor turned to water and gin and in 1720s the mortality rate rise again 

Main idea: Thuế được đặt lên malt vào thế kỷ 17 -> Do đó, người nghèo chuyển qua water and gin → Vậy nên, năm 1720 tỉ lệ người chết tăng 

Tax là nguyên nhân gián tiếp làm mọi người chuyển qua uống water and gin , và điều này là tỉ lệ chết tăng

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Gifted children and learning
A
A. Internationally, ‘giftedness’ is most frequently determined by a score on a general intelligence test, known as an IQ test, which is above a chosen cutoff point, usually at around the top 2-5%. Children’s educational environment contributes to the IQ score and the way intelligence is used. For example, a very close positive relationship was found when children’s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision (Freeman, 2010). The higher the children’s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the better the quality of their educational backup, measured in terms of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home etc. Because IQ tests are decidedly influenced by what the child has learned, they are to some extent measures of current achievement based on age-norms; that is, how well the children have learned to manipulate their knowledge and know-how within the terms of the test. The vocabulary aspect, for example, is dependent on having heard those words. But IQ tests can neither identify the processes of learning and thinking nor predict creativity.
B
B. Excellence does not emerge without appropriate help. To reach an exceptionally high standard in any area very able children need the means to learn, which includes material to work with and focused challenging tuition -and the encouragement to follow their dream. There appears to be a qualitative difference in the way the intellectually highly able think, compared with more average-ability or older pupils, for whom external regulation by the teacher often compensates for lack of internal regulation. To be at their most effective in their self-regulation, all children can be helped to identify their own ways of learning – metacognition – which will include strategies of planning, monitoring, evaluation, and choice of what to learn. Emotional awareness is also part of metacognition, so children should be helped to be aware of their feelings around the area to be learned, feelings of curiosity or confidence, for example.
C
C. High achievers have been found to use self-regulatory learning strategies more often and more effectively than lower achievers, and are better able to transfer these strategies to deal with unfamiliar tasks. This happens to such a high degree in some children that they appear to be demonstrating talent in particular areas. Overviewing research on the thinking process of highly able children, (Shore and Kanevsky, 1993) put the instructor’s problem succinctly: ‘If they [the gifted] merely think more quickly, then .we need only teach more quickly. If they merely make fewer errors, then we can shorten the practice’. But of course, this is not entirely the case; adjustments have to be made in methods of learning and teaching, to take account of the many ways individuals think.
D
D. Yet in order to learn by themselves, the gifted do need some support from their teachers. Conversely, teachers who have a tendency to ‘overdirect’ can diminish their gifted pupils’ learning autonomy. Although ‘spoon-feeding’ can produce extremely high examination results, these are not always followed by equally impressive life successes. Too much dependence on the teachers risks loss of autonomy and motivation to discover. However, when teachers o pupils to reflect on their own learning and thinking activities, they increase their pupils’ self-regulation. For a young child, it may be just the simple question ‘What have you learned today?’ which helps them to recognise what they are doing. Given that a fundamental goal of education is to transfer the control of learning from teachers to pupils, improving pupils’ learning to learn techniques should be a major outcome of the school experience, especially for the highly competent. There are quite a number of new methods which can help, such as child- initiated learning, ability-peer tutoring, etc. Such practices have been found to be particularly useful for bright children from deprived areas.
E
E. But scientific progress is not all theoretical, knowledge is a so vital to outstanding performance: individuals who know a great deal about a specific domain will achieve at a higher level than those who do not (Elshout, 1995). Research with creative scientists by Simonton (1988) brought him to the conclusion that above a certain high level, characteristics such as independence seemed to contribute more to reaching the highest levels of expertise than intellectual skills, due to the great demands of effort and time needed for learning and practice. Creativity in all forms can be seen as expertise se mixed with a high level of motivation (Weisberg, 1993).
F
F. To sum up, learning is affected by emotions of both the individual and significant others. Positive emotions facilitate the creative aspects of earning and negative emotions inhibit it. Fear, for example, can limit the development of curiosity, which is a strong force in scientific advance, because it motivates problem-solving behaviour. In Boekaerts’ (1991) review of emotion the learning of very high IQ and highly achieving children, she found emotional forces in harness. They were not only curious, but often had a strong desire to control their environment, improve their learning efficiency and increase their own learning resources.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 17
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F. 
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-F
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14
a reference to the influence of the domestic background on the gifted child.
15
reference to what can be lost if learners are given too much guidance
16
a reference to the damaging effects of anxiety
17
examples of classroom techniques which favour socially-disadvantaged children
Question 18 - 22
Look at the following statements and the list of people below.
Match each statement with the correct person or people, A-E. 
Write the correct letter, A-E
List of Findings
A
Freeman
B
Shore and Kanevsky
C
Elshout
D
Simonton
E
Boekaerts
18
Less time can be spent on exercises with gifted pupils who produce accurate work
19
Self-reliance is a valuable tool that helps gifted students reach their goals.
20
Gifted children know how to channel their feelings to assist their learning
21
The very gifted child benefits from appropriate support from close relatives.
22
Really successful students have learnt a considerable amount about their subject.
Question 23 - 26
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
23
One study found a strong connection between children’s IQ and the availability of
10.....................
at home.
24
Children of average ability seem to need more direction from teachers because they do not have
11......................
.
25
Meta-cognition involves children understanding their own learning strategies, as well as developing
12......................

26
Teachers who rely on what is known as
13.....................
often produce sets of impressive grades in class tests.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
A
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm sự đề cập về: sự ảnh hưởng từ trong nhà tới gifted children 

+ a reference to sth : 1 sự đề cập tới 1 sự ảnh hưởng cụ thể nào đó  

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15
D
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Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm sự đề cập về: việc nếu learners nhận quá nhiều hướng dẫn thì cái gì có thể mất

+ a reference to sth : 1 sự đề cập tới 1 sự ảnh hưởng cụ thể nào đó  

+ learners are given too much guidance: cụ thể guidance nào students sẽ được nhận từ teachers

Xem full giải thích
16
F
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm sự đề cập về: sự ảnh hưởng tiêu cực của anxiety 

+ a reference to sth : 1 example đề cập tới 1 sự ảnh hưởng cụ thể nào đó  

+ the damaging effects of anxiety: may be sẽ đề cập cụ thể ảnh hưởng xấu nào mà anxiety mang lại  

Xem full giải thích
17
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip : Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

- Ví dụ của các kỹ thuật sử dụng trong lớp mà tốt cho trẻ có hoàn cảnh khó khăn về mặt xã hội

+ Examples of classrooms techniques : đưa ra nhiều example (>2) cụ thể về các phương pháp giảng dạy in class

+ favour socially disadvantaged children: có thể đề cập tới trẻ em không có điều kiện tốt về mặt social - background

Xem full giải thích
18
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Thông tin trong bài đọc:

 Shore and Kanevsky - if they think more quickly , we need to teach more quickly 

Xem full giải thích
19
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Thông tin trong bài đọc

 Research by Simonton  brought him to the conclusion that characteristics such as independence contribute more to reaching the highest levels of expertise , due to the great demands of effort and time 

Xem full giải thích
20
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài





Với thông tin dài, bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để tìm ra mối liên kết và ý chính nha

Xem full giải thích
21
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài





Với thông tin dài, bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để tìm ra mối liên kết và ý chính nha

Xem full giải thích
22
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Thông tin trong bài đọc

 knowledge is a so vital to outstanding performance : individuals who know a great deal about a specific domain achieve at a higher level 

Xem full giải thích
23
books and activities
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin cùng với Linearthinking

 the higher the children’s IQ scores the better the quality of their children backup , measured in terms of number of books and activities in their home

--> Main idea: IQ của trẻ càng cao, thì giáo dục ở nhà cang tốt - được đo bằng sự tương tác với ba mẹ, số lượng sách đọc và các hoạt động

→ Vì cấu tạo từ của availability là: availability of sth → bạn không thể điền parents (somebody) vì sai pattern

→ Vậy 2 options còn lại là: number of books and activities  

Xem full giải thích
24
internal regulation/self-regulation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin cùng với Linearthinking

 there appears to be a difference in the way the intellectually think compared with average-ability pupils , for whom external regulation by the teacher often compensates for lack of internal regulation

--> Main idea: Có sự khác biệt trong suy nghĩ của trẻ có năng khiếu và trẻ bình thường - khi giáo viên dạy những các quy tắc bên ngoài thay thế cho các quy tắc bên trong mà bản thân chúng phải có

>> Hay nói cách khác: trẻ bình thường (average-ability pupils) không có internal regulation

So sánh với câu hỏi: do not have internal regulation = lack of internal regulation

Xem full giải thích
25
emotional awareness
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin cùng với Linearthinking

 1 to be at their most effective children can be helped to identify their ways of learning metacognition which include strategies of planning 

 2 Emotional awareness is a part of metacognition , so children be helped to be aware of their feelings 

→ Main ideaMetacognition2 phần 1/ strategies of planning & 2/ emotional awareness 

--> So sánh với câu hỏi: their own learning strategies = strategies of planning

Xem full giải thích
26
spoon-feeding
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin cùng với Linearthinking

 although spoon-feeding produce extremely high examination results , these are not always followed by equally impressive life successes. 

Method được đề cập tới để giúp học sinh đạt được điểm cao là spoon-feeding 

Chọn đáp án spoon-feeding



Xem full giải thích

Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Museums of fine art and their public
The fact that people go to the Louvre museum in Paris to see the original painting Mona Lisa when they can see a reproduction anywhere leads us to question some assumptions about the role of museums of fine art in today’s world
One of the most famous works of art in the world is Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. Nearly everyone who goes to see the original will already be familiar with it from reproductions, but they accept that fine art is more rewardingly viewed in its original form. However, if Mona Lisa was a famous novel, few people would bother to go to a museum to read the writer’s actual manuscript rather than a printed reproduction. This might be explained by the fact that the novel has evolved precisely because of technological developments that made it possible to print out huge numbers of texts, whereas oil paintings have always been produced as unique objects. In addition, it could be argued that the practice of interpreting or ‘reading’ each medium follows different conventions. With novels, the reader attends mainly to the meaning of words rather than the way they are printed on the page, whereas the ‘reader’ of a painting must attend just as closely to the material form of marks and shapes in the picture as to any ideas they may signify. Yet it has always been possible to make very accurate facsimiles of pretty well any fine art work. The seven surviving versions of Mona Lisa bear witness to the fact that in the 16th century, artists seemed perfectly content to assign the reproduction of their creations to their workshop apprentices as regular ‘bread and butter’ work. And today the task of reproducing pictures is incomparably more simple and reliable, with reprographic techniques that allow the production of high-quality prints made exactly to the original scale, with faithful colour values, and even with duplication of the surface relief of the painting. But despite an implicit recognition that the spread of good reproductions can be culturally valuable, museums continue to promote the special status of original work. Unfortunately, this seems to place severe limitations on the kind of experience offered to visitors. One limitation is related to the way the museum presents its exhibits. As repositories of unique historical objects, art museums are often called ‘treasure houses’. We are reminded of this even before we view a collection by the presence of security guards, attendants, ropes and display cases to keep us away from the exhibits. In many cases, the architectural style of the building further reinforces that notion. In addition, a major collection like that of London’s National Gallery is housed in numerous rooms, each with dozens of works, any one of which is likely to be worth more than all the average visitor possesses. In a society that judges the personal status of the individual so much by their material worth, it is therefore difficult not to be impressed by one’s own relative ‘worthlessness’ in such an environment. Furthermore, consideration of the ‘value’ of the original work in its treasure house setting impresses upon the viewer that, since these works were originally produced, they have been assigned a huge monetary value by some person or institution more powerful than themselves. Evidently, nothing the viewer thinks about the work is going to alter that value, and so today’s viewer is deterred from trying to extend that spontaneous, immediate, self reliant kind of reading which would originally have met the work. The visitor may then be struck by the strangeness of seeing such diverse paintings, drawings and sculptures brought together in an environment for which they were not originally created. This ‘displacement effect’ is further heightened by the sheer volume of exhibits. In the case of a major collection, there are probably more works on display than we could realistically view in weeks or even months. This is particularly distressing because time seems to be a vital factor in the appreciation of all art forms. A fundamental difference between paintings and other art forms is that there is no prescribed time over which a painting is viewed. By contrast, the audience encourage an opera or a play over a specific time, which is the duration of the performance. Similarly novels and poems are read in a prescribed temporal sequence, whereas a picture has no clear place at which to start viewing, or at which to finish. Thus art works themselves encourage us to view them superficially, without appreciating the richness of detail and labour that is involved. Consequently, the dominant critical approach becomes that of the art historian, a specialised academic approach devoted to ‘discovering the meaning’ of art within the cultural context of its time. This is in perfect harmony with the museum s function, since the approach is dedicated to seeking out and conserving ‘authentic’, original, readings of the exhibits. Again, this seems to put paid to that spontaneous, participators criticism which can be found in abundance in criticism of classic works of literature, but is absent from most art history. The displays of art museums serve as a warning of what critical practices can emerge when spontaneous criticism is suppressed. The museum public, like any other audience, experience art more rewardingly when given the confidence to express their views. If appropriate works of fine art could be rendered permanently accessible to the public by means of high-fidelity reproductions, as literature and music already are, the public may feel somewhat less in awe of them. Unfortunately, that may be too much to ask from those who seek to maintain and control the art establishment.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 31
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-L, below.
Write the correct letter, A-L, on your answer sheet.
The value attached to original works of art
People go to art museums because they accept the value of seeing an original work of art. But they do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels, perhaps because the availability of novels has depended on
27
for so long, and also because with novels, the
28
are the most important thing.
However, in historical times artists such as Leonardo were happy to instruct
29
to produce copies of their work and these days new methods of reproduction allow excellent replication of surface relief features as well as colour and
30
. It is regrettable that museums still promote the superiority of original works of art, since this may not be in the interests of the
31
.
A
institution
B
mass production
C
mechanical processes
D
public
E
paints
F
artist
G
size
H
underlying ideas
I
basic technology
J
readers
K
picture frames
L
assistants
Question 32 - 35
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
32
The writer mentions London’s National Gallery to illustrate
A
the undesirable cost to a nation of maintaining a huge collection of art.
B
the conflict that may arise in society between financial and artistic values.
C
the negative effect a museum can have on visitors’ opinions of themselves.
D
the need to put individual well-being above large-scale artistic schemes.
33
The writer says that today, viewers may be unwilling to criticise a because
A
they lack the knowledge needed to support an opinion.
B
they fear it may have financial implications.
C
they have no real concept of the work’s value.
D
they feel their personal reaction is of no significance.
34
According to the writer, the ‘displacement effect’ on the visitor is caused by
A
the variety of works on display and the way they are arranged.
B
the impossibility of viewing particular works of art over a long period.
C
the similar nature of the paintings and the lack of great works.
D
the inappropriate nature of the individual works selected for exhibition.
35
The writer says that unlike other forms of art, a painting does not
A
involve direct contact with an audience.
B
require a specific location for a performance.
C
need the involvement of other professionals.
D
have a specific beginning or end.
Question 36 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
36
Art history should focus on discovering the meaning of art using a range of media.
37
The approach of art historians conflicts with that of art museums.
38
People should be encouraged to give their opinions openly on works of art.
39
Reproductions of fine art should only be sold to the public if they are of high quality.
40
In the future, those with power are likely to encourage more people to enjoy art.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
mass production
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin với Linearthinking

 1 However , if Mona Lisa was a famous novel , few people would bother to go to a museum to read the writer’s manuscript rather than a printed reproduction .

 2 This might be explained by the fact that the novel has evolved precisely because of technological developments that made it possible to print out huge numbers of texts 

Main idea: Mọi người sẽ ra không ra museum để đọc manuscript => Lí do:  technological developments có thể print out huge numbers of texts → nên họ sẽ đọc bản printed reproduction

Vậy print out huge numbers of texts chính là mass production

Xem full giải thích
28
underlying ideas
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin với Linearthinking

 With novels , the reader attends mainly to the meaning of words rather than the way they are printed on the page 

Main idea: Với novels, readers để ý về nghĩa của từ hơn là về cách nó được in

So sánh với đáp án: underlying ideas = the meaning of words

--> Chọn đáp án H - underlying ideas 

Xem full giải thích
29
assistants
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin với Linearthinking

 Versions of Mona Lisa …  in the 16th century , artists seemed content to assign the reproduction of their creations to their workshop apprentices

Main idea: in 16th century, artists hài lòng khi phân công việc sao chép các tác phẩm của họ cho những người học nghề

→ Vậy artists đưa apprentices làm những bản copies 

Hay nói cách khác là assistants 

Xem full giải thích
30
size
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin với Linearthinking

 And today the task of reproducing pictures is more simple , with reprographic techniques that allow the production of high-quality prints made exactly to the original scale , with faithful colour values , and even with duplication of the surface relief of the painting .

→ Main idea: Tạo ra các bản sao rất dễ with reprographic techniques:

-> Cụ thể

1/ made exactly to the original scale → giống hoàn hoàn về kích thước ban đầu

Xem full giải thích
31
public
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu thông tin với Linearthinking

 Unfortunately , this seems to place severe limitations on the kind of experience offered to visitors.  

Main idea: Việc này dường như đặt 1 sự giới hạn lên trải nghiệm được mang tới cho khách tham quan 

→ Vậy museums still promote the superiority of original works khi mà nó không còn hứng thú đối với visitors 

So sánh đáp án thì đáp án để chỉ về visitors chỉ có public

Xem full giải thích
32
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm ý chính

 In addition a major collection like that of London’s National Gallery is housed  in numerous rooms , each with dozens of works , any one of which is likely to be worth more than all the average visitor possesses.

--> Main idea: London’s National Gallery có hàng tá tác phẩm và nó đáng giá hơn tất cả những gì mà du khách bình thường có

 In a society that judges the personal status of the individual by their material worth , it is difficult not to be impressed by one’s own ‘worthlessness’ in such an environment. 

--> Main idea: trong xã hội đánh giá con người qua material worth thì vô trong 1 gallery như vậy sẽ bị feel like ‘worthlessness

Xem full giải thích
33
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin dài và khó, mình áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính như sau:

 Furthermore consideration of the ‘value’ of the original work impresses upon the viewer that , since these works were originally produced , they have been assigned a huge monetary value by some person more powerful than themselves

--> Main idea: Những người quyền lực hơn đã gán một giá trị lớn cho những công trình này (the original work)

 Evidently nothing the viewer thinks about the work is going to alter that value 

Main idea: Vì lí do trên, suy nghĩ của người xem tác phẩm sẽ không thể thay đổi được giá trị đó

Xem full giải thích
34
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 1 The visitor be struck by the strangeness of seeing such diverse paintings in an environment for which they were not originally created 

 2 This ‘displacement effect’ is further heightened by the sheer volume of exhibits. 

--> Main idea: Những bức tranh này được đặt và sắp xếp ở một nơi mà chúng không được tạo ra từ ban đầu → Hiệu ứng displacement này bị tăng lên

So sánh với đáp án:

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35
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Bạn nên áp dụng Linearthinking để thực sự nhìn được sự liên kết giữa các thông tin với nhau

 1 A fundamental difference between paintings and other art forms is that there is no prescribed time over which a painting is viewed 

 2 By contrast the audience encourage an opera or a play over a specific time , which is the duration of the performance 

 3 Similarly novels and poems are read in a prescribed temporal sequence , whereas a picture has no clear place at which to start viewing, or at which to finish 

--> Main idea: Qua đây, các bạn sẽ thấy được sự difference giữa painting & other art forms:

Xem full giải thích
36
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Consequently the approach becomes that of the art historian , a specialised academic approach devoted to ‘discovering the meaning’ of art

Main idea: Kết quả: các nhà sử học nghệ thuật cống hiến hết mình để khám phá ý nghĩa --> điều này trở nên phổ biến

--> Không có thông tin: should focus on discovering the meaning of art

→ Answer: NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
37
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking

 1 Consequently the dominant critical approach becomes that of the art historian 

 2 This is in perfect harmony with the museums function since the approach is dedicated to seeking out and conserving ‘authentic’ of the exhibits 

Main idea: There is a perfect harmony giữa the approach of art historian và the functions of museums

Hay nói cách khác: in perfect harmony = perfect agreement 

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38
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 The museum public experience art more rewardingly when given the confidence to express their views 

Main idea: the museum public nên có được sự tự tin để bày tỏ quan điểm --> thì họ sẽ được thưởng thức nghệ thuật trọn vẹn hơn

So sánh với câu hỏi: they should be encouraged to give their opinions = be given the confidence to express their views.

=> Answer: YES 



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39
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking với câu này bạn nha vì từ vựng khá khó

 If appropriate works of fine art could be rendered permanently accessible to the public by means of reproductions , the public may feel somewhat less in awe of them .

→ Câu này nếu bạn không hiểu rendered, nhưng bạn vẫn có thể nắm sơ lược ý chính đó là: public có thể tiếp cận qua các bản sao chất lượng cao

--> Không có thông tin về bán lại những reproductions này tới public 

→ Answer: NOT GIVEN  



Xem full giải thích
40
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Unfortunately that may be too much to ask from those who seek to maintain and control the art establishment 

→ Main idea: Không may, có lẽ là quá nhiều để yêu cầu những người tìm cách duy trì và kiểm soát cơ sở nghệ thuật

So sánh với câu hỏi: it is not a good idea to ask people with power in order to maintain # those with power are likely to encourage more people

=> Answer: NO 



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