Actual Test 6 - Reading Test 6 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Actual Test 6 - Reading Test 6 được lấy từ cuốn sách Actual Test 6 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Actual Test 6 - Reading Test 6 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

History of Refrigeration
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat, which means cooling an area or a substance below the environmental temperature. Mechanical refrigeration makes use of (he evaporation of a liquid refrigerant, which goes through a cycle so that it can be reused. The main cycles include vapour-compression, absorption steam-jet or steam-ejector, and airing. The term ‘refrigerator’ was first introduced by a Maryland farmer Thomas Moore in 1803, but it is in the 20th century that the appliance we know today first appeared. People used to find various ways to preserve their food before the advent of mechanical refrigeration systems. Some preferred using cooling systems of ice or snow, which meant that diets would have consisted of very little fresh food or fruits and vegetables, but mostly of bread, cheese and salted meals. For milk and cheeses, it was very difficult to keep them fresh, so such foods were usually stored in a cellar or window box. In spite of those measures, they could not survive rapid spoilage. Later on, people discovered that adding such chemical as sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to water could lead to a lower temperature. In 1550 when this technique was first recorded, people used it to cool wine, as was the term ‘to refrigerate’. Cooling drinks grew very popular in Europe by 1600, particularly in Spain, France, and Italy. Instead of cooling water at night, people used a new technique: rotating long-necked bottles of water which held dissolved saltpeter. Thesolution was intended to create very low temperatures and even to make ice. By the end of the 17th century, iced drink including frozen juices and liquors tad become extremely fashionable in France. People’s demand for ice soon became strong. Consumers’ soaring requirement for fresh food, especially for green vegetables, resulted in reform in people’s dieting habits between 1830 and the American Civil War, accelerated by a drastic expansion of the urban areas arid the rapid amelioration in an economy of the populace. With the growth of the cities and towns, he distance between the consumer and the source of food was enlarged. In 1799s as a commercial product, ice was first transported out of Canal Street in New York City to Charleston, South Carolina. Unfortunately, this transportation was not successful because when the ship reached the destination, little ice left. Frederick Tudor and Nathaniel Wyeth, two New England’ businessmen, grasped the great potential opportunities for ice business and managed to improve the storage method of ice in the process of shipment. The acknowledged ‘Ice King’ in that time, Tudor concentrated his efforts on bringing he ice to the tropica1 areas. In order to achieve his goal and guarantee the ice to arrive at the destination safely he tried many insulating materials in an experiment and successfully constructed the ice containers, which reduce the ice loss from 66 per cent to less than 8 per cent at drastically. Wyeth invented an economical and speedy method to cut the ice into uniform blocks, which had a tremendous positive influence on the ice industry. Also, he improved the processing techniques for storing, transporting and distributing ice with less waste. When people realised that the ice transported from the distance was not as clean as previously thought and gradually caused many health problems, it was more demanding to seek the clean natural sources of ice. To make it worse, by the 1890s water pollution and sewage dumping made clean ice even more unavailable. The adverse effect first appeared in the blowing industry, and then seriously spread to such sectors as meat packing and dairy industries. As a result, the clean, mechanical refrigeration was considerately in need. Many inventors with creative ideas took part in the process of inventing refrigeration, and each version was built on the previous discoveries. Dr William Cullen initiated to study the evaporation of liquid under the vacuum conditions in 1720. He soon invented the first manmade refrigerator at the University of Glasgow in 1748 with the employment of ethyl ether boiling into a partial vacuum. American inventor Oliver Evans designed the refrigerator firstly using vapour rather than liquid in 1805. Although his conception was not put into practice in the end the mechanism was adopted by an American physician John Gorrie, who made one cooling machine similar to Evans' in 1842 with the purpose of reducing the temperature of the patient with yellow fever in a Florida hospital. Until 1851, Evans obtained the first patent for mechanical refrigeration in the USA. In 1820, Michael Faraday, a Londoner, first liquefied ammonia to cause cooling. In 1859, Ferdinand Carre from France invented the first version of the ammonia water cooling machine. In 1873, Carl von Linde designed the first practical and portable compressor refrigerator in Munich, and in 1876 he abandoned the methyl ether system and began using ammonia cycle. Linde later created a new method (‘Linde technique') for liquefying large amounts of air in 1894. Nearly a decade later, this mechanical refrigerating method was adopted subsequently by he meat packing industry in Chicago. Since 1840, cars with the refrigerating system had been utilised to deliver and distribute milk and butter. Until 1860, most seafood and dairy products were transported with coldchain logistics. In 1867, refrigerated, railroad cars are patented to J.B, Sutherland from Detroit, Michigan, who invented insulated cars by installing the ice bunkers at the end of the cars: air came in from the top, passed through the bunkers, circulated through the cars by gravity and controlled by different quantities of hanging flaps which caused different air temperatures. Depending on the cargo (such as meat, fruits etc.) transported by the cars, different car designs came into existence. In 1867, the first refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was manufactured by Parker Earle of Illinois, who shipped strawberries on the Illinois Central Railroad. Each chest was freighted with 100 pounds of ice and 200 quarts of strawberries. Until 1949, the trucking industry began to be equipped with the refrigeration system with a roof-mounted cooling device, invented by Fred Jones. From the late 1800s to 1929, the refrigerators employed toxic gases - methyl chloride, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide - as refrigerants. But in the 1920s, a great number of lethal accidents took place due to the leakage of methyl chloride out of refrigerators. Therefore, some American companies started to seek some secure methods of refrigeration. Frigidaire detected a new class of synthetic, refrigerants called halocarbons or CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) in 1928. this research led to the discovery of chlorofluorocarbons (Freon), which quickly became the prevailing material in compressor refrigerators. Freon was safer for the people in the vicinity, but in 1973 it was discovered to have detrimental effects on the ozone layer. After that, new improvements were made, and Hydrofluorocarbons, with no known harmful effects, was used in the cooling system. Simultaneously, nowadays, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFS) are no longer used; they are announced illegal in several places, making the refrigeration far safer than before.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Look at the following events and the list of dates below.
Match each event with the correct date, A-F.
List of Findings
A
1550
B
1799
C
1803
D
1840
E
1949
F
1973
1
Vehicles with refrigerator were used to transport on the road.
2
Ice was sold around the United States for the first time.
3
Some kind of chemical refrigerant was found harmful to the atmosphere.
4
The term ‘refrigerator’ was firstly introduced.
5
Some chemicals were added to refrigerate wine.
Question 6 - 10
Look at the following opinions or deeds and the list of people below.
Match each opinion or deed with the correct person, A-G.
List of Findings
A
Thomas Moore
B
Frederick Tudor
C
Carl Von Linde
D
Nathaniel Wyeth
E
J.B. Sutherland
F
Fred Jones
G
Parker Earle
6
patented the idia that refrigerating system can be installed on tramcars
7
invented an ice-cutting technical method that could save money and time
8
enabled the cold storage technology to be applied in fruit
9
invented a colling device applied into the trucking industry
10
created a new technique to liquefy the air
Question 11 - 14
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.
List of Endings
A
new developments, such as the application of Hydrofluorocarbons.
B
consumers ’ demand for fresh food, especially for vegetables.
C
the discovery of chlorofluorocarbons (Freon).
D
regional transportation system for refrigeration for a long distance.
E
extensive spread of the refrigeration method.
A healthy dietary change between 1830 and the American Civil War was greatly associated with
11
The development of urbanisation was likely to cause
12
Problems due to water treatment contributed to
13
The risk of the environmental devastation from the refrigeration led to
14

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mặc cả câu hỏi đã được paraphrase nhưng mình vẫn có thể dựa vào các cụm 'vehicles with refrigerator' + 'transport' để locate được info vì đó là các cụm paraphrase khá đơn giản

Tiếp đến, ta phân tích info + chọn đáp án:

 Since 1840 cars with the refrigerating system had been utilised to deliver and distribute milk and butter. 

  • cars = vehicles

  • refrigerating system = refrigerator

  • had been utilized to = were used to

  • deliver and distribute = transport

=> Since 1840, cars with refrigerator were used to transport

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2
B
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

  • 'ice was sold for the first time' -> tìm thông tin về việc ice trở thành sản phẩm được rao bán lần đầu tiên

  • 'around the United States' -> nghĩ về các địa điểm ở nước Mỹ (tên thành phố, bang, ...)

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine + xác định info

'ice was sold for the first time' -> 'as a commercial product, ice was first transported'

'around the United States' -> 'Canal Street in New York' + 'Charleston, South Caronlina'

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3
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu chỉ skim & scan, có khả năng khi đọc ở đoạn 2: "adding such chemical as sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to water could lead to a lower temperature"

=> Thấy có nhắc về việc chemical làm giảm nhiệt độ nước -> chemical refrigerant

=> Vội chọn A - 1550 -> Sai

(Vì không nói gì tới việc chemical có hại cho môi trường)





Dựa vào từ khóa 'chemical', ta thấy trong bài có tên hóa học 'chlorofluorocarbons (Freon)' và các từ 'harmful' + 'atmosphere'

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4
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Vì đây là bài nói về history of refrigeration, nên khi thấy câu hỏi đề cập tới thời gian mà khái niệm 'refrigerator' được introduced lần đầu

=> Ta biết ta phải tìm thông tin ở những đoạn đầu trong bài

=> Từ đó dễ dàng locate info vì các cụm paraphrase gần như là giống hết nhau





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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5
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dễ dàng locate info cần đọc với từ 'wine' + 'chemicals' + tên các chất hóa học

Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea

 1 People discovered that adding chemical to water could lead to a lower temperature.

 2 In 1550 when this technique was first recorded , people used it to cool wine  ,as was the term ‘to refrigerate’. 

 1 + 2 => Người ta khám phá ra kỹ thuật làm lạnh water bằng chemical, và bắt đầu áp dụng kỹ thuật này để cool wine vào năm 1550

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6
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nhớ xác định vị trí các tên riêng trước nha

Dựa vào từ khóa 'patent' + 'tramcars' , ta locate được info



Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc với Linearthinking



 In 1867 , refrigerated, railroad cars are patented to J.B, Sutherland 

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7
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nhớ xác định vị trí các tên riêng trước nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Wyeth invented an economical and speedy method to cut the ice into uniform block 

  • method to cut the ice = ice-cutting technical method

  • economical = save money

  • speedy = save time

=> Vậy Wyeth chính là người invent ra method dùng để cut ice giúp tiết kiệm money và time

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8
G
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nhớ xác định vị trí các tên riêng trước nha

Dựa vào từ 'fruit' ta dễ dàng locate được info





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

The first refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was manufactured by Parker Earle 

Xem full giải thích
9
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nhớ xác định vị trí các tên riêng trước nha

Với các cụm paraphrase giống hệt nhau, ta dễ dàng locate được info cần đọc





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The trucking industry began to be equipped with the refrigeration system with a roof-mounted cooling device,  invented by Fred Jones 

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10
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nhớ xác định vị trí các tên riêng trước nha

Dễ dàng locate đáp án với từ 'liquefy' + 'air'





Thấy tên riêng được nhắc đến là Linde và với các cụm paraphrasing sau:

  • created a new technique = created a new method

  • to liquefy the air = for liquefying large amounts of air

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11
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào số năm 1830 và sự kiện “American Civil War” sẽ dễ dàng locate được câu 2 đoạn 3



Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc của Linearthinking

 Consumers’ soaring requirement for fresh food, especially for green vegetables resulted in reform in people’s dieting habits between 1830 and the American Civil War 

=> S resulted in O 🡪 O là kết quả, S là nguyên nhân

=> O is associated with S (Nếu A be associated with B -> B là nguyên nhân gây ra A)

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12
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

  • Hiểu đáp án: Sự phát triển của đô thị hóa khả năng cao gây nên …

=> Suy ra đáp án chính là kết quả từ sự phát triển của đô thị hóa

  • Tìm info: Để trả lời được câu hỏi này cần tìm thông tin về urbanisation (sự đô thị hóa) 

=> Ta expect phần located info sẽ đề cập đến thành phố, thành thị (cities, urban areas,...) 🡪 Từ đó tìm được đoạn 3.

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13
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Những problems gây ra bởi water treatment góp phần dẫn đến …

=> Suy ra đáp án chính là kết quả của những problems từ water treatment

Dựa vào cụm “water treatment” 🡪 Từ đó tìm được đoạn 4.

        

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14
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án + tìm info

The risk of the environmental devastation from the refrigeration led to …

=> Đáp án là hệ quả của environmental devastation

Từ cụm 'environmental devastation' -> Ta nghĩ về các tác động xấu, tới môi trường, và các từ mang nghĩa tiêu cực

=> Từ đó tìm được 'lethal accidents' và locate được info

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Ancient People in Sahara
On Oct. 13, 2000, Paul Sereno, a professor from the University of Chicago, guided a team of palaeontologists to climb out of three broken Land Rovers, contented their water bottles and walked across the toffee-coloured desert called Tenere Desert. Tenere, one of the most barren areas on the Earth, is located on the southern flank of Sahara. According to the turbaned nomads Tuareg who have ruled this infertile domain for a few centuries, this California-size ocean of sand and rock is a ‘desert within a desert’. In the Tenere Desert, massive dunes might stretch a hundred miles, as far as the eyes can reach. In addition, 120-degree heat waves and inexorable winds can take almost all the water from a human body in less than a day. Mike Hettwer, a photographer in the team, was attracted by the amazing scenes and walked to several dunes to take photos of the amazing landscape. When reaching the first slope of the dune, he was shocked by the fact that the dunes were scattered with many bones. He photographed these bones with his digital camera and went to the Land Rover in a hurry. ‘I found some bones,’ Hettwer said to other group members, ‘to my great surprise, they do not belong to the dinosaurs. They are human bones.’ One day in the spring of 2005, Paul Sereno got in touch with Elena Garcea, a prestigious archaeologist at the University of Cassino in Italy, asking her to return to the site with him together. After spending 30 years in researching the history of Nile in Sudan and of the mountains in the Libyan Desert, Garcea got well acquainted with the life of the ancient people in Sahara. But she did not know Sereno before this exploration, whose claim of having found so many skeletons in Tenere desert was unreliable to some archaeologists, among whom one person considered Sereno just as a ‘moonlighting palaeontologist’. However, Garcea was so obsessive with his perspective as to accept his invitation willingly. In the following three weeks, Sereno and Garcea (along with five excavators, five Tuareg guides, and five soldiers from Niger’s army) sketched a detailed map of the destined site, which was dubbed Gobero after the Tuareg name for the area, a place the ancient Kiffian and Tuareg nomads used to roam. After that, they excavated eight tombs and found twenty pieces of artefacts for the above mentioned two civilisations. From these artefacts, it is evidently seen that Kiffian fishermen caught not only the small fish, but also some huge ones: the remains of Nile perch, a fierce fish weighing about 300 pounds, along with those of the alligators and hippos, were left in the vicinity of dunes. Sereno went back with some essential bones and artefacts, and planned for the next trip to the Sahara area. Meanwhile, he pulled out the teeth of skeletons carefully and sent them to a researching laboratory for radiocarbon dating. The results indicated that while the smaller ‘sleeping’ bones might date back to 6,000 years ago (well within the Tenerian period), the bigger compactly tied artefacts were approximately 9,000 years old, just in the heyday of Kiffian era. The scientists now can distinguish one culture from the other. In the fall of 2006, for the purpose of exhuming another 80 burials, these people had another trip to Gobero, taking more crew members and six extra scientists specializing in different areas. Even at the site, Chris Stojanowski, bio-archaeologist in Arizona State University, found some clues by matching the pieces. Judged from the bones, the Kiffian could be a people of peace and hardworking. ‘No injuries in heads or forearms indicate that they did not fight too much,’ he said. ‘And they had strong bodies.’ He pointed at a long narrow femur and continued, ‘From this muscle attachment, we could infer the huge leg muscles, which means this individual lived a strenuous lifestyle and ate much protein. Both of these two inferences coincide with the lifestyle of the people living on fishing.’ To create a striking contrast, he displayed a femur of a Tenerian male. This ridge was scarcely seen. ‘This individual had a less laborious lifestyle, which you might expect of the herder.’ Stojanowski concluded that the Tenerian were herders, which was consistent with the other scholars’ dominant view of the lifestyle in Sahara area 6,000 years ago, when the dry climate favoured herding rather than hunting. But Sereno proposed some confusing points: if the Tenerian was herders, where were the herds? Despite thousands of animal bones excavated in Gobero, only three cow skeletons were found, and none of goats or sheep found. ‘It is common for the herding people not to kill the cattle, particularly in a cemetery.’ Elena Garcea remarked, ‘Even the modem pastoralists such as Niger’s Wodaabe are reluctant to slaughter the animals in their herd.’ Sereno suggested, ‘Perhaps the Tenerian in Gobero were a transitional group that had still relied greatly on hunting and fishing and not adopted herding completely.’

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 15 - 18
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
15
The pictures of rock engravings found in Green Sahara is similar to those in other places.
16
Tenere Desert was quite a fertile area in Sahara Desert.
17
Hettwer found human remains in the desert by chance.
18
Sereno and Garcea have cooperated in some archaeological activities before studying ancient Sahara people.
Question 19 - 21
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
19
What did Sereno and Garcea produce in the initial weeks before digging work?
20
What did Sereno send to the research centre?
21
How old were the bigger tightly bundled burials having been identified estimated to be?
Question 22 - 27
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
A comparative study of two ancient cultures
The Kiffian
—They seemed to be peaceful and industrious since the reseacher did not find
22
on their heads and forearms.
—Their lifestyle was
23
.
—Through the observation on the huge leg muscles, it could be inferred that their diet had plenty of
24

The Tenerian
—Stojanowski presumed that the Tenerian preferred herding to
25
.
—But only the bones of individual animals such as
26
were found.
—Sereno supposed the Tenerian in Gobero lived in a
27
group at that time

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

15
Not Given
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Dạng bài True False Not Given sẽ đi theo thứ tự

=> Nếu không tìm được thông tin về câu này, có thể làm câu sau trước sau đó dựa vào đó để locate info của câu này



Tuy nhiên, dò tìm xuyên suốt bài cũng ko thấy có đề cập đến từ khóa Green Sahara.

=> Suy ra info trong câu hỏi này ko được đề cập trong bài

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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16
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + tìm info:

Không cần hiểu fertile là gì vẫn có thể hiểu đại ý câu hỏi:

Tenere Desert là 1 khu vực khá fertile nằm trong Sahara Desert

=> Dựa vào tên riêng Tenere Desert + Sahara Desert dễ dàng locate info nằm ở câu 2 đoạn 1.



Xem full giải thích
17
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

Cố gắng scan skim theo những keyword như by chance + human remains

=> Ko tìm được những keyword trên trong bài

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN -> Sai



Xem full giải thích
18
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + tìm info:

Sereno và Garcea đã từng hợp tác trong 1 vài archaeological activities trước khi nghiên cứu ancient Sahara people.

=> Dựa vào tên riêng Sereno và Garcea 🡪 locate được đoạn 3.



Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea

Xem full giải thích
19
a detailed map
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi & đáp án + tìm info

Sereno and Garcea tạo ra gì trong những tuần đầu tiên trước khi thực hiện việc đào bới?

=> Đáp án là 1 danh từ 

Dựa vào tên riêng “Sereno and Garcea” + cụm “in the initial weeks” sẽ locate được thông tin ở câu đầu tiên trong bài.



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20
the teeth/teeth of skeletons
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào tên riêng “Sereno” + từ “send” + “research centre” 🡪 locate được thông tin đoạn 5.



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 He pulled out the teeth of skeletons carefully and sent them to a researching laboratory 

=> Vậy thứ được sent to a researching laboratory chính là “them”, mà “them” là referencing cho danh từ số nhiều đứng trước đó: the teeth of skeletons

=> Suy ra, thứ được gửi đến researching laboratory (= research center) chính là the teeth of skeletons

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21
9000 years old
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi & đáp án + tìm info

Tightly bundled burials to hơn được ước lượng vào khoảng bao nhiêu tuổi?

=> Đáp án là cụm chỉ thời gian.

=> Dò tìm số năm trong bài ta sẽ locate được đoạn 5



Xem full giải thích
22
injuries
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là 1 danh từ - là thứ gì đó ko được tìm thấy trên heads and forearms của chủng người Kiffian.

Câu này hỏi về the Kiffian khoanh vùng đáp án nằm ở đoạn 6.

=> Dựa vào cụm “heads and forearms” có thể locate đáp án nằm ở câu 4 đoạn 6.



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23
strenuous
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào từ khóa lifestyle 🡪 có thể locate đáp án nằm ở câu 6 đoạn 6.



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 We could infer the huge leg muscles , which means this individual lived a strenuous lifestyle. 

=> Thi hài khai quật được có huge leg muscles 🡪 cho thấy individual thuộc chủng người Kiffian đã có “a strenuous lifestyle”

=> Vậy strenuous chính là từ miêu tả lifestyle của the Kiffian.

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24
protein
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là danh từ - là thứ có rất nhiều trong diet của the Kiffian.

'Diet' -> liên quan đến vấn đề ăn uống 🡪 có thể locate đáp án nằm ở câu 6 đoạn 6.



Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking



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25
hunting
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Stojanowski cho rằng the Tenerian thích herding hơn là [đáp án]

=> Đáp án có dạng V-ing (cấu trúc: prefer doing something to doing something else) 

Dựa vào tên riêng Stojanowski + từ khóa 'herding' 🡪 có thể locate đáp án nằm ở câu 1 đoạn 7.



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26
cows
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào các tên các loài động vật + cụm 'bones of individual animals' + 'were found' ta dễ dàng locate được info



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Despite thousands of animal bones excavated in Gobero , only three cow skeletons were found  , and none of goats or sheep found. 

=> Trong số thousands of animal bones tìm được: có 3 cow skeletons – không có goats or sheep

=> Vậy cows chính là 1 trong số những loài animal có bones được tìm thấy

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27
transitional
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào vị trí của chỗ trống, ta biết đáp án cần điền là một tính từ - mô tả group của người Tenerian in Gobero



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Tenerian in Gobero lived in a _____ group 

=> Đáp án có thể là danh từ/tính từ - bổ nghĩa cho group

Phân tích info: … the Tenerian in Gobero were a transitional group… 

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Texting the Television
A
A. Once upon a time, if a television show with any self-respect wanted to target a young audience, it needed to have an e-mail address. However, in Europe’s TV shows, such addresses are gradually substituted by telephone numbers so that audiences can text the show from their mobile phones. Therefore, it comes as no shock that according to Gartner’s research, texting has recently surpassed Internet usage across Europe. Besides, among the many uses of text messaging, one of the fastest-growing uses is to interact with television. The statistics provided by Gartner can display that 20% of French teenagers, 11% in Britain and 9% in Germany have responded to TV programmes by sending a text message.
B
B. This phenomenon can be largely attributed to the rapid growth of reality TV shows such as ‘Big Brother’, where viewers get to decide the result through voting. The majority of reality shows are now open to text-message voting, and in some shows like the latest series of Norway’s ‘Big Brother’, most votes are collected in this manner. But TV-texting isn’t just about voting. News shows encourage viewers to, comment by texting messages; game shows enable the audience to be part of the competition; music shows answer requests by taking text messages; and broadcasters set up on-screen chatrooms. TV audiences tend to sit on the sofa with their mobile phones right by their sides, and ‘it’s a supernatural way to interact.’ says Adam Daum of Gartner.
C
C. Mobile service providers charge appreciable rates for messages to certain numbers, which is why TV-texting can bring in a lot of cash. Take the latest British series of ‘Big Brother’ as an example. It brought about 5.4m text-message votes and £1.35m ($2,1m) of profit. In Germany, MTV’s ‘Videoclash’ encourages the audience to vote for one of two rival videos, and induces up to 40,000 texts per hour, and each one of those texts costs €0.30 ($0.29), according to a consultancy based in Amsterdam. The Belgian quiz show ‘1 Against 100’ had an eight-round texting match on the side, which brought in 110,000 participants in one month, and each of them paid €0.50 for each question. In Spain, a cryptic-crossword clue invites the audience to send their answers through text at the expense of €1, so that they can be enrolled in the poll to win a €300 prize. Normally, 6,000 viewers would participate within one day. At the moment, TV-related text messaging takes up a considerable proportion of mobile service providers’ data revenues. In July, Mm02 (a British operator) reported an unexpectedly satisfactory result, which could be attributed to the massive text waves created by ‘Big Brother’. Providers usually own 40%-50% of the profits from each text, and the rest is divided among the broadcaster, the programme producer and the company which supplies the message-processing technology. So far, revenues generated from text messages have been an indispensable part of the business model for various shows. Obviously, there has been grumbling that the providers take too much of the share. Endemol, the Netherlands-based production firm that is responsible for many reality TV, shows including ‘Big Brother’, has begun constructing its own database for mobile-phone users. It plans to set up a direct billing system with the users and bypass the providers.
D
D. How come the joining forces of television and text message turn out to be this successful? One crucial aspect is the emergence of one-of-a-kind four-, five- or six-digit numbers known as ‘short codes’. Every provider has control over its own short codes, but not until recently have they come to realise that it would make much more sense to work together to offer short codes compatible with all networks. The emergence of this universal short codes was a game-changer, because short codes are much easier to remember on the screen, according to Lars Becker of Flytxt, a mobile-marketing company.
E
E. Operators’ co-operation on enlarging the market is by a larger trend, observes Katrina Bond of Analysys, a consultancy. When challenged by the dilemma between holding on tight to their margins and permitting the emergence of a new medium, no provider has ever chosen the latter. WAP, a technology for mobile-phone users to read cut-down web pages on their screens, failed because of service providers’ reluctance towards revenue sharing with content providers. Now that they’ve learnt their lesson, they are altering the way of operating. Orange, a French operator, has come such a long way as to launch a rate card for sharing revenue of text messages, a new level of transparency that used to be unimaginable.
F
F. At a recent conference, Han Weegink of CMG, a company that offers the television market text-message infrastructure, pointed out that the television industry is changing in a subtle yet fundamental way. Instead of the traditional one-way presentation, more and more TV shows are now getting viewers’ reactions involved. Certainly, engaging the audiences more has always been the promise of interactive TV. An interactive TV was originally designed to work with exquisite set-top devices, which could be directly plugged into the TV. However, as Mr Daum points out, that method was flawed in many ways. Developing and testing software for multiple and incompatible types of set-top box could be costly, not to mention that the 40% (or lower) market penetration is below that of mobile phones (around 85%). What’s more, it’s quicker to develop and set up apps for mobile phones. ‘You can approach the market quicker, and you don’t have to go through as many greedy middlemen,’ Mr Daum says. Providers of set-top box technology are now adding texting function to the design of their products.
G
G. The triumph of TV-related texting reminds everyone in the business of how easily a fancy technology can all of a sudden be replaced by a less complicated, lower-tech method. That being said, the old-fashioned approach to interactive TV is not necessarily over; at least it proves that strong demands for interactive services still exist. It appears that the viewers would sincerely like to do more than simply staring at the TV screen. After all, couch potatoes would love some thumb exercises.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 28 - 32
Reading Passage 3 has seven sections, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for sections B-E and G from the list of headings below.
List of Headings
I
An application of short codes on the TV screen
II
An overview of a fast-growing business
III
The trend that profitable games are gaining more concerns
IV
Why Netherlands takes the leading role
V
A new perspective towards sharing the business opportunities
VI
Factors relevant to the rapid increase in interactive TV
VII
The revenue gains and bonus share
VIII
The possibility of the complex technology replaced by the simpler ones
IX
The mind change of set-top box providers
28
Paragraph B
29
Paragraph C
30
Paragraph D
31
Paragraph E
32
Paragraph G
Question 33 - 35
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
33
In Europe, a research hints that young audiences spend more money on
A
thumbing text messages.
B
writing e-mails.
C
watching TV programmes.
D
talking through mobile phones.
34
What would happen when reality TV shows invite the audience to vote?
A
Viewers would get attractive bonus.
B
They would be part of the competition.
C
Their questions would be replied.
D
Their participation could change the result.
35
Interactive TV will change from concentrating on set-top devices to
A
increasing their share in the market.
B
setting up a modified set-top box.
C
building an embedded message platform.
D
marching into the European market.
Question 36 - 40
Look at the following descriptions and the list of companies below.
Match each description with the correct company, A-F.
List of Findings
A
Flytxt
B
Analysys
C
Endemol
D
CMG
E
Mm02
F
Gartner
36
offered mobile phone message technology
37
earned considerable amount of money through a famous programme
38
expressed the view that short codes are convenient to remember when turning up
39
built their own mobile phone operating applications
40
indicated that it is easy for people to send message in an interactive TV

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

28
VI
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Cần dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để đơn giản hóa các câu và sâu chuỗi chúng lại:

Câu 1 + 2 : Cho biết từ đâu mà TV-texting trở nên phổ biến

Câu 3 + 4 : Các loại show khác (vd: news shows, game shows, music shows,...) cũng áp dụng text message với những cách riêng

Câu 5 : Kết luận – TV-texting là một cách rất tự nhiên để tương tác

=> Tóm lại đoạn này miêu tả các yếu tố dẫn đến sự phát triển nhanh chóng của interactive TV

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29
VII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Cần dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để đơn giản hóa các câu và sâu chuỗi chúng lại:

Câu 1 -> 7 : TV-texting mang đến a lot of cash (= revenue gains)

Câu 8 -> 11 : lợi nhuận từ text messages đc chia cho nhiều tổ chức (Providers, broadcaster, the programme producer and the company) (= bonus share); nhưng các nhà mạng chiếm phần lớn lợi nhuận

Câu 12 + 13 :  Vd về 1 công ty tự construct its own database để không phải dựa vào providers

=> Chọn VII - The revenue gains and bonus share



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30
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Cần dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để đơn giản hóa các câu và sâu chuỗi chúng lại:

Câu 1 : Đặt ra câu hỏi: Vì sao sự kết hợp giữa television và text message lại successful

Câu 2 : Trả lời cho câu 1 – do short codes

Câu 3 + 4 : đưa thêm thông tin về short codes

=>Tóm lại, short codes dẫn đến sự thành công của TV texting

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31
V
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Cần dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để đơn giản hóa các câu và sâu chuỗi chúng lại:

Câu 1 : sự hợp tác giữa các operators (=providers) trong việc mở rộng thị trường đang là trend

Câu 2 cho biết các providers luôn ưu tiên bám víu vào lợi nhuận hơn và điều này dẫn tới thất bại của WAP ở câu 3 

Câu 4 + 5 : Hiện tại, đã có thay đổi: có những operator chấp nhận share revenue

=> Tóm lại, có sự thay đổi trong cách nhìn nhận việc share revenue – trong quá khứ thì ko khả thi, hiện tại đã chấp nhận

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32
VIII
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Giải thích chi tiết



Cần dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để đơn giản hóa các câu và sâu chuỗi chúng lại:

Câu 1 : TV texting chứng minh rằng a fancy technology có thể đc thay thế bởi a lower-tech method

Câu 2 : Nhưng the old-fashioned approach (TV-texting) chưa hoàn toàn chấm dứt

Câu 3 + 4 : người xem muốn làm nhiều hơn là chỉ xem TV

=> Chọn VIII - The possibility of the complex technology replaced by the simpler ones



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33
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Xác định info trong bài

Mình cần nghe xem research chỉ ra rằng young audiences chi nhiều tiên hơn vào cái gì

Dựa vào các từ khóa “Europe” + “research” ta dễ dàng locate được info ở đoạn A.



Step 2: Phân tích info 

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34
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào các từ khóa “reality TV shows” + “vote” ta dễ dàng locate được info ở đoạn B.

Phân tích info + xác định đáp án:

...reality TV shows such as ‘Big Brother , where viewers get to decide the result  through voting. 

=> Trong reality TV shows, viewers có thể decide the result (=change the result) bằng việc vote

=> Quá rõ ràng đáp án là D



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35
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Xác định info trong bài

Dựa vào các từ khóa “Interactive TV” + “set-top devices” ta dễ dàng locate được info ở đoạn F.

Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking



Câu 1 đề cập tới việc interactive TV được thiết kế để work with set-top devices

Câu 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 nói về các flaws của set-top devices

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36
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info

Tìm company cung cấp công nghệ cho mobile phone message

=> Đoạn F nói về CMG có nhắc đến ý này.



Step 2: Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc của DOL's Linearthinking



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37
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info trong bài:

Tìm company: thu được 1 khoản tiền đáng kể từ một famous programme

=> Đoạn C nói về Mm02 có nhắc đến ý này



Step 2: Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc của Linearthinking



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38
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info trong bài:

Tìm company: thể hiện quan điểm rằng short codes tiện cho việc ghi nhớ hơn khi chúng xuất hiện

=> Đoạn D nói về Flytxt có nhắc đến ý này.



Step 2: Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc của Linearthinking



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39
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info trong bài:

Tìm company: xây dựng mobile phone applications riêng của họ

=> Đoạn C nói về Endemol có nhắc đến ý này.



Step 2: Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking để nắm main idea



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40
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info trong bài:

Tìm company cho thấy rằng rất dễ để mọi người send message cho interactive TV

=> Đoạn B nói về Gartner có nhắc đến ý này.



Step 2: Đọc connection với Linearthinking



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