Actual Test 6 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Actual Test 6 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Actual Test 6 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Actual Test 6 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Education Philosophy
A
A. Although we lack accurate statistics about child mortality in the pre-industrial period, we do have evidence that in the 1660s, the mortality rate for children who died within 14 days of birth was as much as 30 per cent. Nearly all families suffered some premature death. Since all parents expected to bury some of their children, they found it difficult to invest in their newborn children. Moreover, to protect themselves from the emotional consequences of children’s death, parents avoided making any emotional commitment to an infant. It is no wonder that we find mothers leave their babies in gutters or refer to the death in the same paragraph with reference to pickles.
B
B. The 18th century witnessed the transformation from an agrarian economy to an industrial one, one of the vital social changes taking place in the Western world. An increasing number of people moved from their villages and small towns to big cities where life was quite different. Social supports which had previously existed in smaller communities were replaced by ruthless problems such as poverty, crime, substandard housing and disease. Due to the need for additional income to support the family, young children from the poorest families were forced into early employment and thus their childhood became painfully short. Children as young as 7 might be required to work full-time, subjected to unpleasant and unhealthy circumstances, from factories to prostitution. Although such a role has disappeared in most wealthy countries, the practice of childhood employment still remains a staple in underdeveloped countries and rarely disappeared entirely.
C
C. The lives of children underwent a drastic change during the 1800s in the United States. Previously, children from both rural and urban families were expected to participate in everyday labour due to the bulk of manual hard working. Nevertheless, thanks to the technological advances of the mid-1800s, coupled with the rise of the middle class and redefinition of roles of family members, work and home became less synonymous over time. People began to purchase toys and books for their children. When the country depended more upon machines, children in rural and urban areas, were less likely to be required to work at home. Beginning from the Industrial Revolution and rising slowly over the course of the 19th century, this trend increased exponentially after civil war. John Locke, one of the most influential writers of his period, created the first clear and comprehensive statement of the ‘environmental position’ that family education determines a child’s life, and via this, he became the father of modem learning theory. During the colonial period, his teachings about child care gained a lot of recognition in America.
D
D. According to Jean Jacques Rousseau, who lived in an era of the American and French Revolution, people were ‘noble savages’ in the original state of nature, meaning they are innocent, free and uncorrupted. In 1762, Rousseau wrote a famous novel Emile to convey his educational philosophy through a story of a boy’s education from infancy to adult-hood. This work was based on his extensive observation of children and adolescents, their individuality, his developmental theory and on the memories of his own childhood. He contrasts children with adults and describes their age-specific characteristics in terms of historical perspective and developmental psychology. Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi, living during the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, sought to develop schools to nurture children’s all-round development. He agreed with Rousseau that humans are naturally good but were spoiled by a corrupt society. His approach to teaching consists of the general and special methods, and his theory was based upon establishing an emotionally healthy homelike learning environment, which had to be in place before more specific instructions occurred.
E
E. One of the best-documented cases of Pestalozzi’s theory concerned a so-called feral child named Victor, who was captured in a small town in the south of France in 1800. Prepubescent, mute, naked, and perhaps 11 or 12 years old, Victor had been seen foraging for food in the gardens of the locals in the area and sometimes accepted people’s direct offers of food before his final capture. Eventually, he was brought to Paris and expected to answer some profound questions about the nature of human, but that goal was quashed very soon. A young physician Jean Marc Gaspard Itard was optimistic about the future of Victor and initiated a five-year education plan to civilise him and teach him to speak. With a subsidy from the government, Itard recruited a local woman Madame Guerin to assist him to provide a semblance of a home for Victor, and he spent an enormous amount of time and effort working with Victor. Itard’s goal to teach Victor the basics of speech could never be fully achieved, but Victor had learnt some elementary forms of communication.
F
F. Although other educators were beginning to recognise the simple truth embedded in Rousseau’s philosophy, it is not enough to identify the stages of children’s development alone. There must be certain education which had to be geared towards those stages. One of the early examples was the invention of kindergarten, which was a word and a movement created by a German-born educator, Friedrich Froebel in 1840. Froebel placed a high value on the importance of play in children’s learning. His invention would spread around the world eventually in a verity of forms. Froebel’s ideas were inspired through his cooperation with Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. Froebel didn’t introduce the notion of kindergarten until 58 years old, and he had been a teacher for four decades. The notion was a haven and a preparation for children who were about to enter the regimented educational system. The use of guided or structured play was a cornerstone of his kindergarten education because he believed that play was the most significant aspect of development at this time of life. Play served as a mechanism for a child to grow emotionally and to achieve a sense of self-worth. Meanwhile, teachers served to organize materials and a structured environment in which each child, as an individual, could achieve these goals. When Froebel died in 1852, dozens of kindergartens had been created in Germany. Kindergartens began to increase in Europe, and the movement eventually reached and flourished in the United States in the 20th century.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Reading Passage 1 has six paragraphs, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A and C-E from the list of headings below.
List of Headings
I
The inheritance and development of educational concepts of different thinkers
II
Why children had to work to alleviate the burden on family
III
Why children are not highly valued
IV
The explanation for children dying in hospital at their early age
V
The first appearance of modem educational philosophy
VI
The application of a creative learning method on a wild kid
VII
The emergence and spread of the notion of kindergarten
1
Paragraph A
2
Paragraph C
3
Paragraph D
4
Paragraph E
5
Paragraph F
Question 6 - 9
Look at the following events and the list of dates below.
Match each event with the correct date, A, B or C.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
List of Findings
A
the 18th century (1700-1799)
B
the 19th century (1800-1899)
C
the 20th century (1900-1999)
6
the need for children to work
7
the rise of the middle class
8
the emergence of a kindergarten
9
the spread of kindergartens around the U.S.
Question 10 - 14
Look at the following opinions or deeds and the list of people below.
Match each opinion or deed with the correct person, A, B, C or D.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
List of Findings
A
Jean Jacques Rousseau
B
Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi
C
Jean Marc Gaspard Itard
D
Friedrich Froebel
10
was not successful to prove the theory
11
observed children’s records
12
requested a study setting with emotional comfort firstly
13
proposed that corruption was not a characteristic in people’s nature
14
was responsible for an increase in the number of a type of school

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
III
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan & skim



Scan thấy trong đoạn có các cụm từ nói đến cái chết của children như: children who died within 14 days of birth + premature death + children’s death

=> Vội chọn heading IV - The explanation for children dying in hospital at their early age 

=> Tuy nhiên đoạn này chỉ đề cập đến children’s death mà ko giải thích lý do vì sao; và cũng ko nhắc gì đến hospital

=> Sai

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2
V
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Giải thích chi tiết



Cần dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để đơn giản hóa các câu và sâu chuỗi chúng lại:

Câu 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 : có sự thay đổi trong the lives of children: trước đây children phải work; nhưng sau này thì ít cần.

Câu 7 + 8 : Nhờ vào quan điểm về family education đối với children, John Locke trở thành người dẫn đầu trong modem learning theory; những theory của ông trở nên nổi tiếng

=> Tóm lại đoạn này miêu tả thay đổi trong the lives of children và giới thiệu người dẫn đầu trong modem learning theory

=> Chọn V - The first appearance of modem educational philosophy



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3
I
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để tìm connection và nắm main idea

Câu 1 -> 4 : Quan điểm về education của Jean Jacques Rousseau

Câu 5 -> 7 : Quan điểm về education của Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi và việc ông ấy đồng tình với các quan điểm của Jean

=> Tóm lại đoạn này đưa ra quan điểm về education của 2 người khác nhau, và Johan kế thừa các quan điểm của Jean

=> Chọn I - The inheritance and development of educational concepts of different thinkers



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4
VI
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Cần dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để đơn giản hóa các câu và sâu chuỗi chúng lại:

Câu 1 + 2 : Giới thiệu về case + background info của a child named Victor.

=> Victor bị mute, naked, và phải foraging for food

=> Nếu ko hiểu mute và foraging là gì vẫn có thể dựa vào từ naked (khỏa thân) + V-ing for food (phải làm gì đó để có thức ăn) 🡪 Suy ra Victor là a wild child

Câu 3 : Victor được đem đến Paris

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5
NaN
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Giải thích chi tiết



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6
A
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Ta cần tìm cột mốc cho thời điểm trẻ em vẫn còn bị bắt làm việc

=> Thấy đoạn B có thông tin cần tìm với các cụm 'young children' +'be required to work full time'





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 1 Due to the need for additional income to support the family , young children were forced into early employment 

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7
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ta tìm được cụm exact paraphrasing 'the rise of middle class' ở câu 2 đoạn C



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 thanks to the technological advances of the mid-1800s , coupled with the rise of the middle class ...

=> Ta có cấu trúc: thanks to A, coupled with B = thanks to A and B

=> Mà mốc thời gian cho technological advances là mid-1800s

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8
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể dễ dàng locate được info vì chỉ có đoạn F là nói về 'kindergarten'

Nếu bạn không hiểu từ 'emergence' là gì cũng không sao, mục tiêu của mình ở câu này là tìm được mốc thời gian





Dựa vào located info, ta có: invention of kindergarten was created by a... in 1840

=> Kindergarten được tạo ra vào thể kỷ 19

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9
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Dựa vào từ khóa 'kindergartens' và 'the U.S', ta có thể dễ dàng locate được info



Sau khi simplify info, ta có:

 Kindergarten flourished in the United States in the 20th century

=> So sánh với các cụm paraphrasing phía trên, ta rút ra được kindergartens phát triển mạnh ở US vào 20th century

=> Chọn C

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10
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Ở phần này các bạn nên locate vị trí các tên riêng trước sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha

Ta có thể locate được info dựa vào cụm "not successful" (= could never be fully achieved) và biết được đoạn này nói về Jean Marc Gaspard Itard





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Itard recruited a woman to assist him to provide a semblance of a home for Victor , and he spent an enormous amount of time and effort working with Victor

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11
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'observed children's records', ta dễ dàng locate được info

Áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc cấu trúc và connection

 1 Rousseau wrote a famous novel to convey his educational philosophy

 2 This work was based on his extensive observation of children and adolescents

=> Novel mà Rousseau viết được dựa trên observation of children and adolescents

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12
B
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan & skim



Thấy câu trước đó có nhắc đến tên Rousseau

=> Vội chọn Rousseau

=> Tuy nhiên Rousseau chỉ được nhắc đến để so sánh với quan điểm của Johan-> Sai





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13
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan & skim



Đoạn D khi nói về Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi: “He agreed with Rousseau that humans are naturally good but were spoiled by a corrupt society.”

=> Thấy có keyword corrupt và cụm naturally good = corruption was not a characteristic

=> Vội chọn B - Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi -> Sai



=> Cần tìm người proposed (đề xuất ra) lý thuyết trên, còn Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi chỉ là người đồng quan điểm (agreed with)

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14
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Xác định info

Dựa vào cụm 'a type of school' + 'an increase in the number', ta locate được info ở đoạn F, nói về Froebel

Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea



 1  the invention of kindergarten was created by Friedrich Froebel 

 2  Kindergartens began to increase in Europe , and eventually reached and flourished in the United States .

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

How deserts are formed?
A
A. A desert refers to a barren section of land, mainly in arid and semi-arid areas, where there is almost no precipitation, and the environment is hostile for any creature to inhabit. Deserts have been classified in a number of ways, generally combining total precipitation, how many days the rainfall occurs, temperature, humidity, and sometimes additional factors. In some places, deserts have clear boundaries marked by rivers, mountains or other landforms, while in other places, there are no clear-cut borders between desert and other landscape features.
B
B. In arid areas where there is not any covering of vegetation protecting the land, sand anddust storms will frequently take place. This phenomenon often occurs along the desert margins instead of within the deserts, where there are already no finer materials left. When a steady wind starts to blow, fine particles on the open ground will begin vibrating. As the wind picks up, some of the particles are lifted into the air. When they fall onto the ground, they hit other particles which will then be jerked into the air in their turn, initiating a chain reaction.
C
C. There has been a tremendous deal of publicity on how severe desertification can be, but the academic circle has never agreed on the causes of desertification. A common misunderstanding is that a shortage of precipitation causes the desertification— even the land in some barren areas will soon recover after the rain falls. In fact, more often than not, human activities are responsible for desertification. It might be true that the explosion in world population, especially in developing countries, is the primary cause of soil degradation and desertification. Since the population has become denser, the cultivation of crops has gone into progressively drier areas. It’s especially possible for these regions to go through periods of severe drought, which explains why crop failures are common. The raising of most crops requires the natural vegetation cover to be removed first; when crop failures occur, extensive tracts of land are devoid of a plant cover and thus susceptible to wind and water erosion. All through the 1990s, dryland areas went through a population growth of 18.5 per cent, mostly in severely impoverished developing countries.
D
D. Livestock farming in semi-arid areas accelerates the erosion of soil and becomes one of the reasons for advancing desertification. In such areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses, the breeding of livestock is a major economic activity. Grasses are necessary for anchoring barren topsoil in a dryland area. When a specific field is used to graze an excessive herd, it will experience a loss in vegetation coverage, and the soil will be trampled as well as be pulverised, leaving the topsoil exposed to destructive erosion elements such as winds and unexpected thunderstorms. For centuries, nomads have grazed their flocks and herds to any place where pasture can be found, and oases have offered chances for a more settled way of living. For some nomads, wherever they move to, the desert follows.
E
E. Trees are of great importance when it comes to maintaining topsoil and slowing down the wind speed. In many Asian countries, firewood is the chief fuel used for cooking and heating, which has caused uncontrolled clear-cutting of forests in dryland ecosystems. When too many trees are cut down, windstorms and dust storms tend to occur.
F
F. What’s worse, even political conflicts and wars can also contribute to desertification. To escape from the invading enemies, the refugees will move altogether into some of the most vulnerable ecosystems on the planet. They bring along their cultivation traditions, which might not be the right kind of practice for their new settlement.
G
G. In the 20th century, one of the states of America had a large section of farmland that had turned into desert. Since then, actions have been enforced so that such a phenomenon of desertification will not happen again. To avoid the reoccurring of desertification, people shall find other livelihoods which do not rely on traditional land uses, are not as demanding on local land and natural resource, but can still generate viable income. Such livelihoods include but are not limited to dryland aquaculture for the raising of fish, crustaceans and industrial compounds derived from microalgae, greenhouse agriculture, and activities that are related to tourism. Another way to prevent the reoccurring of desertification is bringing about economic prospects in the city centres of drylands and places outside drylands. Changing the general economic and institutional structures that generate new chances for people to support themselves would alleviate the current pressures accompanying the desertification processes.
H
H. In nowadays society, new technologies are serving as a method to resolve the problems brought by desertification. Satellites have been utilised to investigate the influence that people and livestock have on our planet Earth. Nevertheless, it doesn’t mean that alternative technologies are not needed to help with the problems and process of desertification.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 15 - 21
Reading Passage 2 has eight paragraphs, A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
NB You may use any letter more than once.
15
a reference to the irregular movement of particles
16
mention of a productive land turning into a desert in the 20th century
17
types of deserts
18
mention of technical methods used to tackle the problems of deserts
19
the influence of migration on desertification
20
lack of agreement among the scientists about the causes of desertification
21
a description of the fatal effects of farming practice
Question 22 - 27
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
22
It is difficult to ascertain where the deserts end in some areas.
23
Media is uninterested in the problems of desertification.
24
The most common cause of desertification is the lack of rainfall.
25
Farming animals in semi-arid areas will increase soil erosion.
26
People in Asian countries no longer use firewood as the chief fuel.
27
Technology studying the relationship of people, livestock and desertification has not yet been invented.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

15
B
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking



Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc

=> có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Imagine thứ cần tìm + xác định info trong bài:

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16
G
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Dựa vào cụm 'in the 20th century' sẽ locate được đoạn G.

Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea



Đoạn này nhắc đến 1 sự kiện ở 20th century: one of the states of America had a large section of farmland turned into desert 

=> farmland = land for farming 🡪 Đây chính là 1 loại productive land nơi có tiềm năng trồng trọt và nó bị turned into desert

=> Tóm lại, dễ dàng nhận ra ý này chính là info cần tìm -> Chọn G



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17
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan & skim:

Cố gắng scan skim tìm keyword “type” 

=> Không có keyword “type” trong bài -> Không tìm được info



2. Ta áp dụng Linearthinking để simplify và nắm main idea



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18
H
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking



Step 1: Dựa vào cụm 'tackle the problems of deserts' + 'technical methods' ta locate được info

Step 2: Phân tích info

 1 new technologies are serving as a method to resolve the problems  by desertification .

 2 Satellites have been utilised to investigate the influence that people and livestock have on our planet Earth. 

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19
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan & skim:

Cố gắng scan skim tìm keyword “migration” 

=> Không có keyword “migration” trong bài

=> Không tìm được info 





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20
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: lack of agreement among the scientists about the causes of desertification 

=> Sự bất đồng - giữa scientist - về cause of desertification

Phân tích info: the academic circle has never agreed on the causes of desertification

=> Trong trường hợp không hiểu 'academic circle' là gì cũng không sao, ta biết nó đóng vai trò là chủ ngữ

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21
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

=> Cố gắng scan skim tìm keyword “fatal effects” + “farming practice”

=> Ko tìm thấy trong bài 🡪 Ko tìm được info 



2. Với Linearthinking



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22
True
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Hạn chế khi chỉ skim & scan:

Scan thấy có cụm “deserts have clear boundaries” ngược với câu hỏi

=> Vội chọn TRUE -> Sai



=> Cần đọc hiểu main idea cả câu thay vì chỉ tập trung vào cụm này



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23
False
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + tìm info:

Truyền thông không interested với problems of desertification

Vậy để trả lời được câu này, cần tìm trong bài thông tin liên quan đến thái độ của truyền thông đối với desertification

=> Tìm được đoạn C có nhắc đến publicity (sự chú ý từ truyền thông).



Xem full giải thích
24
False
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ta áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc connection và nắm main idea

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + tìm info:

Nguyên nhân phổ biến nhất của desertification chính là việc thiếu rainfall.

=> Dựa vào các cụm từ 'causes the desertification' + 'the primary cause of desertification', ta locate được info



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25
True
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể dễ dàng locate đáp án với các cụm 'farming animals' + 'in semi-arid areas' + 'soil erosion'

Sau đó ta phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Nếu hiểu nghĩa livestock và accelerate thì dễ dàng nhận ra info trong đoạn D trùng khớp với câu hỏi

=> Chọn TRUE





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26
False
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'in Asian countries' + 'firewood' + 'chief fuel', ta dễ dàng locate được info

Phân tích info, ta có:

 In many Asian countries , firewood is the chief fuel used for cooking and heating which...

=> Firewood là chief fuel dùng cho cooking và heating

=> Trái ngược với câu hỏi 'no longer use firewood as the chief fuel'

Xem full giải thích
27
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể locate được đáp án nhờ vào keyword 'technology', chỉ có đoạn H đề cập tới technology

Áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc connection và nắm main idea

 1 nowadays , technologies are serving as a method to resolve problems by desertification. 

 2 Satellites have been utilised to investigate the influence that people and livestock have on Earth. 

=> Câu 2 là ví dụ để bổ sung ý của câu 1 

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

The Olympic Torch
Since 776 B.C., when the Greek people held their first-ever Olympic Games, the Games were hosted every four years at the Olympia city. Back then, a long journey for the Olympic torch was made before the opening ceremony of each Olympic Games. The Greek people would light a cauldron of flames on the altar, a ritual devoted to Hera, the Greek Goddess of birth and marriage. The reintroduction of flame to the Olympics occurred at the Amsterdam 1928 Games, for which a cauldron was lit yet without a torch relay. The 1936 Berlin Summer Games held the first Olympic torch relay, which was not resumed in the Winter Olympics until in 1952. However, in that year the torch was lit not in Olympia, Greece, but in Norway, which was considered as the birthplace of skiing. Until the Innsbruck 1964 Winter Olympics in Austria, the Olympic flame was reignited at Olympia. The torch is originally an abstract concept of a designer or groups of designers. A couple of design groups hand in their drafts to the Olympic Committee in the hope that they would get the chance to create the torch. The group that wins the competition will come up with a design for a torch that has both aesthetic and practical value. After the torch is completed, it has to succeed in going through all sorts of severe weather conditions. The appearance of the modem Olympic torch is attributed to a Disney artist John Hench, who designed the torch for the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, California. His design laid a solid foundation for all the torches in the future. The long trip to the Olympic area is not completed by one single torch, but by thousands of them, so the torch has to be replicated many times. Approximately 10,000 to 15,000 torches are built to fit thousands of runners who take the torches through every section of the Olympic relay. Every single runner can choose to buy his or her torch as a treasurable souvenir when he or she finishes his or her part of the relay. The first torch in the modem Olympics (the 1936 Berlin Games) was made from a slender steel rod with a circular platform at the top and a circular hole in the middle to jet flames. The name of the runner was also inscribed on the platform as a token of thanks. In the earlier days, torches used everything from gunpowder to olive oil as fuels. Some torches adopted a combination of hexamine and naphthalene with a flammable fluid. However, these materials weren’t exactly the ideal fuel sources, and they could be quite hazardous sometimes. In the 1956 Olympics, the torch in the final relay was ignited by magnesium and aluminium, but some flaming pieces fell off and seared the runner’s arms. To promote the security rate, liquid fuels made its first appearance at the 1972 Munich Games. Since then, torches have been using fuels which are pressurised into the form of a liquid. When the fuels are burnt, they turn into gas to produce a flame. Liquid fuel becomes safer for the runner and can be stored in a light container. The torch at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympics is equipped with an aluminium base that accommodates a tiny fuel tank. As the fuel ascends through the modified handle, it is squeezed through a brass valve that has thousands of little openings. As the fuel passes through the tiny openings, it accumulates pressure. Once it makes its way through the openings, the pressure decreases and the liquid becomes gas so it can bum up. The torch in 1996 was fuelled by propylene, a type of substance that could give out a bright flame. However, since propylene was loaded with carbon, it would produce plenty of smoke which was detrimental to the environment. In 2000, the designers of the Sydney Olympic torch proposed a lighter and cheaper design, which was harmless to the environment. For the fuel, they decided to go with a combination of 35 per cent propane (a gas that is used for cooking and heating) and 65 per cent butane (a gas that is obtained from petroleum), thus creating a powerful flame without generating much smoke. Both the 1996 and 2000 torches adopted a double flame burning system, enabling the flames to stay lit even in severe weather conditions. The exterior flame bums at a slower rate and at a lower temperature. It can be perceived easily with its big orange flame, but it is unstable. On the other hand, the interior flame bums faster and hotter, generating a small blue flame with great stability, due to the internal site offering protection of it from the wind. Accordingly, the interior flame would serve as a pilot light, which could relight the external flame if it should go out. As for the torch of 2002 Olympics in Salt Lake City, the top section was made of glass in which the flame burned, for the purpose of echoing the theme of ‘Light the Fire Within’ of that Olympics. This torch was of great significance for the following designs of the torches.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 28 - 30
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
The Olympic torch, as requested by the Olympic Committee, will be carefully designed so that it is capable of withstanding all kinds of
28
. Generally, the design of the modern Olympic torch enjoys the
29
value.  The torch must be copied, and thousands of torches are constructed to accommodate thousands of runners who will carry them through each leg of the Olympic relay. Each runner has an opportunity to purchase the torch as a(n)
30
at the end of his or her leg of the relay.
Question 31 - 36
Look at the following statements and the list of Olympic torches below.
Match each statement with the correct Olympic torch, A-H.
List of Findings
A
ancient Greek Olympic flames
B
Berlin Games torch (1936)
C
1952 Winter Games flame
D
1956 Games torch
E
Munich Games torch (1972)
F
1996 torch (Atlanta)
G
2000 torch (Sydney)
H
2002 torch (Salt Lake City)
31
first liquid fuel
32
not environmentally friendly
33
beginning to record the runners’ name
34
potentially risky as it burnt the runner’s arms
35
special for a theme of ‘Light’
36
not lit in Greek
Question 37 - 41
Label the diagram below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
i-resizable-alignable
37
38
39
40
41

coated by an aluminium base
a brass valve with many small

Pressurised fuel rises from the improved

the liquid fuel. In 2000, it was a mixture of
stored in
burning system of a


🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

28
severe weather conditions
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là 1 danh từ - the Olympic torch phải có khả năng chịu đựng tất cả các loại của thứ này

=> Dựa vào tên riêng 'the Olympic Committee' sẽ dễ dàng locate được đoạn 3.



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Xem full giải thích
29
aesthetic and practical
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là tính từ - miêu tả về value của the design of the modern Olympic torch

Dựa vào từ 'value' + cụm 'design of the modern Olympic torch' sẽ locate được đoạn 3.



Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking



Xem full giải thích
30
(treasurable) souvenir
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Mỗi runner có thể mua the torch như là một __________ lúc kết thúc leg of the relay => Đáp án là danh từ.

=> Dựa vào cụm 'every single runner' + 'can' + 'buy his or her torch' + 'relay', ta dễ dàng locate được info



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Xem full giải thích
31
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dễ dàng locate được thông tin với cụm 'liquid fuel' và từ 'first'



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 liquid fuels made its first appearance at the 1972 Munich Games 

=> liquid fuels xuất hiện lần đầu tiên vào the 1972 Munich Games 

=> first liquid fuel diễn ra tại the 1972 Munich Games 

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32
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta dễ dàng locate được đáp án qua từ 'environment' vì cũng chỉ có 1 đoạn trong bài là đề cập tới environment



Áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc connection giữa 2 câu:

 1 The torch in 1996 was fuelled by propylene 

 2 However , it  would produce plenty of smoke which was detrimental to the environment.

=> Torch in 1996 thì được đốt bởi propylene, chất này was detrimental to the environment

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33
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể dễ dàng locate được info qua cụm 'runners' name' (=the name of the runner)



Khi thấy nhắc đến 'The torch in the 1936 Berlin Games', ta đọc được:

 The name of the runner was also inscribed on the platform 

=> Runner's name was recorded by being inscribed on the platform

=> Torch in the 1936 Berlin Games lưu lại runners’ name

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34
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'the runner's arms' ta có thể locate được info



Ta simplify info để nắm main idea dễ hơn:

 In the 1956 Olympics , some flaming pieces fell off and seared the runner’s arms 

=> Nếu không biết 'seared' đồng nghĩa với 'burnt' thì ta vẫn đoán được nghĩa qua hình ảnh 'flaming piece fell off'

=> Lửa từ đuốc rớt xuống chắc chắn sẽ nguy hiểm ảnh hưởng tới người cầm đuốc

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35
H
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta locate được info dựa vào từ khóa 'theme of 'Light''



Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

 As for the torch of 2002 Olympics in Salt Lake City the top section....  for the purpose of echoing the theme of ‘Light the Fire Within’ of that Olympics. 

=> Torch này đặc biệt dành cho chủ đề ‘Light’

=> Đáp án là H



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36
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Phân tích info + chọn đáp án



Nếu không đọc hiểu ý có thể chọn nhầm đáp án B- Berlin Games torch (1936), do trong located info cũng có nhắc đến the 1936 Berlin Summer Games.

=> Tuy nhiên, 1936 Berlin Summer Games chắc chắn diễn ra ở Berlin (Đức) - chứ không phảiNorway 🡪 Loại B







Ngoài ra có thể dựa vào cụm “in that year”. Cụm này sẽ là referencing ám chỉ cho năm 1952 ngay trước đó 

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37
(a/tiny) fuel tank
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng bài diagram completion, đầu tiên nên đọc title của diagram để xem có thể khoanh vùng đáp án nằm ở đoạn nào

=> Title diagram là “The structure of the 1996 and 2000 Olympic torches” 

=> Dựa vào năm 1996 và 2000 dễ dàng khoanh vùng đáp án nằm ở đoạn 7+8+9

=> Sau đó dựa vào cụm 'aluminum base' sẽ locate được thông tin ở đoạn 7



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38
openings
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info

Đáp án là 1 danh từ/cụm danh từ số nhiều (đứng sau many) - là  thứ gì đó small và thuộc về brass valve.

=> Sau đó dựa vào cụm brass valve sẽ locate được thông tin ở đoạn 7.



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Xem full giải thích
39
handle
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Located info cho biết: fuel ascends  through the modified handle 

=> Nếu hiểu được ascend = rise và modified = improved thì quá rõ ràng đáp án chính là handle

=> Nếu ko thì có thể dựa vào cấu trúc:

  • Câu hỏi: fuel +V+ from the +adj + đáp án

  • Info: fuel + V + through the + adj + handle<N>

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40
propane and butane
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào con số '2000' + từ 'fuel' + 'mixture', ta dễ dàng locate được đáp án





Ta thấy đáp án theo sau 'a mixture of'

=> Tìm được cụm paraphrase của nó là ' a combination of'

=> So sánh với bài đọc ta thấy: a combination of 35 per cent propane and 65 per cent butane

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41
double flame
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'burner system', ta sẽ locate được thông tin



Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

 1996 and 2000 torches adopted a double flame burning system , enabling the flames... 

=> 1996 and 2000 torches sử dụng a double flame burning system

=> Burning system of a double flame

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