When Conversations Flow IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage When Conversations Flow được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS - Test 3 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
When Conversations Flow IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

When Conversations Flow
We spend a large part of our daily life talking with other people and, consequently, we are very accustomed to the art of conversing. But why do we feel comfortable in conversations that have flow, but get nervous and distressed when a conversation is interrupted by unexpected silences? To answer this question we will first look at some of the effects of conversational flow. Then we will explain how flow can serve different social needs. The positive consequences of conversational flow show some similarities with the effects of ‘processing fluency’. Research has shown that processing fluency the ease with which people process information influences people’s judgments across a broad range of social dimensions. For instance, people feel that when something is easily processed, it is more true or accurate. Moreover, they have more confidence in their judgments regarding information that came to them fluently, and they like things that are easy to process more than things that are difficult to process. Research indicates that a speaker is judged to be more knowledgeable when they answer questions instantly; responding with disfluent speech markers such as ‘uh’ or ‘urn or simply remaining silent for a moment too long can destroy that positive image. One of the social needs addressed by conversational flow is the human need for ‘synchrony’ to be ‘in sync’ or in harmony with one another. Many studies have shown how people attempt to synchronize with their partners, by coordinating their behavior. This interpersonal coordination underlies a wide array of human activities, ranging from more complicated ones like ballroom dancing to simply walking or talking with friends. In conversations, interpersonal coordination is found when people adjust the duration of their utterances and their speech rate to one another so that they can enable turn-taking to occur, without talking over each other or experiencing awkward silences. Since people are very well trained in having conversations, they are often able to take turns within milliseconds, resulting in a conversational flow of smoothly meshed behaviors. A lack of flow is characterized by interruptions, simultaneous speech or mutual silences. Avoiding these features is important for defining and maintaining interpersonal relationships. The need to belong has been identified as one of the most basic of human motivations and plays a role in many human behaviors. That conversational flow related to belonging may be most easily illustrated by the consequences of flow disruptions. What happens when the positive experience of flow is disrupted by, for instance, a brief silence? We all know that silences can be pretty awkward, and research shows that even short disruptions in conversational flow can lead to a sharp rise in distress levels. In movies, silences are often used to signal noncompliance or confrontation (Piazza, 2006). Some researchers even argue that ‘silencing someone’ is one of the most serious forms of exclusion. Group membership is of elementary importance to our wellbeing and because humans are very sensitive to signals of exclusion, a silence is generally taken as a sign of rejection. In this way, a lack of flow in a conversation may signal that our relationship is not as solid as we thought it was. Another aspect of synchrony is that people often try to validate their opinions to those of others. That is, people like to see others as having similar ideas or worldviews as they have themselves, because this informs people that they are correct and their worldviews are justified. One way in which people can justify their worldviews is by assuming that, as long as their conversations run smoothly, their interaction partners probably agree with them. This idea was tested by researchers using video observations. Participants imagined being one out of three people in a video clip who had either a fluent conversation or a conversation in which flow was disrupted by a brief silence. Except for the silence, the videos were identical. After watching the video, participants were asked to what extent the people in the video agreed with each other. Participants who watched the fluent conversation rated agreement to be higher than participants watching the conversation that was disrupted by a silence, even though participants were not consciously aware of the disruption. It appears that the subjective feeling of being out of sync informs people of possible disagreements, regardless of the content of the conversation. Because people are generally so well trained in having smooth conversations, any disruption of this flow indicates that something is wrong, either interpersonally or within the group as a whole. Consequently, people who do not talk very easily may be incorrectly understood as being less agreeable than those who have no difficulty keeping up a conversation. On a societal level, one could even imagine that a lack of conversational flow may hamper the integration of immigrants who have not completely mastered the language of their new country yet. In a similar sense, the ever increasing number of online conversations may be disrupted by misinterpretations and anxiety that are produced by insuperable delays in the Internet connection. Keeping in mind the effects of conversational flow for feelings of belonging and validation may help one to be prepared to avoid such misunderstandings in future conversations.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 6
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the text?
In boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Conversation occupies much of our time.
2
Peopleassess information according to how readily they can understand it.
3
A quick response to a question is thought to show a lack of knowledge.
4
Video observations have often been used to assess conversational flow.
5
People who talk less often have clearer ideas than those who talk a lot.
6
Delays in online chat fail to have the same negative effect as disruptions that occur in natural conversation.
Question 7 - 14
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
SYNCHRONY
There is a human desire to co-ordinate
7
in an effort to be ‘in harmony’. This co-ordination can be seen in conversations when speakers alter the speed and extent of their speech in order to facilitate
8
. This is often achieved within milliseconds: only tiny pauses take place when a conversation flows; when it doesn’t, there are
9
and silences, or people talk at the same time. Our desire to
10
is also an important element of conversation flow. According to research, our
11
increase even if silences are brief. Humans have a basic need to be part of a group, and they experience a sense of
12
if silences exclude them. People also attempt to co-ordinate their opinions in conversation. In an experiment, participants’ judgement of the overall
13
among speakers was tested using videos of a fluent and a slightly disrupted conversation. The results showed that the
14
of the speakers’ discussion was less important than the perceived synchrony of the speaker.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase đơn giản nên các bạn có thể nhanh chóng xác định đáp án

Xem full giải thích
2
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn Not Given khi làm câu này vì không skim/scan được keywords trong câu hỏi (assess, readily, understand…) Linearthinking
So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc: when something is easily processed , it is more true or accurate 

= When people understand something easily, they think the information is more true or accurate

=> Nếu mọi người hiểu thông tin easily, họ xem nó chính xác hơn=> Có thể suy ra: Cách mọi người nhìn nhận thông tin (là đúng hay sai) phụ thuộc vào việc họ hiểu nó dễ tới đâu

= People view the information according to how easily they can understand it 

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3
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: a speaker is judged = believed to be more knowledgeable when they answer questions instantly ;

=> When a speaker answers a question quickly, people believe they are more knowledgeable (Trả lời câu hỏi nhanh thì được xem là thông minh)

- Câu hỏi: A quick response to a question is thought to show a lack of knowledge.

=> Đáp án: NO



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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



 One way in which people can justify their worldviews is by assuming that , as long as their conversations run smoothly , their interaction partners probably agree with the .

 This idea was tested by researchers using video observations .

Trong bài đúng là có đề cập tới việc “test” idea về conversational flow sử dụng video observations nhưng lại không nói gì về tần suất làm việc này là “often" hay không=> Thông tin trong bài đọc không đủ để trả lời câu hỏi

=> Đáp án: Not Given



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5
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc: people who do not talk very easily may be incorrectly understood as being less agreeable than those who have no difficulty keeping up a conversation .

=> Người ít nói thường bị xem là không dễ chịu bằng người nói nhiều

- Câu hỏi: People who talk less often have clearer idea than those who talk a lot .

=> Người ít nói có ideas rõ ràng hơn người nói nhiều

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6
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: (1) Because people are so well- trained in having smooth conversations , any disruption of this flow indicates that something is wrong [...] (2) In a similar sense , the number of online conversations may be disrupted by misinterpretations and anxiety that are produced by delays in the Internet connection

rút gọn thành (1) Any disruption of smooth conversations indicates that something is wrong (2) In a similar sense , online conversations may be disrupted by anxiety that are produced by delays in the Internet connect = In a similar sense, delays in the Internet connection can cause anxiety during online conversations Có thể thấy, từ nối “In a similar sense” thể hiện phép so sánh giống nhau giữa conversation ngoài đời thật ở câu 1 và online conversation: + Disruption of smooth conversation = negative effect (something is wrong) + Disruption/delay of online conversation = negative effect (anxiety) => Cả 2 đều giống nhau, both have the same negative effect Câu hỏi:  Delays in online chat fail to have the same negative effect as disruptions that occur in natural conversation. => “Fail to have the same negative effect" khác với “have the same negative effect" => Đáp án: No

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7
behaviour
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Vị trí chỗ trống nằm ngay sau động từ co-ordinate, mà pattern của động từ này là coordinate something => Cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống. So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc:

 1 One of the social needs is the human need  to be in harmony with one another .

 2 People attempt to synchronize with their partners (= be in harmony with one another) by coordinating their behaviour . => Main idea: People have a human need to coordinate their behaviour to be in harmony with one another. 

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8
turn-taking
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Chỗ trống cần điền nằm ngay sau Verb “facilitate" => Pattern của Verb này là “facilitate something" => cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc:   interpersonal coordination is found when people adjust the duration of their utterances and their speech rate to one another so that they can enable turn-taking to occur

=> so that they can enable turn-taking to occur = in order to enable turn-taking to occur

(so that = in order to (cấu trúc thể hiện mục đích)) Câu hỏi: This co-ordination can be seen in conversations when speakers alter the speed and extent of their speech in order to facilitate _______

=> Đáp án: turn-taking 



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9
interruptions
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau động từ “to be", cấu trúc There are… => cần điền một Noun số nhiều So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Câu hỏi: This is often achieved within milliseconds : only pauses take place when a conversation flows ; when it doesn’t (= when there are many pauses in conversation flows) , there are _____ and silences, or people talk at the same time .

=> When there are many pauses in conversation flows, there are ______ and silences, or people talk at the same time.

Bài đọc: A lack of flow is characterized by interruptions, simultaneous speech or mutual silences . => Đáp án: interruptions



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10
belong
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Phân tích câu hỏi: Vì chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau giới từ “to" => Cần điền một Verb vào đây. Phân tích bài đọc:

 1 The need to belong has been identified as one of the most basic of human motivations

 2 That conversational flow related to belonging may be illustrated by the consequences of flow disruptions .

=> Conversational flow is related to the need to belong (Conversational flow có liên quan tới the need to belong)

=> The need (=desire) to belong is a part (element) of conversational flow.  

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11
distress levels
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau tính từ sở hữu “our" => Cần điền một Noun vào đây. Bài đọc: research shows that even short disruptions in conversational flow can lead to a sharp rise in distress levels.

=> Short disruptions dẫn tới gia tăng distress levels  => Distress levels increase due to short disruptions So với câu hỏi: According to research, our _______ increase even if silences are brief

=> Đáp án: distress levels



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12
rejection
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Thông tin trong bài:

 Group membership is of elementary importance to our wellbeing and because humans are very sensitive to signals of exclusion , a silence is generally taken as a sign of rejection.

=> Group membership is very important to humans and silence can be seen as rejection.

  • “group membership is very important to humans” => Trùng với ý trong câu hỏi là Humans có nhu cầu to be a part of a group.

  • “Silence được xem là thể hiện rejection" => Con người cảm thấy rejection nếu có silence

Câu hỏi: Humans have a basic need to be part of a group, and they experience a sense of ________ If silences exclude them

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13
agreement
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

1 Participants imagined being one out of three people in a video clip who had either a fluent conversation or a conversation in which flow was disrupted by a brief silence .

=> Participants xem 2 đoạn video: 1 đoạn fluent, một đoạn hơi bị disrupted

 2 Participants who watched the fluent conversation rated agreement to be higher than participants watching the conversation that was disrupted by a silence , even though participants were not aware of the disruption . => Participants đánh giá agreement giữa participants

Câu hỏi: In an experiment, participants’ judgement of the overall _______ among speakers was tested using videos of a fluent and a slightly disrupted conversation. => Đáp án: agreement

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14
content
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay sau mạo từ “the" => Cần một Noun điền vào đây

Thông tin trong bài:

 the subjective feeling of being out of sync informs people of possible disagreements , regardless of the content of the conversation . => Cấu trúc Regardless of Noun, S + V (mặc cho Noun, S + V) => Mặc cho content of the conversation, the subjective feeling of being out of sync cho mọi người biết về possible disagreements => Content of the conversation không quan trọng bằng the subjective feeling of being out of sync Câu hỏi: the _______ of the speakers’ discussion was less important than the perceived synchrony of the speakers.

=> Đáp án: content



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