Want To Be Friends? IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Want To Be Friends? được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS - Test 7 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Want To Be Friends? IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Want To Be Friends?
Could the benefits of online social networking be too good to miss out on?
A
A. For many hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, online networking has become enmeshed in our daily lives. However, it is a decades-old insight from a study of traditional social networks that best illuminates one of the most important aspects of today’s online networking. In 1973 sociologist Mark Granovetter showed how the loose acquaintances, or weak ties5, in our social network exert a disproportionate influence over our behaviour and choices. Granovetter’s research showed that a significant percentage of people get their jobs as a result of recommendations or advice provided by a weak tie. Today our number of weak-tie contacts has exploded via online social networking. 'You couldn’t maintain all of those weak ties on your own, ' says Jennifer Golbeck of the University of Maryland, 'Online sites, such as Facebook, give you a way of cataloguing them.' The result? It’s now significantly easier for the schoolfriend you haven't seen in years to pass you a tip that alters your behaviour, from recommendation of a low-cholesterol breakfast cereal to a party invite where you meet your future wife or husband.
B
B. The explosion of weak ties could have profound consequences for our social structures too, according to Judith Donath of the Berkman Genter for Internet and Society at Harvard University. 'We’re already seeing changes, ' she says. For example, many people now turn to their online social networks ahead of sources such as newspapers and television for trusted and relevant news or information. What they hear could well be inaccurate, but the change is happening nonetheless. If these huge 'supernets' - some of them numbering up to 5, 000 people - continue to thrive and grow, they could fundamentally change the way we share information and transform our notions of relationships.
C
C. But are these vast networks really that relevant to us on a personal level? Robin Dunbar, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of Oxford, believes that our primate brains place a cap on the number of genuine social relationships we can actually cope with: roughly 150. According to Dunbar, online social networking appears to be very good for 'servicing' relationships, but not for establishing them. He argues that our evolutionary roots mean we still depend heavily on physical and face-to-face contact to be able to create ties.
D
D. Nonetheless, there is evidence that online networking can transform our daily interactions. In an experiment at Cornell University, psychologist Jeff Hancock asked participants to try to encourage other participants to like them via instant messaging conversation. Beforehand, some members of the trial were allowed to view the Facebook profile of the person they were trying to win over. He found that those with Facebook access asked questions to which they already knew the answers or raised things they had in common, and as result were much more successful in their social relationships. Hancock concluded that people who use these sites to keep updated on the activities of their acquaintances are more likely to be liked in subsequent social interactions.
E
E. Online social networking may also have tangible effects on our well-being. Nicole Ellison of Michigan State University found that the frequency of networking site use correlates with greater self- esteem. Support and affirmation from the weak ties could be the explanation, says Ellison. 'Asking your close friends for help or advice is nothing new, but we are seeing a lowering of barriers among acquaintances, ' she says. People are readily sharing personal feelings and experiences to a wider circle than they might once have done. Sandy Pentland at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology agrees. The ability to broadcast to our social group means we need never feel alone/ he says. The things that befall us are often due to a lack of social support. There’s more of a safety net now.'
F
F. Henry Holzman, also at MIT, who studies the interface between online social networking and the real world, points out that increased visibility also means our various social spheres - family, work, friends - are merging, and so we will have to prepare for new societal norms. ‘We’ll have to learn how to live a more transparent life, ’ he says. We may have to give up some ability to show very limited glimpses of ourselves to others.’
G
G. Another way that online networking appears to be changing our social structures is through dominance. In one repeated experiment, Michael Kearns of the University of Pennsylvania asked 30 volunteers to quickly reach consensus in an online game over a choice between two colours. Each person was offered a cash reward if they succeeded in persuading the group to pick one or other colour. All participants could see the colour chosen by some of the other people, but certain participants had an extra advantage: the ability to see more of the participants' chosen colours than others. Every time Kearns found that those who could see the choices of more participants (in other words, were better connected) persuaded the group to pick their colour, even when they had to persuade the vast majority to give up their financial incentive. While Kearns warns that the setting was artificial, he says it’s possible that greater persuasive power could lie with well-connected individuals in the everyday online world too.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 6
The Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-x.
List of Headings
I
A shift in our fact-finding habits
II
How to be popular
III
More personal information being known
IV
The origins of online social networks
V
The link between knowledge and influence
VI
Information that could change how you live
VII
The emotional benefits of online networking
VIII
A change in how we view our online friendships
IX
The future of networking
X
Doubts about the value of online socialising
1
Paragraph B
2
Paragraph C
3
Paragraph D
4
Paragraph E
5
Paragraph F
6
Paragraph G
Question 7 - 10
Look at the following findings and the list of researchers below.
Match each finding with the correct researcher, A-F.
List of Findings
A
Mark Granovetter
B
Judith Donath
C
Robin Dunbar
D
Jeff Hancock
E
Nicole Ellison
F
Michael Kearns
7
People who network widely may be more able to exert pressure on others.
8
We have become more willing to confide in an extensive number of people.
9
There is a limit to how many meaningful relationships we can maintain.
10
There is a social advantage in knowing about the lives of our online contacts.
Question 11 - 14
Choose TWO answers, A-E.
Which TWO of these advantages of online social networking are mentioned in Reading Passage 3?
A
Social networking sites can be accessed on any day and at any time.
B
Online socialising is an efficient way of keeping in touch with a lot of people.
C
It is very easy to establish new friendships online.
D
Online social networking can solve problems in real-world relationships.
E
It can be reassuring to be part of an online social network.
Which TWO of these disadvantages of online social networking are mentioned in Reading Passage 3?
A
Information from online social contacts may be unreliable.
B
We may become jealous of people who seem to have a wide circle of friends.
C
We may lose the ability to relate to people face-to-face.
D
It is easy to waste a lot of time on social networking sites.
E
Using social networking sites may result in a lack of privacy.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
I
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Simplify + Read connection: Câu 1,2 giới thiệu hiện tượng: tác động của weak ties lên con người Câu 3,4 đưa ví dụ cụ thể về việc weak ties khiến con người thay đổi thói quen tìm information Câu 5 tác động của weak ties lên hành vi con người trong tương lai

=> Main idea: Tác động của weak ties lên hành vi con người

- So với list đáp án, ta có: => i. A shift in our fact-finding habits ( "shift": sự thay đổi)

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2
X
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Simplify + Read connection: (1): đặt nghi vấn về lợi ích mà vast network mang lại (2): ví dụ cụ thể về số lượng social relationship thực tế mà ta có thể lo được (3), (4): đưa ra lập luận củng cố nghi vấn.

=> Main idea: vast network không thật sự có ích như ta nghĩ.

- So với list đáp án, ta có:

x. Doubts about values of online socialising



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3
II
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Simplify + Read connection (1): nêu quan điểm rằng thật ra online networking vẫn có ích (2) -(5): đưa ví dụ cụ thể để chứng minh và rút ra kết luận: online networking có ích khi giúp người ta dễ được liked in social interactions

=> Main idea: online networking có ích trong việc giúp người được liked in social interactions

- So với list đáp án, ta có:

ii. How to be popular



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4
VII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Simplify + Read connection:

(1) Online networking còn có lợi ích về well-being (sức khỏe và hạnh phúc) (2) Cụ thể là lợi ích về self- esteem (lòng tự trọng) (3) - (9): Giải thích chi tiết tại sao có được lợi ích đó

=> Main idea: Ích lợi về well-being mà online networking đem lại

=> Đáp án: vii. The emotional benefits of online networking

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5
III
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Simplify + Read connections:

(1) Một hệ quả khác nữa từ online networking: cuộc sống cá nhân sẽ bị biết tới nhiều hơn (2) - (3) những gì chúng ta cần làm để thích nghi với hệ quả đó

=> Main idea: Vì online networking, thông tin cá nhân sẽ bị biết tới nhiều hơn.

=> Đáp án: iii. More personal information being known



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6
V
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Simplify + Read connection: (1): một ảnh hưởng khác của online networking: dominance (uy thế) (2)-(4): 1 thí nghiệm chứng minh ảnh hưởng này (5)-(6): kết luận: những người biết nhiều info của người khác hơn (=well-connected individuals) có thể có khả năng thuyết phục tốt hơn greater persuasive power

=> Main idea: Online networking giúp có thêm info -> tăng sức ảnh hưởng lên người khác

- So với list đáp án, ta có: v. the link between knowledge and influence







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7
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước   Linearthinking :

- Bài đọc: he (Kearns) says that greater persuasive power could lie with well-connected individuals

= According to Kearns, the more an individual connects well with others, the more he/she can persuade others. -> persuade được người khác theo ý mình, có thể hiểu là có thể tạo áp lực lên người khác được = According to Kearns, the more an individual connects well with others, the more he/she can pressure others

- So với câu hỏi: People who network widely may be more able to exert pressure on others => trùng khớp

=> Đáp án: F. Michael Kearns



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8
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước   Linearthinking:

- Bài đọc:

' Asking your close friends for help or advice is nothing new , but we are seeing a lowering of barriers among acquaintances , ' she (Nicole Ellison) says .

 People are readily sharing personal feelings to a wider circle than they might once have done .

= According to Nicole Ellison, we share our feelings to more people now.

- So với câu hỏi: We have become more willing to confide in an extensive number of people

Xem full giải thích
9
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước   Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc:

 Robin Dunbar believes that our brains place a cap on the number of genuine social relationships we can actually cope with : roughly 150

-> không hiểu "place a cap" là gì thì đọc khúc sau: "roughly 150" -> số relationship ta có thể giữ gìn được là có giới hạn

= According to Robin Dunbar, their is a limit to the number of genuine social relationships that we can maintain.

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10
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước  

Linearthinking:

- Bài đọc: Hancock concluded that people who use these sites ( =online network) to keep updated on the activities of their acquaintances are more likely to be liked in social interactions .

-> "more likely to be liked in social interactions" : được thích hơn khi tương tác xã giao, tức là có lợi thế khi tương tác hơn.

= Hancock concluded that people who use online network to know about the activities of their acquaintances have advantage in social interaction

- So với câu hỏi: There is a social advantage in knowing about the lives of our online contacts.

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11
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc:

' You couldn’t maintain all of those weak ties on your own , ' says Jennifer Golbeck of the University of Maryland , ' Online sites, such as Facebook , give you a way of cataloguing them .'

-> Nếu không hiểu "cataloguing" thì dựa vào mạch ý trước đó. Đầu tiên người ta nêu vấn đề là bạn không thể tự maintain all of those weak ties, nhưng ngay sau đó nói về những online site như Facebook cho bạn cách "cataloguing them" -> "cataloguing them" chính là maintaining all those weak ties. (Nếu vẫn chưa rõ, có thể đọc thêm ví dụ cụ thể ở câu tiếp theo trong bài)

=> Online sites, such as Facebook, allow you to maintain a lot of weak ties.

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12
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc:

 Ellison found that the frequency of networking site use correlates with greater self- esteem -> correlates: tương quan/ liên quan

 Support and affirmation from the weak ties could be the explanation , says Ellison

=> Support and affirmation from the weak ties is the explanation to why networking site use helps you have greater self- esteem => Networking site use helps you have greater self- esteem because you receive support and affirmation from the weak ties on online social network.

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13
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc: people now turn to their online social networks ahead of sources such as newspapers for information .

 What they hear could well be inaccurate , but the change is happening nonetheless .

=> information on online social networks could be inaccurate (=wrong)

- So với list đáp án: => A. Information from online social contacts may be unreliable.

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14
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Bài đọc: We ’ll have to learn how to live a more transparent life -> "transparent" là "trong suốt", "rõ ràng". Ở các đoạn trước, ta biết được social online network giúp kết nối và giữ gìn nhiều mối quan hệ + tâm sự, chia sẻ với nhiều người hơn -> Online network khiến cuộc sống cá nhân của mình "transparent" hơn với người ngoài -> mất đi privacy

- So với list đáp án, ta có: E. Using social networking sites may result in a lack of privacy.





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