Walking With Dinosaurs IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Walking With Dinosaurs được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS IELTS Trainer - Test 1 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Walking With Dinosaurs IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Walking with dinosaurs
Peter L. Falkingham and his colleagues at Manchester University are developing techniques which look set to revolutionize our understanding of how dinosaurs and other extinct animals behaved. The media image of palaeontologists who study prehistoric life is often of field workers camped in the desert in the hot sun, carefully picking away at the rock surrounding a large dinosaur bone. But Peter Falkingham has done little of that for a while now. Instead, he devotes himself to his computer. Not because he has become inundated with paperwork, but because he is a new kind of palaeontologist: a computational palaeontologist. What few people may consider is that uncovering a skeleton, or discovering a new species, is where the research begins, not where it ends. What we really want to understand is how the extinct animals and plants behaved in their natural habitats. Drs Bill Sellers and Phil Manning from the University of Manchester use a ‘genetic algorithm’ – a kind of computer code that can change itself and ‘evolve’ – to explore how extinct animals like dinosaurs, and our own early ancestors, walked and stalked. The fossilized bones of a complete dinosaur skeleton can tell scientists a lot about the animal, but they do not make up the complete picture and the computer can try to fill the gap. The computer model is given a digitized skeleton, and the locations of known muscles. The model then randomly activates the muscles. This, perhaps unsurprisingly, results almost without fail in the animal falling on its face. So the computer alters the activation pattern and tries again … usually to similar effect. The modeled dinosaurs quickly ‘evolve’. If there is any improvement, the computer discards the old pattern and adopts the new one as the base for alteration. Eventually, the muscle activation pattern evolves a stable way of moving, the best possible solution is reached, and the dinosaur can walk, run, chase or graze. Assuming natural selection evolves the best possible solution too, the modeled animal should be moving in a manner similar to its now-extinct counterpart. And indeed, using the same method for living animals (humans, emu and ostriches) similar top speeds were achieved on the computer as in reality. By comparing their cyberspace results with real measurements of living species, the Manchester team of palaeontologists can be confident in the results computed showing how extinct prehistoric animals such as dinosaurs moved. The Manchester University team have used the computer simulations to produce a model of a giant meat-eating dinosaur. It is called an acrocanthosaurus which literally means ‘high spined lizard’ because of the spines which run along its backbone. It is not really known why they are there but scientists have speculated they could have supported a hump that stored fat and water reserves. There are also those who believe that the spines acted as a support for a sail. Of these, one half think it was used as a display and could be flushed with blood and the other half think it was used as a temperature-regulating device. It may have been a mixture of the two. The skull seems out of proportion with its thick, heavy body because it is so narrow and the jaws are delicate and fine. The feet are also worthy of note as they look surprisingly small in contrast to the animal as a whole. It has a deep broad tail and powerful leg muscles to aid locomotion. It walked on its back legs and its front legs were much shorter with powerful claws. Falkingham himself is investigating fossilized tracks, or footprints, using computer simulations to help analyze how extinct animals moved. Modern-day trackers who study the habitats of wild animals can tell you what animal made a track, whether that animal was walking or running, sometimes even the sex of the animal. But a fossil track poses a more considerable challenge to interpret in the same way. A crucial consideration is knowing what the environment including the mud, or sediment, upon which the animal walked was like millions of years ago when the track was made. Experiments can answer these questions but the number of variables is staggering. To physically recreate each scenario with a box of mud is extremely time-consuming and difficult to repeat accurately. This is where computer simulation comes in. Falkingham uses computational techniques to model a volume of mud and control the moisture content, consistency, and other conditions to simulate the mud of prehistoric times. A footprint is then made in the digital mud by a virtual foot. This footprint can be chopped up and viewed from any angle and stress values can be extracted and calculated from inside it. By running hundreds of these simulations simultaneously on supercomputers, Falkingham can start to understand what types of footprint would be expected if an animal moved in a certain way over a given kind of ground. Looking at the variation in the virtual tracks, researchers can make sense of fossil tracks with greater confidence. The application of computational techniques in palaeontology is becoming more prevalent every year. As computer power continues to increase, the range of problems that can be tackled and questions that can be answered will only expand.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 6
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
In his study of prehistoric life, Potor Falkinghom rarely spends time on outdoor research those days.
2
Several attempts are usually needed before the computer model of a dinosaur used by Sellers and Manning manages to stay upright.
3
When the Sellers and Manning computer model was used for people, it showed them moving faster than they are physically able to.
4
Some palaeontologists have expressed reservations about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team concerning the movement of dinosaurs.
5
An experienced tracker can analyse fossil footprints as easily as those made by live animals.
6
Research carried out into the composition of prehistoric mud has been found to be inaccurate.
Question 7 - 9
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
i-resizable-alignable
7
8
9
Dinosaur's name comes from spines. One theory: they were necessary to hold up a
which helped control body heat.
Skull is
compared with rest of body.

made easier by wide tail and highly developed muscles in legs.
Question 10 - 13
Complete the flow-chart below
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer
Peter Falkingham's computer model
STEP 01
Mud is simulated with attention to is texture and thickness and how much
10
it contains.
STEP 02
A virtual foot produces a footprint in the mud.
STEP 03
The footprint is dissected and examined from all angles.
STEP 04
Levels of
11
are measured with the footprint.
STEP 05
Multiple simulations relate footprints to different types of
12

STEP 06
More accurate interpretation of
13
is possible

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nếu chỉ skim/scan những từ khoá như “outdoor”, “rarely", thí sinh sẽ rất dễ chọn NOT GIVEN vì dường như không tìm được những keywords trên trong bài đọc.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: 1. The media image of palaeontologists who study prehistoric life is often of field workers .... => People who study prehistoric life usually do it outdoor (field work là công việc thực chiến, làm ở ngoài trời) 2. But Peter Falkingham has done little of that 3. Instead , he devotes himself to his computer . => But Peter rất ít khi làm outdoor, mà làm ở computer

=> Tóm lại:  When studying prehistoric life, Peter has done little field work. He spends time on his computer instead.

Câu hỏi: In his study of prehistoric life, Peter Falkinghom rarely spends time on outdoor research those days. So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: done little field work = rarely spend time on outdoor research -> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc  => Đáp án: A. Yes



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2
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn Not Given khi làm câu này vì chẳng tìm thấy keywords hay synonyms của “attempts" hay “upright" trong bài! Để làm được câu này, cách duy nhất là phải thật sự hiểu đúng nghĩa của câu hỏi và bài đọc.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:


1.  The model randomly activates the muscles

2. This results in the animal falling on its face => The model of the animal fell on its face. 3. Eventually , the muscle activation pattern evolves a stable way of moving , the best possible solution is reached , and the dinosaur can walk, run,... => Phần đầu câu 3 có thể hơi khó hiểu, tuy nhiên ta chỉ cần tập trung vào kết quả của nó, đó là cuối cùng dinosaur can walk,run... => Tóm lại: Ban đầu khi thử nghiệm, the model of the dinosaur fall on its face but finally it can walk. 

So với câu hỏi: Several attempts are usually needed before the computer model of a dinosaur used by Sellers and Manning manages to stay upright.

-> Cần nhiều nỗ lực hơn nữa trước khi the computer model of a dinosaur của Sellers và Manning có thể stay upright.

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3
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking 

using the same method for living animals , similar top speeds were achieved on the computer as in reality => When using the method for humans, the top speeds on the computer = the top speeds in reality (Cấu trúc similar… as thể hiện so sánh bằng)

-> Khi sử dụng mô hình này cho living animals thì tốc độ trên living animals và computer bằng nhau.

So với câu hỏi: When the Sellers and Manning computer model was used for people , it showed them moving faster than they are physically able to . -> When using the model for people, the computer model moved faster than humans can in real life. (Cấu trúc more … than… so sánh hơn kém)

-> Khi sử dụng mô hình này cho con người thì có kết quả là computermodel moved faster than humans.

=> Một bên so sánh bằng, một bên so sánh hơn kém.

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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

the Manchester team of palaeontologists can be confident in the results computed showing how extinct prehistoric animals moved .

-> The Manchester team can be confident in how dinosaurs moved.

-> The Manchester team tự tin về nghiên cứu kết quả how dinosaurs moved.

So với câu hỏi: Some palaeontologists have expressed reservations about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team concerning the movement of dinosaurs . -> Some palaeontologists are not convinced about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team => Một số palaeontologists không tin tưởng Manchester team.

Trong khí đó, bài đọc chỉ nói về thái độ của Manchester team về kết quả này, không nói gì về thái độ của những palaeontologists khác.

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5
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan thì câu hỏi này rất dễ khiến học viên chọn NOT GIVEN vì không locate được từ “wild animals" trong đoạn văn.  Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking
Modern-day trackers who study the habitats of wild animals can tell you what animal made a track ....

 But a fossil track poses a more considerable challenge to interpret in the same way

=> Trackers can tell you a lot about modern-day animals from their tracks, but not so much about fossil animal. => It is more difficult to study fossil animals than modern-day wild animals from tracks. (so sánh hơn kém)

Câu hỏi: An experienced tracker can analyse fossil footprints as easily as those made by live animals. (so sánh bằng)

=> An experienced tracker có thể phân tích được fossil footprints dễ dàng như những footprints của living animals.

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6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 To physically recreate each scenario with a box of mud is time-consuming and difficult to repeat accurately 

 This is where computer simulation comes in . => Recreating mud is time-consuming, so people use computer simulation. => Bài đọc không nói gì về việc kết quả có accurate (Chính xác) hay không Câu hỏi: Research carried out into the composition of prehistoric mud has been found to be inaccurate. => Thông tin về độ chính xác không được tìm thấy trong bài.

=> Đáp án: NOT GIVEN.



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7
sail
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì vị trí của gap nằm ngay trước mạo từ “a" => Cần điền vào gap một danh từ số ít 1. Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan câu hỏi này, sẽ không khó để thí sinh locate được từ “spines" trong bài đọc.

Tuy nhiên, vấn đề nằm ở chỗ ngay cả khi locate được, thí sinh cũng không biết phải chọn từ nào để điền vào gap vì trong câu có khá nhiều các danh từ khác nhau => rối. Cách duy nhất để chọn được từ là phải thật sự hiểu rõ nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc. 2. Linearthinking

There are those who believe that the spines acted as a support for a sail .

 Of these , one half think it ... and the other half think it (= the sail) was used as a temperature-regulating device .

-> People think spines support a sail. The sail was used as a device to regulate temperature. -> People think spines support a sail which was used to regulate temperature.

Câu hỏi: Dinosaur’s name comes from spines. One theory: they were necessary to hold up a _____ which helped control body heat. 

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8
narrow
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vị trí của gap nằm sau động từ to be => có thể điền một Adj, Noun hoặc V3/ed vào đây. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Bài đọc: The skull seems out of proportion with its thick heavy body because it is so narrow 

-> Trong trường hợp bạn không biết cụm 'out of proportion with' nghĩa là gì cũng không sao.

Ta thấy body đi với tính từ 'thick, heavy' thì trong cụm 'it is so narrow', với 'narrow' mang ý đối lập với 'thick', đại từ 'it' chỉ có thể đề cập tới 'the skull'

=> The skull is so narrow nên không cân xứng với body.

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9
locomotion
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì vị trí của chỗ trống nằm ngay trước từ “made" => Cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống

Áp dụng Linearthinking và so sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:



 It has a deep broad tail and powerful leg muscles to aid locomotion .

=> Ta có cấu trúc: aid something = something is made easier 

So với câu hỏi: _____  made easier by wide tail and highly developed muscles in legs.

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10
moisture
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

 Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Bài đọc: Falkingham uses techniques to model a volume of mud and control the moisture content , consistency , and other conditions to simulate the mud

=> To simulate the mud, Falkingham uses techniques to model volume of mud, control the moisture content, consistency, etc

=> When simulating the mud, Falkingham chú ý tới những mặt như: the volume of mud, the moisture content, consistency, etc

Câu hỏi: Mud is simulated with attention to its texture and thickness and how much ____ it contains. 

volume of mud = texture and thickness of mud

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11
stress
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking

This footprint can be chopped up and viewed from any angle and stress values can be extracted and calculated from inside it .

=> Stress values can be calculated from inside the footprint. So với câu hỏi: Levels of ____ are measured within the footprint. 

inside = within ; calculate = measure

=> Đáp án: Stress



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12
ground
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Thí sinh nào skim/scan chữ “types" trong câu hỏi, rất dễ xác định thông tin nằm ở cụm “types of footprint" trong bài => Điền ngay “footprint" vào trong gap mà quên mất rằng từ footprint vốn dĩ đã được đề cập trong câu hỏi rồi! Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking


Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm sau cụm “different types of ____” (Noun 1 of Noun2 ) => Cần điền một Noun vào đây Thông tin trong bài:

 By running hundreds of these simulations on supercomputers , Falkingham can start to understand what types of footprint  would be expected if an animal moved in a certain way over a given kind of ground . => Simulations help Falkingham understand what types of footprint would be expected on a kind (= type) of ground.

=> Simulations liên kết footprint với a kind (= type) of ground.

Câu hỏi: Multiple simulations relate footprints to different types of _____. = Simulations help Falkingham understand what types of footprint would be expected on a kind (= type) of ground.

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13
fossil tracks
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay sau cụm “interpretation of ____” => Cấu trúc Noun 1 of Noun 2 => Cần điền Noun 2 vào chỗ trống.

 Looking at the variation in the virtual tracks , researchers can make sense of fossil tracks with confidence .

=> Researchers can be more confident when they try to understand fossil tracks.

=> Researchers tự tin hơn khi cố gắng phân tích và hiểu fossil tracks

=> Researchers nghĩ có thể phân tích và hiểu fossil tracks chính xác hơn Câu hỏi: More accurate interpretation of ______ is possible.  = Researchers can be more confident when they try to understand fossil tracks. => Đáp án: fossil tracks 



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