The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Cambridge IELTS Practice Test 9 - Test 1 - Passage 2 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

The Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence
The question of whether we are alone in the Universe has haunted humanity for centuries, but we may now stand poised on the brink of the answer to that question, as we search for radio signals from other intelligent civilisations. This search, often known by the acronym SETI (search for extra-terrestrial intelligence], is a difficult one. Although groups around the world have been searching intermittently for three decades, it is only now that we have reached the level of technology where we can make a determined attempt to search all nearby stars for any sign of life.
A
A. The primary reason for the search is basic curiosity - the same curiosity about the natural world that drives all pure science. We want to know whether we are alone in the Universe. We want to know whether life evolves naturally if given the right conditions, or whether there is something very special about the Earth to have fostered the variety of life forms that we see around us on the planet. The simple detection of a radio signal will be sufficient to answer this most basic of all questions. In this sense, SETI is another cog in the machinery of pure science which is continually pushing out the horizon of our knowledge. However, there are other reasons for being interested in whether life exists elsewhere. For example, we have had civilisation on Earth for perhaps only a few thousand years, and the threats of nuclear war and pollution over the last few decades have told us that our survival may be tenuous. Will we last another two thousand years or will we wipe ourselves out? Since the lifetime of a planet like ours is several billion years, we can expect that, if other civilisations do survive in our galaxy, their ages will range from zero to several billion years. Thus any other civilisation that we hear from is likely to be far older, on average, than ourselves. The mere existence of such a civilisation will tell us that long-term survival is possible, and gives us some cause for optimism. It is even possible that the older civilisation may pass on the benefits of their experience in dealing with threats to survival such as nuclear war and global pollution, and other threats that we haven’t yet discovered.
B
B. In discussing whether we are alone, most SETI scientists adopt two ground rules. First, UFQs (Unidentified Flying Objects) are generally ignored since most scientists don’t consider the evidence for them to be strong enough to bear serious consideration (although it is also important to keep an open mind in case any really convincing evidence emerges in the future). Second, we make a very conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us, since if it differs radically from us we may well not recognise it as a life form, quite apart from whether we are able to communicate with it. In other words, the life form we are looking for may well have two green heads and seven fingers, but it will nevertheless resemble us in that it should communicate with its fellows, be interested in the Universe, live on a planet orbiting a star like our Sun, and perhaps most restrictively, have a chemistry, like us, based on carbon and water.
C
C. Even when we make these assumptions, our understanding of other life forms is still severely limited. We do not even know, for example, how many stars have planets, and we certainly do not know how likely it is that life will arise naturally, given the right conditions. However, when we look at the 100 billion stars in our galaxy (the Milky Way), and 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, it seems inconceivable that at least one of these planets does not have a life form on it; in fact, the best educated guess we can make, using the little that we do know about the conditions for carbon-based life, leads us to estimate that perhaps one in 100,000 stars might have a life-bearing planet orbiting it. That means that our nearest neighbours are perhaps 100 light years away, which is almost next door in astronomical terms.
D
D. An alien civilisation could choose many different ways of sending information across the galaxy, but many of these either require too much energy, or else are severely attenuated while traversing the vast distances across the galaxy. It turns out that, for a given amount of transmitted power, radio waves in the frequency range 1000 to 3000 MHz travel the greatest distance, and so all searches to date have concentrated on looking for radio waves in this frequency range. So far there have been a number of searches by various groups around the world, including Australian searches using the radio telescope at Parkes, New South Wales. Until now there have not been any detections from the few hundred stars which have been searched. The scale of the searches has been increased dramatically since 1992, when the US Congress voted NASA $10 million per year for ten years to conduct a thorough search for extra-terrestrial life. Much of the money in this project is being spent on developing the special hardware needed to search many frequencies at once. The project has two parts. One part is a targeted search using the world’s largest radio telescopes, the American-operated telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico and the French telescope in Nancy in France. This part of the project is searching the nearest 1000 likely stars with high sensitivity for signals in the frequency range 1000 to 3000 MHz. The other part of the project is an undirected search which is monitoring all of space with a lower sensitivity, using the smaller antennas of NASA’s Deep Space Network.
E
E. There is considerable debate over how we should react if we detect a signal from an alien civilisation. Everybody agrees that we should not reply immediately. Quite apart from the impracticality of sending a reply over such large distances at short notice, it raises a host of ethical questions that would have to be addressed by the global community before any reply could be sent. Would the human race face the culture shock if faced with a superior and much older civilisation? Luckily, there is no urgency about this. The stars being searched are hundreds of light years away, so it takes hundreds of years for their signal to reach us, and a further few hundred years for our reply to reach them. It’s not important, then, if there’s a delay of a few years, or decades, while the human race debates the question of whether to reply, and perhaps carefully drafts a reply.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Reading Passage has five paragraphs, A-E.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-E from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-vii
List of Headings
I
Seeking the transmission of radio signals from planets
II
Appropriate responses to signals from other civilisations
III
Vast distances to Earth’s closest neighbours
IV
Assumptions underlying the search for extra-terrestrial
V
Reasons for the search for extra- terrestrial intelligence
VI
Knowledge of extra-terrestrial life forms
VII
Likelihood of life on other planets
1
Paragraph A
2
Paragraph B
3
Paragraph C
4
Paragraph D
5
Paragraph E
Question 6 - 8
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
6
What is the life expectancy of Earth?
7
What kind of signals from other intelligent civilisations are SETI scientists searching for?
8
How many stars are the world’s most powerful radio telescopes searching?
Question 9 - 14
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
9
Alien civilisations may be able to help the human race to overcome serious problems.
10
SETI scientists are trying to find a life form that resembles humans in many ways.
11
The Americans and Australians have co-operated on joint research projects.
12
So far SETI scientists have picked up radio signals from several stars.
13
The NASA project attracted criticism from some members of Congress.
14
If a signal from outer space is received, it will be important to respond promptly.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
V
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu đoạn văn này bạn skim/scan nhanh sẽ ra những keywords như là: knowledge, other civilizations, life forms

→ thì bạn sẽ liên tưởng ngay đoạn này đang nói đến việc tìm hiểu về extra-terrestrial life forms, thì khi nhìn headings sẽ dễ bị nhầm với “heading vi - knowledge of extra-terrestrial life forms"

→ chọn heading vi → SAI 





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ta thấy sự liên kết như sau:

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2
IV
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu đoạn văn này bạn skim/scan nhanh sẽ ra những keywords như là: 2 rules; first, second, in other words

→ thì bạn sẽ liên tưởng ngay đoạn này đang liệt kê, thì khi nhìn headings sẽ dễ bị nhầm với “heading v - Reasons for the search for extra-terresstial intelligence” vì thấy có reasons (liệt kê ra lí do 1 và 2) 

chọn heading V → SAI 





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vào đoạn B

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3
VII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu câu này bạn skim/scan, bạn sẽ thấy có keyword: understanding, đọc lướt sơ qua bên dưới lại thấy giải thích (that means that) 

→ chọn nhanh “Heading VI” vì có nhắc tới ‘knowledge’

SAI





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4
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì đoạn này khá dài, nên các bạn sẽ chọn skim/scan cho nhanh thì sẽ tìm được keywords như sau: radio ở câu 1 và signals ở câu 2

→ nhanh tay chọn Heading II 

SAI



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5
II
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu bạn skim/scan đoạn này, sẽ thấy nhắc lại keywords về khoảng cách: large distances; take hundred of years

→ chọn Heading III vì có nhắc đến vast distance

SAI 





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Xem full giải thích
6
several billion years
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Khi bạn locate keyword Earth theo như câu hỏi → locate qua đoạn A, và bạn hiểu life expectancy là thời gian nó kéo dài 

→ Locate được: Will we last another two thousand years or will we wipe ourselves out → chọn two thousand years → SAI





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 Since the lifetime of a planet like ours is several billion years , other civilizations ages range from zero to several billion years 

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7
radio/radio waves/radio signals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đối với câu này nếu như bạn skim/scan ra keywords: scientists; looking for nhưng cũng sẽ rất khó cho bạn chọn lựa được đáp án đúng vì trong câu không hề nhắc tới signal 





Locate:  Dựa vào “searching for" mình locate được đoạn: “It turns out that … in this frequency range.” do có chứa synonym “searches + looking for"

→ radio waves travel the greatest distance, and so all searches to date concentrated on looking for radio waves 

radio waves travel xa nhất nên mọi nghiên cứu đều tập trung vào đây

Xem full giải thích
8
1000/1000 stars
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu bạn skim/scan trong câu này với keyword “stars” bạn sẽ rất dễ nhầm locate trúng: 

“leads us to estimate that perhaps one in 100,000 stars might have a life-bearing planet orbiting it” 

→ dẫn tới chọn đáp án 100,000 stars → SAI





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9
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

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 it is possible that the older civilization may pass on the benefits of their experience in dealing with threats to survival and other threats that we haven't yet discovered 

Nếu như câu này, bạn không hiểu “pass on" nhưng bạn có thể đoán bằng cách đọc hiểu connection trong câu: 

it is possible - older civilization làm gì đó để giúp chúng ta đối diện với những threats về sự sống còn và những threats khác con người chưa tìm ra

-> truyền lại kinh nghiệm cho con người

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10
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu các bạn skim/scan keywords như: SETI scientists; trying to find a life form, resembles humans sẽ thấy lại được paraphrasing, nhưng không tìm thấy in many ways 



→ không đủ info → chọn Not Given → SAI 





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  Second , we make a conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is well like us , since if it differs radically...  

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11
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu các bạn skim/scan keywords như:  research projects; Americans; Australians

→ đều thấy xuất hiện trong phần info

→ Chọn YES → SAI 



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 So far there have been a number of searches by various groups around the world , including Australian searches using the radio telescope at Parkes, New South Wales .

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12
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

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→ so far there have been a number of searches → Until now - not been any detections from stars which have been search

→ trong trường hợp bạn không hiểu detection những vẫn có thể đoán nghĩa dựa vào sự liên kết

Có 1 số nghiên cứu vẫn chưa có detection nào từ stars được nghiên cứu

→ vậy có thể suy ra detection tín hiệu nhận lại 

Xem full giải thích
13
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu skim/scan bạn sẽ tìm được key words tương ứng như Congress và NASA

→ nhanh tay chọn TRUE → Sai





Với Linearthinking

, chúng ta phân tích câu như sau:

 The searches increased when the US Congress voted NASA 10 million dollars to conduct a search for extra-terrestrial life 

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14
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu skim/scan bạn sẽ không locate được thông tin vì không tìm thấy keyword outer space 

→ không thấy đề cập: chọn NOT GIVEN → SAI 





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Câu 1 there is a debate how we react if we detect a signal from alien 

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