The Impact Of The Potato IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage The Impact Of The Potato được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 4 - Test 1 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
The Impact Of The Potato IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

The impact of the Potato
Jeff Chapman relates the story of history the most important vegetable
The potato was first cultivated in South America between three and seven thousand years ago, though scientists believe they may have grown wild in the region as long as 13,000 years ago. The genetic patterns of potato distribution indicate that the potato probably originated in the mountainous west-central region of the continent. Early Spanish chroniclers who misused the Indian word batata (sweet potato) as the name for the potato noted the importance of the tuber to the Incan Empire. The Incas had learned to preserve the potato for storage by dehydrating and mashing potatoes into a substance called Chuchu could be stored in a room for up to 10 years, providing excellent insurance against possible crop failures. As well as using the food as a staple crop, the Incas thought potatoes made childbirth easier and used it to treat injuries. The Spanish conquistadors first encountered the potato when they arrived in Peru in 1532 in search of gold, and noted Inca miners eating Chuchu. At the time the Spaniards failed to realize that the potato represented a far more important treasure than either silver or gold, but they did gradually begin to use potatoes as basic rations aboard their ships. After the arrival of the potato in Spain in 1570,a few Spanish farmers began to cultivate them on a small scale, mostly as food for livestock. Throughout Europe, potatoes were regarded with suspicion, distaste and fear. Generally considered to be unfit for human consumption, they were used only as animal fodder and sustenance for the starving. In northern Europe, potatoes were primarily grown in botanical gardens as an exotic novelty. Even peasants refused to eat from a plant that produced ugly, misshapen tubers and that had come from a heathen civilization. Some felt that the potato plant’s resemblance to plants in the nightshade family hinted that it was the creation of witches or devils. In meat-loving England, farmers and urban workers regarded potatoes with extreme distaste. In 1662, the Royal Society recommended the cultivation of the tuber to the English government and the nation, but this recommendation had little impact. Potatoes did not become a staple until, during the food shortages associated with the Revolutionary Wars, the English government began to officially encourage potato cultivation. In 1795, the Board of Agriculture issued a pamphlet entitled “Hints Respecting the Culture and Use of Potatoes”; this was followed shortly by pro-potato editorials and potato recipes in The Times. Gradually, the lower classes began to follow the lead of the upper classes. A similar pattern emerged across the English Channel in the Netherlands, Belgium and France. While the potato slowly gained ground in eastern France (where it was often the only crop remaining after marauding soldiers plundered wheat fields and vineyards), it did not achieve widespread acceptance until the late 1700s. The peasants remained suspicious, in spite of a 1771 paper from the Facult de Paris testifying that the potato was not harmful but beneficial. The people began to overcome their distaste when the plant received the royal seal of approval: Louis XVI began to sport a potato flower in his buttonhole, and Marie-Antoinette wore the purple potato blossom in her hair. Frederick the Great of Prussia saw the potato’s potential to help feed his nation and lower the price of bread, but faced the challenge of overcoming the people’s prejudice against the plant. When he issued a 1774 order for his subjects to grow potatoes as protection against famine, the town of Kolberg replied: “The things have neither smell nor taste, not even the dogs will eat them, so what use are they to us?” Trying a less direct approach to encourage his subjects to begin planting potatoes, Frederick used a bit of reverse psychology: he planted a royal field of potato plants and stationed a heavy guard to protect this field from thieves. Nearby peasants naturally assumed that anything worth guarding was worth stealing, and so snuck into the field and snatched the plants for their home gardens. Of course, this was entirely in line with Frederick’s wishes. Historians debate whether the potato was primarily a cause or an effect of the huge population boom in industrial-era England and Wales. Prior to 1800, the English diet had consisted primarily of meat, supplemented by bread, butter and cheese. Few vegetables were consumed, most vegetables being regarded as nutritionally worthless and potentially harmful. This view began to change gradually in the late 1700s. The Industrial Revolution was drawing an ever increasing percentage of the populace into crowded cities, where only the richest could afford homes with ovens or coal storage rooms, and people were working 12-16 hour days which left them with little time or energy to prepare food. High yielding, easily prepared potato crops were the obvious solution to England’s food problems. Whereas most of their neighbors regarded the potato with suspicion and had to be persuaded to use it by the upper classes, the Irish peasantry embraced the tuber more passionately than anyone since the Incas. The potato was well suited to the Irish the soil and climate, and its high yield suited the most important concern of most Irish farmers: to feed their families. The most dramatic example of the potato’s potential to alter population patterns occurred in Ireland, where the potato had become a staple by 1800. The Irish population doubled to eight million between 1780 and 1841,this without any significant expansion of industry or reform of agricultural techniques beyond the widespread cultivation of the potato. Though Irish landholding practices were primitive in comparison with those of England, the potato’s high yields allowed even the poorest farmers to produce more healthy food than they needed with scarcely any investment or hard labor. Even children could easily plant, harvest and cook potatoes, which of course required no threshing, curing or grinding. The abundance provided by potatoes greatly decreased infant mortality and encouraged early marriage.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
The early Spanish called potato as the Incan name ‘Chuchu’
2
The purposes of Spanish coming to Peru were to find out potatoes
3
The Spanish believed that the potato has the same nutrients as other vegetables
4
Peasants at that time did not like to eat potatoes because they were ugly
5
The popularity of potatoes in the UK was due to food shortages during the war
Question 6 - 13
Complete the sentences below with NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
6
In France, people started to overcome their disgust about potatoes because the King put a potato

in his button hole.
7
Frederick realized the potential of potato but he had to handle the

against potatoes from ordinary people.
8
The King of Prussia adopted some

psychology to make people accept potatoes.
9
Before 1800,the English people preferred eating

with bread, butter and cheese.
10
The obvious way to deal with England food problems were high yielding potato

.
11
The Irish

and climate suited potatoes well.
12
Between 1780 and 1841, based on the

of the potatoes, the Irish population doubled to eight million.
13
The potato’s high yields help the poorest farmers to produce more healthy food almost without

.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Các câu hỏi dạng True/False/NG thường đi theo mạch từ trên xuống của bài đọc. Vì đây là câu đầu -> Đọc ở đầu passage

=> Sau đó dựa vào cụm 'early Spanish' + 'Incan' -> Ta nhanh chóng tìm được thông tin







Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: The early Spanish called potato as the Incan name ‘Chuchu’ 

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2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The Spanish conquistadors first encountered the potato when they arrived in Peru in search of gold , and noted Inca miners eating Chuchu.

=> Người Spanish first encountered the potato - khi họ đến Peru tìm vàng - và nhận ra thợ mỏ Inca đang ăn Chuchu

=> Trong trường hợp không hiểu từ 'encountered' là 'bắt gặp/ đụng độ', ta vẫn biết mục đích của họ đến Peru là để 'in search of gold'

=> Vậy họ không đến Peru để tìm potatoes, mà để tìm gold -> Chọn FALSE



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3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi + khoanh vùng thông tin

 The Spanish believed that the potato has the same nutrients as other vegetables

=> Người Spanish tin rằng potato có các dưỡng chất giống các rau củ khác

=> Tìm phần thông tin đề cập tới 'dưỡng chất' -> Tuy nhiên không tìm thấy

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào từ 'peasants' để locate được thông tin

Câu này tương đối đơn giản vì ta dễ dàng nhận ra các cặp paraphrase tương đồng:

  • did not like to eat = refused to eat

  • they (potatoes) were ugly = ugly tubers

>>> Khi so sánh câu hỏi và bài đọc, ta cũng dễ dàng đoán được 'tubers' ở đây là 'potatoes'

=> Chọn TRUE



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5
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này ta có các hints như 'food shortages' + 'war' -> Dễ dàng locate thông tin cần đọc



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: The popularity of potatoes was due to food shortages during the war

=> Potatoes phổ biến vì các đợt thiếu thức ăn trong chiến tranh

Phân tích info: Potatoes did not become a staple until , during the food shortages associated with the Revolutionary Wars

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6
flower
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể locate thông tin dựa vào các cụm 'overcome their disgust' + 'the King' + 'a flower in his buttonhole'

>>> Dù không hiểu 'disgust' hay 'distaste' thì ta vẫn thấy chúng có cùng tiền tố 'dis-' -> Đoán được nghĩa giống nhau

>>> Trong trường hợp bạn không biết Louis XVI là tên của vua, thì có thể dựa vào từ 'royal' (hoàng gia)





Dựa vào vị trí cần điền, ta tập trung vào cụm sau:

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7
prejuidice
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào tên riêng 'Frederick' và cụm 'potential of potato' -> Ta locate được info



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Frederick saw the potato’s potential to help... , but faced the challenge of overcoming the people’s prejudice against the plant.

=> Frederick thấy tiềm năng của potato - nhưng - phải đối mặt với việc giải quyết (=handle) - prejudice của mọi người về loài cây này

>>> 'prejudice' (định kiến) không bị đề bài paraphrase, nên nếu không hiểu cũng không sao, ta vẫn có thể dựa vào đó chọn đáp án

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8
reverse
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này tương đối đơn giản vì các cụm paraphrase dễ hiểu:

  • to make people accept potatoes: khiến mọi người chấp nhận potatoes = encourage people to begin planting potatoes

  • adopted = used (adopt: start using something)

  • a bit = some

>>> Dựa vào đây điền được : reverse psychology



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9
meat
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào con số '1800' , ta dễ dàng locate được info

Hiểu đáp án cần điền:

the English people preferred eating ____ with bread, butter and cheese.

=> Đáp án là một loại thức ăn - ăn cùng với bread



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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10
crops
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào các cụm 'high yielding' + 'the obvious solution to England’s food problems'

=> Dễ dàng locate được info

Hiểu đáp án: The obvious way to deal with England food problems were high yielding potato _____ .

=> Sau 'potato' chỉ có thể là một danh từ -> Để tạo thành danh từ ghép

=> Dò với bài đọc, nhanh chóng điền được: crops



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11
soil
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Bài đọc: The potato was well suited to the Irish the soil and climate

Câu hỏi: The Irish soil and climate suited potatoes well

=> Đọc cấu trúc ta dễ dàng nhận ra:

  • Có sự thay đổi vị trí giữa potato soil and climate

  • Thay vì dùng tính từ 'suited' thì dùng động từ 'suit' ở quá khú

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12
cultivation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Dựa vào các cụm exact paraphrasing, dễ dàng khoanh vùng được thông tin





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The Irish population doubled to eight million between 1780 and 1841 , this without any significant expansion of industry or reform of agricultural techniques beyond the widespread cultivation of the potato.

=> Việc dân số tăng gấp đôi chỉ đơn thuần do 'cultivation of the potato' - không cần phải có 'expansion of industry/ reform of agricultural techniques'

=> Based on the cultivation of the potato, the population doubled

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13
investment
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nhắm main idea:

 The potato’s high yields allowed even the poorest farmers to produce more healthy food than they needed with scarcely any investment or hard labor.

=> Poorest farmers cũng có thể produce healthy food với scarcely any investment

=> Scarcely có nghĩa là 'gần như không' -> Without any investment

=> Answer: investment

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