The Hidden Histories Of Exploration Exhibition IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage The Hidden Histories Of Exploration Exhibition được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS - Test 7 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
The Hidden Histories Of Exploration Exhibition IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

The Hidden Histories of Exploration Exhibition
A
A. We have all heard tales of lone, heroic explorers, but what about the local individuals who guided and protected European explorers in many different parts of the globe? Or the go-betweens - including interpreters and traders - who translated the needs and demands of explorers into a language that locals could understand? Such questions have received surprisingly little attention in standard histories, where European explorers are usually the heroes, sometimes the villains. The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition at Britain's Royal Geographical Society in London sets out to present an alternative view, in which exploration is a fundamentally collective experience of work, involving many different people. Many of the most famous examples of explorers said to have been ‘lone travellers’- say, Mungo Park or David Livingstone in Africa - were anything but ‘alone’ on their travels. They depended on local support of various kinds - for food, shelter, protection, information, guidance and solace - as well as on other resources from elsewhere.
B
B. The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) seeks to record this story in its Hidden Histories project, using its astonishingly rich collections. The storage of geographical information was one of the main rationales for the foundation of the KGS in 1830, and the society’s collections now contain more than two million individual items, including books, manuscripts, maps, photographs, art-works, artefacts and film - a rich storehouse of material rejecting the width geographical extent of British interest across the globe. In addition to their remarkable scope and range, those collections contain a striking visual record of exploration: the impulse to collect the world is reflected in a large and diverse image archive. For the researcher, this archive can yield many surprises; materials gathered Tor one purpose - say, maps relating to an international boundary dispute or photographs taken an a scientific expedition - may today be put to quite different uses.
C
C. In their published narratives, European explorers rarely portrayed themselves as vulnerable or dependent on others, despite the fact that without this support they were quite literally lost. Archival research confirms that Europeans were not merely dependent on the work of porters, soldiers, translators, cooks, pilots, glides, hunters and collectors: they also relied on local expertise. Such assistance was essential in identifying potential dangers -poisonous species, unpredictable rivers, uncharted territories - which could mean the difference between life and death. The assistants themselves were usually in a strong bargaining position in the Amazon, for example, access to entire regions would depend on the willingness of local crew members and other assistants to enter areas inhabited by relatively powerful Amerindian groups. In an account of his journey across South America, published in 1836f William Smyth thus complained of frequent ‘desertion' by his helpers : ‘without them it was impossible to get on’.
D
D. Those providing local support and information to explorers were themselves often not locals'. For example, the history of African exploration in the nineteenth century is dominated by the use of Zanzibar as a recruiting station for porters, soldiers and guides who would then travel thousands of miles across the continent. In some accounts, the leading African members of expedition parties - the ‘officers’ or 'foremen' - are identified, and their portraits published alongside those of European explorers.
E
E. The information provided by locals and intermediaries was of potential importance to geographical science. How was this evidence judged? The formal procedures of scientific evaluation provided one framework. Alongside these were more common sense' notions of veracity and reliability, religiously-inspired judgments about the authenticity of testimony, and the routine procedures for cross-checking empirical observations developed in many professions.
F
F. Given explorers' need for local information and support, it was in their interests to develop effective working partnerships with knowledgeable intermediaries who could act as brokers in their dealings with local inhabitants- Many of these people acquired far more experience of exploration than most Europeans could hope to attain. Some managed large groups of men and women, piloted the explorers’ river craft, or undertook mapping work. The tradition was continued with the Everest expeditions in the 1920s and 1930s, which regularly employed the Tibetan interpreter Karma Paul. In Europe, exploration was increasingly thought of as a career; the same might be said of the non-Europeans on whom their expeditions depended.
G
G. These individuals often forged close working relationships with European explorers. Such partnerships depended on mutual respect, though they were not always easy or intimate, as is particularly clear from the history of the Everest expeditions depicted in the Hidden Histories exhibition. The entire back wall is covered by an enlarged version of a single sheet of photographs of Sherpas taken during the 1936 Everest expedition. The document is a powerful reminder of the manpower on which European mountaineering expeditions depended, and also of the importance of local knowledge and assistance. Transformed from archive to wall display, it tells a powerful story through the medium of individual portraits - including Karma Paul, veteran of previous expeditions, and the young Tensing Norgay, 17 years before his successful 1953 ascent. This was a highly charged and transitional moment as the contribution of the Sherpas, depicted here with identity tags round their necks, was beginning to be much more widely recognised. These touching portraits encourage us Lo see them as agents rather than simply colonial subjects or paid employees. Here is a living history, which looks beyond what we already know about exploration: a larger history in which we come to recognise the contribution of everyone involved.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition aims to show the wide range of people involved in expeditions.
2
The common belief about how Park and Livingstone travelled is accurate.
3
The RGS has organised a number of exhibitions since it was founded.
4
Some of the records in the RGS archives are more useful than others.
5
Materials owned by the RGS can be used in ways that were not originally intended.
6
In their publications, European explorers often describe their dependence on their helpers.
7
Local helpers refused to accompany William Smyth during parts of his journey.
Question 8 - 13
The Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
8
reference to the distances that some non-European helpers travelled
9
description of a wide range of different types of documents
10
belief about the effect of an exhibition on people seeing it
11
examples of risks explorers might have been unaware of without local help
12
reference to various approaches to assessing data from local helpers
13
reference to people whose long-term occupation was to organise local assistance for European explorers

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
True
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition sets out to present an alternative view , in which exploration is a fundamentally collective experience of work , involving many different people . = The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition  sets out to present that many different people are involved in expeditions Câu hỏi: The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition aims to show the wide range of people involved in expeditions. => Trùng khớp => Đáp án: TRUE


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2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn Not Given khi làm câu này vì thí sinh sẽ không tìm được những keyword như “belief" hay “accurate" trong bài. Lí do vì thông tin trong bài được paraphrase bằng meanings chứ không chỉ bằng từ đồng nghĩa. Linearthinking
So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: (1) Many explorers such as Mungo Park or David Livingstone (who are) said to have been ‘lone travellers’ were anything but ‘alone’ on their travels . (2) They depended on local support of various kinds => Many explorers such as Park and Livingstone are believed to be travelling alone, but they depended on local support. => The belief that explorers such as Park and Livingstone travelled alone is false.

- Câu hỏi: The common belief about how Park and Livingstone travelled is accurate. So sánh câu hỏi và bài đọc: False # Accurate => Đáp án: FALSE

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3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Cấu trúc located info: RGS seeks to record this story in its Hidden Histories project , using its rich collections .

 The storage of geographical information was one of the main rationales for the foundation of the KGS , and the society’s collections now contain more than two million individual items , including .... (liệt kê thông tin items) 

=> Dù có nhắc tới thông tin “RGS" và sự thành lập của nó (foundation) nhưng trong bài lại chẳng nhắc gì tới số lượng exhibitions được tổ chức. => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN

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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Nếu skim/scan nhanh, thí sinh rất dễ chọn “True" cho câu này vì tìm được 2 keywords “RGS archives” và “useful" trong bài đọc. 2. Linearthinking
So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc:   this archive can vield many surprises : materials gathered for one purpose may today be put to quite different uses => This archieve can surprise people because materials can be used for different purposes => Không hề so sánh materials hay records nào useful hơn records nào 

- Câu hỏi: Some of the records in the RGS archives are more useful than others. => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN

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5
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Đọc cấu trúc thông tin trong bài đọc: this archive can vield many surprises : materials gathered for one purpose may be put to quite different uses = Materials can be gathered for one purpose but can be used in other ways. 

Câu hỏi: Materials owned by the RGS can be used in ways that were not originally intended . = Materials can be intended for one purpose but can be used in other ways. => Đáp án: TRUE

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6
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: In their published narratives , European explorers rarely portrayed themselves as vulnerable or dependent on others , despite the fact that without this support they were quite literally lost . Câu hỏi:  In their publications, European explorers often describe their dependence on their helpers. rarely # often => Đáp án: FALSE



Xem full giải thích
7
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: In an account of his journey across South America , William Smyth complained of frequent desertion (= bỏ rơi) by his helpers : without them it was impossible to get on

=> Helpers abandoned/ left  William Smyth  during his journey. - Câu hỏi: Local helpers refused to accompany William Smyth during parts of his journey.

=> Đáp án: True



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8
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: The history of African exploration is dominated by the use of Zanzibar as a recruiting station for porters, soldiers and guides who would then travel thousands of miles across the continent => porters, soldiers and guides chính là những non-European helpers = non-European helpers travelled thousands of miles across the continent.   - Câu hỏi: reference to the distances that some non-European helpers travelled

=> Distances được đề cập trong đoạn D chính là “thousands of miles" => Đáp án: D.



Xem full giải thích
9
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc (paragraph B): The storage of geographical information was one of the main rationales for the foundation of the RGS , and the Society’s collections [ contain more than two million individual items, including... (liệt kê tài liệu) - Câu hỏi: description of a wide range of different types of documents => trùng khớp

=> Đáp án: B.



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10
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning:

Bạn nào skim/scan câu này để tìm keywords tương tự trong bài thì chắc chắn sẽ không locate được thông tin nằm ở đoạn G, vì thông tin được paraphrase hoàn toàn bằng nghĩa. 2. Linearthinking:
- Bài đọc (đoạn G): These touching portraits encourage us to see them as agents rather than colonial subjects or paid employees .

- Câu hỏi: belief about the effect of an exhibition on people seeing it

=> Câu hỏi nói chung về ảnh hưởng của triển lãm lên những người theo dõi, bài đọc nói rõ ảnh hưởng này là gì (encourage us to see them as … than… - khuyến khích người theo dõi thay đổi cách nhìn nhận của mình)

=> Đáp án: G



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11
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

- Bài đọc:

 Europeans were not merely dependent on the work of.... : they also relied on local expertise Such assistance was essential in identifying potential dangers - (liệt kê cụ thể dangers) = Help from local expertise was important in identifying potential dangers, which could save explores’ lives = Explores need local help to identify potential dangers So với câu hỏi: examples of risks explorers might have been unaware of without local help

= Explorers might have not known about risks without local help = Explorers need local help to know about risks => Đáp án: C



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12
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Thông tin trong bài: (1) The information provided by locals and intermediaries was of potential importance to geographical science . How was this evidence judged? (2) The formal procedures of evaluation provided ... (3) Alongside (= Beside) these were .... => (1) The information provided by locals was judged. (2) The formal way to judge this information is… (3) Other than this way, other ways to judge this information is…. => Main idea: Different ways (= approaches) to judge information provided by locals Câu hỏi: reference to various approaches to assessing data from local helpers

=> Đáp án: E



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13
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Thông tin trong bài: Given explorers’ need for local information and support , it was in their interests to develop working partnerships with intermediaries who could act as brokers in their dealings with local inhabitants . = Explorers need local information and support, so they develop partnerships with people to help them deal with local inhabitants. = Explorers need local information and support, so there are people who work to help them with local inhabitants. - Câu hỏi: reference to people whose long-term occupation was to organise local assistance for European explorers => Đáp án: F


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