The Concept Of Childhood In Western Countries IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage The Concept Of Childhood In Western Countries được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 6 - Test 1 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
The Concept Of Childhood In Western Countries IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

The Concept of Childhood in Western Countries
The history of childhood has been a heated topic in social history since the highly influential book Centuries of Childhood’, written by French historian Philippe Aries, emerged in 1960. He claimed that ‘childhood’ is a concept created by modern society. Whether childhood is itself a recent invention has been one of the most intensely debated issues in the history of childhood. Historian Philippe Aries asserted that children were regarded as miniature adults, with all the intellect and personality that this implies, in Western Europe during the Middle Ages (up to about the end of the 15th century). After scrutinising medieval pictures and diaries, he concluded that there was no distinction between children and adults for they shared similar leisure activities and work; However, this does not mean children were neglected, forsaken or despised, he argued. The idea of childhood corresponds to awareness about the peculiar nature of childhood, which distinguishes the child from adult, even the young adult. Therefore, the concept of childhood is not to be confused with affection for children. Traditionally, children played a functional role in contributing to the family income in the history. Under this circumstance, children were considered to be useful. Back in the Middle Ages, children of 5 or 6 years old did necessary chores for their parents. During the 16th century, children of 9 or 10 years old were often encouraged or even forced to leave their family to work as servants for wealthier families or apprentices for a trade. In the 18th and 19th centuries, industrialisation created a new demand for child labour; thus many children were forced to work for a long time in mines, workshops and factories. The issue of whether long hours of labouring would interfere with children’s growing bodies began to perplex social reformers. Some of them started to realise the potential of systematic studies to monitor how far these early deprivations might be influencing children’s development. The concerns of reformers gradually had some impact upon the working condition of children. For example, in Britain, the Factory Act of 1833 signified the emergence of legal protection of children from exploitation and was also associated with the rise of schools for factory children. Due partly to factory reform, the worst forms of child exploitation were eliminated gradually. The influence of trade unions and economic changes also contributed ;o the evolution by leaving some forms of child labour redundant during the 19th century. Initiating children into work as ‘useful’ children was no longer a priority, and childhood was deemed to be a time for play and education for all children instead of a privileged minority. Childhood was increasingly understood as a more extended phase of dependency, development and learning with the delay of the age for starting full-time work- Even so, work continued to play a significant, if less essential, role in children’s lives in the later 19th and 20th centuries. Finally, the ‘useful child’ has become a controversial concept during the first decade of the 21st century, especially in the context of global concern about large numbers of children engaged in child labour. The half-time schools established upon the Factory Act of 1833 allowed children to work and attend school. However, a significant proportion of children never attended school in the 1840s, and even if they did, they dropped out by the age of 10 or 11. By the end of the 19th century in Britain, the situation changed dramatically, and schools became the core to the concept of a ‘normal’ childhood. It is no longer a privilege for children to attend school and all children are expected to spend a significant part of their day in a classroom. Once in school, children’s lives could be separated from domestic life and the adult world of work. In this way, school turns into an institution dedicated to shaping the minds, behaviour and morals of the young. Besides, education dominated the management of children’s waking hours through the hours spent in the classroom, homework (the growth of ‘after school’ activities), and the importance attached to parental involvement. Industrialisation, urbanisation and mass schooling pose new challenges for those who are responsible for protecting children’s welfare, as well as promoting their learning. An increasing number of children are being treated as a group with unique needs, and are organised into groups in the light of their age. For instance, teachers need to know some information about what to expect of children in their classrooms, what kinds of instruction are appropriate for different age groups, and what is the best way to assess children’s progress. Also, they want tools enabling them to sort and select children according to their abilities and potential.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Aries pointed out that children did different types of work like adults during the Middle Ages.
2
Working children during the Middle Ages were generally unloved.
3
Some scientists thought that overwork might damage the health of young children.
4
The rise of trade unions majorly contributed to the protection of children from exploitation in the 19th century.
5
By the aid of half-time schools, most children went to school in the mid-19th century.
6
In the 20th century, almost all children needed to go to school with a full-time schedule.
7
Nowadays, children’s needs are much differentiated and categorised based on how old they are.
Question 8 - 13
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
8
What has not become a hot topic until the French historian Philippe Aries’ book caused great attention?
9
What image did Aries believe children are supposed to be like in Western Europe during the Middle Ages?
10
What historical event generated the need for a large number of children to work for a long time in the 18th and 19th centuries?
11
What bill was enacted to protect children from exploitation in Britain in the 1800s?
12
What activities were more and more regarded as preferable to almost all children in the 19th century?
13
In what place did children spend the majority of time during their day in school?

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Dựa vào tên riêng Aries + thời gian Middle Ages dễ dàng locate được đoạn 2.



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án



Aries kết luận: there was no distiction  between children and adults  for they shared similar work 

=> Ko có distinction (sự khác biệt) giữa children và adults; bởi vì họ có similar work

Xem full giải thích
2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

Scan trong bài đọc không thấy từ 'unloved'

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN

=> Sai





Xem full giải thích
3
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Vì gần như các từ đều đã được paraphrase, chỉ Skim & Scan thì sẽ không tìm được các từ trong câu hỏi

=> Từ đó dễ chọn NOT GIVEN





2. Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



 1 The issue of whether long hours of labouring would interfere with children's growing bodies  began to perplex social reformers 

Xem full giải thích
4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ Scan & Skim:

Scan trong bài đọc thấy các từ khóa “child exploitation”, “trade unions” và “contributed to” như trong câu hỏi

=> Vội chọn TRUE





2. Với Linearthinking



Xem full giải thích
5
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Dựa vào cụm “half-time schools” + thời điểm “in the mid-19th century” tìm được đoạn 6.



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Simplify located info:

 1 half-time schools allowed children to attend school

Xem full giải thích
6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ Scan & Skim:



Scan trong bài đọc thấy cụm “spend a significant part of their day in a classroom” và nghĩ có lẽ giống với “go to school with a full-time schedule”

=> Vội chọn TRUE là sai





2. Với Linearthinking



Xem full giải thích
7
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Vì các từ đã được paraphrase, nếu áp dụng Scan & Skim sẽ khó xác định được đoạn cần đọc



2. Áp dụng Linearthinking



 Children are being treated as a group with unique needs , and are organised into groups in the light of their age 

=> Children được 'organised into groups in the light of their age' = 'categorised based on how old they are '

=> Nếu ở đây bạn không biết từ 'unique' hay 'differentiated' cũng không sao, mình có thể đoán nghĩa dựa trên sự tương đồng của cấu trúc, và đặc biệt là cụm their age

Xem full giải thích
8
history of childhood
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là 1 danh từ - là 1 thứ gì đó chưa phải là hot topic until (cho đến khi) Philippe Aries’ book tạo sự chú ý

=> Dựa vào tên riêng “Philippe Aries” dễ dàng locate được thông tin ở câu đầu tiên trong bài.



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Xem full giải thích
9
miniature adults
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là 1 danh từ – là image mà Aries gắn với children ở Western Europe trong thời kỳ Middle Ages 

=> Dựa vào Western Europe + Middle Ages tìm được đoạn 2.



Step 2: Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc của Linearthinking để nắm main idea



Xem full giải thích
10
industrialisation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là 1 danh từ - là 1 historical event (sự kiện lịch sử) – Đây là thứ khiến nhiều children làm việc for a long time trong 18th and 19th centuries. 

=> Dựa vào thời gian 18th and 19th centuries tìm được đoạn 4.



Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea



Xem full giải thích
11
the Factory Act
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Nếu ko hiểu được từ “bill” “enacted”, vẫn có thể đoán được: đáp án là danh từ - là thứ gì đó protect children from exploitation ở Britain in the 1800s

=> Dựa vào Britain + 1800s biết được đáp án ở đoạn 5.



Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea



Xem full giải thích
12
play and education
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

=> Đáp án là danh từ số nhiều – là những activities ngày càng được prefer dành cho almost all children trong 19th century

  • Dựa vào thời gian 19th century +cụm “all children” tìm được đoạn 5



Step 2: Áp dụng đọc simplify + connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea



Xem full giải thích
13
(a) classroom
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info:

Đáp án là danh từ - là a placemột nơi nào đó in school mà children dành majority of time trong ngày ở đó.

  • Dựa vào cụm “majority of time during their day” + “school” sẽ tìm được câu 1 đoạn 7



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Xem full giải thích

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