The Art Of Healing IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage The Art Of Healing được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Practice Test Plus 1 - Test 5 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
The Art Of Healing IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

THE ART OF HEALING
As with so much, the medicine of the Tang dynasty left its European counterpart in the shade. It boasted its own ‘national health service’, and left behind the teachings of the incomparable Sun Simiao
If no further evidence was available of the sophistication of China in the Tang era, then a look at Chinese medicine would be sufficient. At the Western end of the Eurasian continent the Roman empire had vanished, and there was nowhere new to claim the status of the cultural and political centre of the world. In fact, for a few centuries, this centre happened to be the capital of the Tang empire, and Chinese medicine under the Tang was far ahead of its European counterpart. The organizational context of health and healing was structured to a degree that had no precedence in Chinese history and found no parallel elsewhere. An Imperial Medical Office had been inherited from previous dynasties: it was immediately restructured and staffed with directors and deputy directors, chief and assistant medical directors, pharmacists and curators of medicinal herb gardens and further personnel. Within the first two decades after consolidating its rule, the Tang administration set up one central and several provincial medical colleges with professors, lecturers, clinical practitioners and pharmacists to train students in one or all of the four departments of medicine, acupuncture, physical therapy and exorcism. Physicians were given positions in governmental medical service only after passing qualifying examinations. They were remunerated in accordance with the number of cures they had effected during the past year. In 723 Emperor Xuanzong personally composed a general formulary of prescriptions recommended to him by one of his imperial pharmacists and sent it to all the provincial medical schools. An Arabic traveler, who visited China in 851, noted with surprise that prescriptions from the emperor’s formulary were publicized on notice boards at crossroads to enhance the welfare of the population. The government took care to protect the general populace from potentially harmful medical practice. The Tang legal code was the first in China to include laws concerned with harmful and heterodox medical practices. For example, to treat patients for money without adhering to standard procedures was defined as fraud combined with theft and had to be tried in accordance with the legal statutes on theft. If such therapies resulted in the death of a patient, the healer was to be banished for two and a half years. In case a physician purposely failed to practice according to the standards, he was to be tried in accordance with the statutes on premeditated homicide. Even if no harm resulted, he was to be sentenced to sixty strokes with a heavy cane. In fact, physicians practicing during the Tang era had access to a wealth of pharmaceutical and medical texts, their contents ranging from purely pragmatic advice to highly sophisticated theoretical considerations. Concise descriptions of the position, morphology, and functions of the organs of the human body stood side by side in libraries with books enabling readers to calculate the daily, seasonal and annual climatic conditions of cycles of sixty years and to understand and predict their effects on health. Several Tang authors wrote large collections of prescriptions, continuing a literary tradition documented since the 2nd century BC. The two most outstanding works to be named here were those by Sun Simiao (581-682?) and Wang Tao (c.670-755). The latter was a librarian who copied more than six thousand formulas, categorized in 1,104 sections, from sixty-five older works and published them under the title Waitai miyao. Twenty-four sections, for example, were devoted to ophthalmology. They reflect the Indian origin of much Chinese knowledge on ailments of the eye and, in particular, of cataract surgery. Sun Simiao was the most eminent physician and author not only of the Tang dynasty, but of the entire first millennium AD. He was a broadly educated intellectual and physician; his world view integrated notions of all three of the major currents competing at his time - Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism. Sun Simiao gained fame during his lifetime as a clinician (he was summoned to the imperial court at least once) and as author of the Prescriptions Worth Thousands in Gold (Qianjinfang) and its sequel. In contrast to developments in the 12th century, physicians relied on prescriptions and single substances to treat their patients’ illnesses. The theories of systematic correspondences, characteristic of the acupuncture tradition, had not been extended to cover pharmacology yet. Sun Simiao rose to the pantheon of Chinese popular Buddhism in about the 13th century. He was revered as paramount Medicine God. He gained this extraordinary position in Chinese collective memory not only because he was an outstanding clinician and writer, but also for his ethical concerns. Sun Simiao was the first Chinese author known to compose an elaborate medical ethical code. Even though based on Buddhist and Confucian values, his deontology is comparable to the Hippocratic Oath. It initiated a debate on the task of medicine, its professional obligations, social position and moral justification that continued until the arrival of Western medicine in the 19th century. Despite or - more likely - because of its long- lasting affluence and political stability, the Tang dynasty did not add any significantly new ideas to the interpretation of illness, health and healing. Medical thought reflects human anxieties; changes in medical thought always occur in the context of new existential fears or of fundamentally changed social circumstances. Nevertheless, medicine was a most fascinating ingredient of Tang civilization and it left a rich legacy to subsequent centuries.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 3
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
1
In the first paragraph, the writer draws particular attention to
A
the lack of medical knowledge in China prior to the Tang era
B
the Western interest in Chinese medicine during the Tang era
C
the systematic approach taken to medical issues during the Tang era
D
the rivalry between Chinese and Western cultures during the Tang era
2
During the Tang era, a government doctor’s annual salary depended upon
A
the effectiveness of his treatment.
B
the extent of his medical experience.
C
the number of people he had successfully trained.
D
the breadth of his medical expertise.
3
Which of the following contravened the law during the Tang era?
A
a qualified doctor’s refusal to practice
B
the use of unorthodox medical practices
C
patient dying under medical treatment
D
the receipt of money for medical treatment
Question 4 - 10
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In boxes on your answer sheet write

YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage
4
Academic staff sometimes taught a range of medical subjects during the Tang era.
5
The medical knowledge available during the Tang era only benefited the wealthy.
6
Tang citizens were encouraged to lead a healthy lifestyle.
7
Doctors who behaved in a fraudulent manner were treated in the same way as ordinary criminals during the Tang era.
8
Medical reference books published during the Tang era covered practical and academic issues.
9
Waitai miyao contained medical data from the Tang era.
10
Chinese medical authors are known to have influenced Indian writing.
Question 11 - 13
Complete the sentences below with words taken from Reading Passage.
Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
11
The first known medical writing in China dates back to the 
38
 .
12
During the Tang era, doctors depended most on 
39
  and single substances to treat their patients.
13


is famous for producing a set of medical rules for Chinese physicians.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The organizational context of health and healing was structured to a degree that had no precedence in Chinese history and found no parallel elsewhere.

=> Hệ thông y học (của Tang Empire) - được hệ thống tới một mức độ - mà chưa từng có trong Chinese history - cũng như ở bất kì nơi đâu

=> Tác giả chú ý tới hệ thông y học của Tang Era

=> Chọn C



Xem full giải thích
2
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'government doctor', ta có thể tìm được thông tin về 'governmental medical service'

>>> 'physicians' là một cách gọi cụ thể hơn của 'doctors' nha, cẩn thận nhầm với 'physicist' (nhà vật lý học)





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Physicians were given positions in governmental medical service only after passing qualifying examinations.

Xem full giải thích
3
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

>>>

Khi đọc câu hỏi thấy từ 'contravened' không biết, nhiều bạn sẽ hoảng, nghĩ không hiểu câu hỏi thì làm sao mà làm. Tuy nhiên, ta sẽ thử tìm cách làm câu này dù không hiểu nghĩa nhé



1 - Đầu tiên, ta cần xác định được thông tin trong bài



=> Dựa vào thông tin 'the law, không khó để ta tìm thấy thông tin 'legal codes' + 'laws' , từ đó xác định được thông tin

2 - Sau đó, ta phân tích câu hỏi



Xem full giải thích
4
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Academic staff sometimes taught a range of medical subjects during the Tang era

=> Từ 'academic' vốn đã quá quen thuộc, vì từ này gắn liền với kỳ thi IELTS -> Thấy 'academic staff', nghĩ tới những người có học thức, chuyên môn cao

=> Tìm các thông tin về việc - các môn học y khoa được dạy bởi những cá nhân có học thức, chuyên môn

=> Từ đó ta dễ dàng nhận ra các từ vựng quen thuộc như 'professors, lecturers' hay 'medicine, physical therapy'

=> Xác định được thông tin

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5
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ở câu này ta nên hiểu từ 'prescriptions' vì như vậy ta có thể hiểu trọn vẹn nghĩa của câu. Tuy nhiên, trong trường hợp không hiểu, ta vẫn có thể đoán nghĩa của nó

>>> Ta thấy có thông tin 'prescriptions recommended to him by one of his imperial pharmacists'

>>> 'prescriptions' là thứ được đề xuất bởi 'pharmacists' -> Biết có liên quan gì tới 'medical knowledge'





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The government took care to protect the general populace from potentially harmful medical practice.

=> Nhà nước chỉ bảo vệ người dân - khỏi các phương pháp y khoa có hại

=> Không có thông tin nào nói người dân được khuyến khích sống lành mạnh

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN

Xem full giải thích
7
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Doctors who behaved in a fraudulent manner were treated in the same way as ordinary criminals

=> Có 'fradulent manner' sẽ bị xử lý như tội phạm thông thường -> Đoán được 'fraudulent' mang nghĩ tiêu cực (trong trường hợp không hiểu)





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

to treat patients for money - without adhering to standard procedures was defined as fraud combined with theft and had to be tried in accordance with  the legal statutes on theft.

Xem full giải thích
8
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ở đây ta dựa vào cụm 'medical reference books' thì sẽ tìm được cụm 'medical texts'. Ngoài ra phía sau còn có từ 'contents' (nội dung) rất quen thuộc -> Biết đang đề cập tới sách

=> Xác định được info





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 physicians had access to a wealth of pharmaceutical and medical texts , their contents ranging from purely pragmatic advice to highly sophisticated theoretical considerations.

Xem full giải thích
9
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 a librarian who copied more than six thousand formulas , categorized in 1,104 sections , from sixty-five older works and  published them under the title Waitai miyao.

=> Waitai miyao gồm 6000 công thức - từ 65 tác phẩm cũ hơn

=> Không hề thấy đề cập cụ thể các thông tin trong Waitai miyao có nguồn gốc từ thời (era) nào

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN

Xem full giải thích
10
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 They reflect the Indian origin of much Chinese knowledge on ailments of the eye and, in particular, of cataract surgery.

=> Chúng (các sections trong sách) phản ánh - kiến thức Trung Hoa có nguồn gốc từ Indian - về - aliments of the eye....

=> Nói cách khác, các kiến thức từ Ấn Độ mới ảnh hưởng tới các tác giả Trung Hoa

=> Mâu thuẫn với câu hỏi -> Chọn NO



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11
2nd century/2nd century BC
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: The first known medical writing in China dates back to the ____

=> 'Dates back' -> Biết thông tin cần điền là một mốc thời gian - lúc mà có ghi chép y học đầu tiên ở Trung Quốc

=> Từ đây ta tập trung vào các con số + dựa vào các từ như 'wrote large collections' (liên quan tới việc ghi chép)

=> Tịm được thông tin



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12
prescriptions
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm paraphrase vừa dài, vừa gần giống hệt nhau, ta có thể dễ dàng tìm được thông tin

>>> Câu này rất dễ vì verb pattern 'depend on' 'rely on' đã rất quen thuộc với chúng ta

>>> 'Physicans' là một cách gọi cụ thể khác của 'doctors', và đó cũng là cách gọi xuyên suốt bài, nếu làm những câu trước rồi chắc chắn phải hiểu

=> Chúng ta dễ dàng nhận ra đáp án là: prescriptions



Xem full giải thích
13
Sun Simiao
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: _____ is famous for producing a set of medical rules for Chinese physicians.

=> Đáp án là tên riêng một ai đó (vị trí chủ ngữ) - người mà đã soạn ra 'medical rules' cho các bác sĩ Trung Quốc

=> Ngoài ra, nếu để ý sẽ thấy, bắt đầu từ đoạn 4 từ dưới đếm lên sẽ nói về các tác giả ghi chép tài liệu

=> Từ đó dựa vào 'medical rules' sẽ tìm ra được thông tin 'medical ethical code'



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