T-Rex - Hunter Or Scavenger IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage T-Rex - Hunter Or Scavenger được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 4 - Test 4 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
T-Rex - Hunter Or Scavenger IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

T-Rex: Hunter or Scavenger?
Jack Homer is an unlikely academic: his dyslexia is so bad that he has trouble reading a book. But he can read the imprint of life in sandstone or muddy shale across a distance of l00 years, and it is this gift that has made him curator of palaeontology at Montana State University’s Museum of the Rockies, the leader of a multi-million dollar scientific project to expose a complete slice of life 68 million years ago, and a consultant to Steven Spielberg and other Hollywood figures. His father had a sand and gravel quarry in Montana, and the young Horner was a collector of stones and bones, complete with notes about when and where he found them. “My father had owned a ranch when he was younger, in Montana,” he says. “He was enough of a geologist, being a sand and gravel man, to have a pretty good notion that they were dinosaur bones. So when I was eight years old he took me back to the area that had been his ranch, to where he had seen these big old bones. I picked up one. I am pretty sure it was the upper arm bone of a duckbilled dinosaur: it probably wasn’t a duckbilled dinosaur but closely related to that. I catalogued it, and took good care of it, and then later when I was in high school; excavated my first dinosaur skeleton. It obviously started earlier than eight and I literally have been driven ever since. I feel like I was born this way.” Horner spent seven years at university, but never graduated. “I have a learning disability, I would call it a learning difference - dyslexia, they call it - and I just had a terrible time with English and foreign languages and things like that. For a degree in geology or biology they required two years of a foreign language. There was no way in the world I could do that. In fact, I didn’t really pass English. So I couldn’t get a degree, I just wasn’t capable of it. But I took all of the courses required and I wrote a thesis and I did all sorts of things. So I have the education, I just don’t have the piece of paper,” he says. “We definitely know we are working on a very broad coastal plain with the streams and rivers bordered by conifers and hardwood plants, and the areas in between these rivers were probably fern-covered. There were no grasses at all: just ferns and bushes - an unusual landscape, kind of taking the south-eastern United States - Georgia, Florida - and mixing it with the moors of England and flattening it out,” he says. “Triceratops is very common: they are the cows of the Cretaceous, they are everywhere. Duckbilled dinosaurs are relatively common but not as common as triceratops and T-rex, for a meat-eating dinosaur, is very common. What we would consider the predator-prey ratio seems really off the scale. What is interesting is the little dromaeosaurs, the ones we know for sure were good predators, are haven’t been found.” That is why he sees T-rex not as the lion of the Cretaceous savannah but its vulture. “Look at the wildebeest that migrate in the Serengeti of Africa, a million individuals lose about 200,000 individuals in that annual migration. There is a tremendous carrion base there. And so you have hyenas, you have tremendous numbers of vultures that are scavenging, you don’t have all that many animals that are good predators. If T-rex was a top predator, especially considering how big it is, you’d expect it to be extremely rare, much rarer than the little dromaeosaurs, and yet they are everywhere, they are a dime a dozen,” he says. A 12-tonne T-rex is a lot of vulture, but he doesn’t see the monster as clumsy. He insisted his theory and finding, dedicated to further research upon it, of course, he would like to reevaluate if there is any case that additional evidence found or explanation raised by others in the future. He examined the leg bones of the T-rex, and compared the length of the thigh bone (upper leg), to the shin bone (lower leg). He found that the thigh bone was equal in length or slightly longer than the shin bone, and much thicker and heavier, which proves that the animal was built to be a slow walker rather than fast running. On the other hand, the fossils of fast hunting dinosaurs always showed that the shin bone was longer than the thigh bone. This same truth can be observed in many animals of today which are designed to run fast: the ostrich, cheetah, etc. He also studied the fossil teeth of the T-rex, and compared them with the teeth of the Velociraptor, and put the nail in the coffin of the “hunter T-rex theory”. The Velociraptor’s teeth which like stake knives: sharp, razor-edged, and capable of tearing through flesh with ease. The T-rex’s teeth were huge, sharp at their tip, but blunt, propelled by enormous jaw muscles, which enabled them to only crush bones. With the evidence presented in his documentary, Horner was able to prove that the idea of the T-rex as being a hunting and ruthless killing machine is probably just a myth. In light of the scientific clues he was able to unearth, the T-rex was a slow, sluggish animal which had poor vision, an extraordinary sense of smell, that often reached its “prey” after the real hunters were done feeding, and sometimes it had to scare the hunters away from a corpse. In order to do that, the T-rex had to have been ugly, nasty-looking, and stinky. This is actually true of nearly all scavenger animals. They are usually vile and nasty looking.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Jack Horner knew exactly the bone picked up in his father’s ranch belonged to a certain dinosaur when he was at the age of 8.
2
ack Horner achieved a distinctive degree in university when he graduated.
3
Jack Horner believes that the number of prey should be more than that of predators.
4
T-rex’s number is equivalent to the number of vulture in the Serengeti.
5
The hypothesis that T-rex is top predator conflicts with the fact of predator-prey ratio which Jack found.
6
Jack Horner refused to accept any other viewpoints about T-rex’s theory.
7
Jack Horner is the first man that discovered T-rex’s bones in the world.
Question 8 - 13
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Jack Horner found that T-rex’s 
8
 is shorter than the thigh bone,which demonstrated that it was actually a 
9
, unlike other swift animals such as ostrich or 
10
 that was built to 
11
. Another explanation support his idea is that T-rex’s teeth were rather 
12
, which only allowed T-rex to 
13
 hard bones instead of tearing flesh like Velociraptor.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
True
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 when I was eight years old he took me back to the area that had been his ranch , to where he had seen these big old bones. 

 2 I picked up one. 

 3 I am pretty sure it was the upper arm bone of a duckbilled dinosaur

=> 1 + 2 + 3 : Năm 8 tuổi, khi được bố dẫn đến xem 'big old bones' ở nông trại của ông, Jack Horner khá chắc chắn đó là 'bone of duckbilled dinosuar'

Xem full giải thích
2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'university', ta dễ dàng locate được info



Sau đó ta thấy câu hỏi có sự đối lập rõ rệt với bài đọc:

achieved a distinctive degree in university when he graduated # never graduated

=> Thật ra ông ấy chưa từng tốt nghiệp

=> Chọn TRUE



Xem full giải thích
3
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào 'prey' + 'predators' ta có thể tìm được thông tin 'prey-predators ratio', từ đó tìm được các ví dụ như Triceratops + T-rex



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 “Triceratops is very common : they are the cows of the Cretaceous , they are everywhere. 

 2 Duckbilled dinosaurs are relatively common but not as common as triceratops and T-rex 

 3 What we would consider the predator-prey ratio seems really off the scale.

Xem full giải thích
4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: T-rex's number is equivalent to the number of vulture in the Serengeti.

=> Số lượng T-rex thì tương đồng với số lượng vulture

=> Trong bài ta có thể thấy có nhắc đến T-rex ví nó như vulture

=> Không có bất kì thông tin nào đề cập đến số lượng giữa chúng

>>> Ta cũng nhận thấy thông tin đánh lạc hướng 'a million' + '200,000', tuy nhiên đó là số liệu của wildebeest

Xem full giải thích
5
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

>>> Trước hết ta cần nhắc lại, theo predator-prey ratio của Jack thì số lượng prey vượt xa predator (xem lại câu 3)

Giờ ta simplify thông tin để dễ đọc hơn nhé:

If T-rex was a top predator , you’d expect it to be extremely rare , and yet they are everywhere , they are a dime a dozen

=> Nếu T-rex là top predator, thì nó phải hiếm (theo như predator-prey ratio của Jack)

Xem full giải thích
6
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 He insisted his theory and finding , dedicated to further research upon it , of course , he would like to reevaluate if there is any case that additional evidence found or explanation raised by others in the future.

>>> Ở câu này nếu hiểu được từ 'insisted' ta sẽ chọn được ngay đáp án.

>>> Insisted : to say firmly or demand forcefully, especially when others disagree with or oppose what you say

>>> Khẳng định cái gì đó, đặc biệt là khi những người khác không đồng tình/ phản đối

Xem full giải thích
7
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Jack Horner is the first man that discovered T-rex’s bones in the world.

=> Jack là người đầu tiên phát hiện ra T-rex's bones trên thế giới

=> Tuy nhiên, bài đọc chỉ nói 'he examined the leg bones of the T-rex'

=> Chỉ cho biết ông ấy chỉ nghiên cứu xương T-rex, ta cũng không rõ là ông ấy có phải người đầu tiên phát hiện ra không

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
8
shin bone
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Jack Horner found that T-rex’s ____ is shorter than the thigh bone

=> Đáp án cần tìm là danh từ - cái gì đó ngắn hơn thigh bone

=> Tìm các thông tin so sánh trong bài





Phân tích info: thigh bone was equal in length or slightly longer than the shin bone

Xem full giải thích
9
slow walker
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 He found that the thigh bone was equal in length or slightly longer than the shin bone, and much thicker and heavier , which  proves that the animal was built to be a slow walker rather than fast running.

=> Ta dễ dàng thấy được việc 'thigh bone' dài hơn 'shin bone' cho thấy rằng T-rex là một 'slow walker' - thay vì 'fast running'

=> Answer: slow walker



>>>

Trong trường hợp bạn nào điền nhầm 'fast running' thì nhớ 'rather than' là thay vì -> ý là nó không chạy nhanh, và hơn nữa loại từ cũng không phù hợp. Nếu theo sau mạo từ 'a', thì phải là 'fast runner'

Xem full giải thích
10
cheetah
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào chỗ trống, ta biết đáp án cần điền là một động vật chạy nhanh, song song với ostrich

=> Quá dễ dàng để nhận ra đó là 'cheetah'

=> Answer: cheetah



Xem full giải thích
11
run fast
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này cũng rất dễ, chỉ cần so sánh paraphrase là ta rút ra được đáp án:

swift animals that was built to ______ = animals which are designed to run fast

=> Answer: run fast



Xem full giải thích
12
blunt
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Vì 2 câu này liên quan tới nhau, nên ta phân tích cả 2 cùng lúc

Hiểu câu hỏi: T-rex’s teeth were rather (12) ____ which   only allowed T-rex to (13) _____ hard bones 

=> Đáp án là câu 12 là tính từ - một đặc tính của T-rex's teeth

=> Đáp án câu 13 là động từ - một hành động mà T-rex chỉ có thể làm với hard bones

Xem full giải thích
13
crush
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Vì 2 câu này liên quan tới nhau, nên ta phân tích cả 2 cùng lúc

Hiểu câu hỏi: T-rex’s teeth were rather (12) ____ which only allowed T-rex to (13) _____ hard bones 

=> Đáp án là câu 12 là tính từ - một đặc tính của T-rex's teeth

=> Đáp án câu 13 là động từ - một hành động mà T-rex chỉ có thể làm với hard bones

Xem full giải thích

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