Stealth Forces In Weight Loss IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Stealth Forces In Weight Loss được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 4 - Test 1 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Stealth Forces In Weight Loss IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Stealth Forces in Weight Loss
The field of weight loss is like the ancient fable about the blind men and the elephant. Each man investigates a different part of the animal and reports back, only to discover their findings are bafflingly incompatible.
A
A. The various findings by public-health experts, physicians, psychologists, geneticists, molecular biologists, and nutritionists are about as similar as an elephant’s tusk is to its tail. Some say obesity is largely predetermined by our genes and biology; others attribute it to an overabundance of fries, soda, and screen-sucking; still others think we’re fat because of viral infection, insulin, or the metabolic conditions we encountered in the womb. “Everyone subscribes to their own little theory,” says Robert Berkowitz, medical director of the Center for Weight and Eating Disorders at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. We’re programmed to hang onto the fat we have, and some people are predisposed to create and carry more fat than others. Diet and exercise help, but in the end the solution will inevitably be more complicated than pushing away the plate and going for a walk. “It’s not as simple as ‘You’re fat because you’re lazy’ says Nikhil Dhurandhar, an associate professor at Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge. “Willpower is not a prerogative of thin people. It’s distributed equally.”
B
B. Science may still be years away from giving us a miracle formula for fat-loss. Hormone leptin is a crucial player in the brain’s weight-management circuitry. Some people produce too little leptin; others become desensitised to it. And when obese people lose weight, their leptin levels plummet along with their metabolism. The body becomes more efficient at using fuel and conserving fat, which makes it tough to keep the weight off. Obese dieters’ bodies go into a state of chronic hunger, a feeling Rudolph Leibel, an obesity researcher at Columbia University, compares to thirst. “Some people might be able to tolerate chronic thirst, but the majority couldn’t stand it”, says Leibel. “Is that a behavioural problem – a lack of willpower? I don’t think so.”
C
C. The government has long espoused moderate daily exercise – of the evening-walk or take-the-stairs variety – but that may not do much to budge the needle on the scale. A 150-pound person burns only 150 calories on a half-hour walk, the equivalent of two apples. It’s good for the heart, less so for the gut. “Radical changes are necessary,” says Deirdre Barrett, a psychologist at Harvard Medical School and author of Waistland. “People don’t lose weight by choosing the small fries or talking a little walk every other day.” Barrett suggests taking a cue from the members of the Nation Weight Control Registry (NWCR), a self-selected group of more than 5,000 successful weight-losers who have shed diets an average 66 pounds and kept it off 5.5 years. Some registry members lost weight using low-carb diets; some went low-fat; other eliminated refined foods. Some did it on their own; others relied on counselling. That said, not everyone can lose 66 pounds and not everyone needs to. The goal shouldn’t be getting thin, but getting healthy. It’s enough to whittle your weight down to the low end of your set range, says Jeffrey Friedman, a geneticist at Rockefeller University. Losing even 10 pounds vastly decreases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure. The point is to not give up just because you don’t look like a swimsuit model.
D
D. The negotiation between your genes and the environment begins on day one. Your optimal weight, writ by genes, appears to get edited early on by conditions even before birth, inside the womb. If a woman has high blood-sugar levels while she’s pregnant, her children are more likely to be overweight or obese, according to a study of almost 10,000 mother-child pairs. Maternal diabetes may influence a child’s obesity risk through a process called metabolic imprinting, says Teresa Hillier, an endocrinologist with Kaiser Permanente’s Center for Health Research and the study’s lead author. The implication is clear: Weight may be established very early on, and obesity largely passed from mother to child. Numerous studies in both animals and humans have shown that a mother’s obesity directly increases her child’s risk for weight gain. The best advice for moms-to-be: Get fit before you get pregnant. You’ll reduce your risk of complications during pregnancy and increase your chances of having a normal-weight child.
E
E. It’s the $64,000 question: Which diets work? It got people wondering: Isn’t there a better way to diet? A study seemed to offer an answer. The paper compared two groups of adults: those who, after eating, secreted high levels of insulin, a hormone that sweeps blood sugar out of the bloodstream and promotes its storage as fat, and those who secreted less. Within each group, half were put on a low-fat diet and half on a low-glycemic-load diet. On average, the low-insulin-secreting group fared the same on both diets, losing nearly 10 pounds in the first six months — but they gained about half of it back by the end of the 18-month study. The high-insulin group didn’t do as well on the low-fat plan, losing about 4.5 pounds, and gaining back more than half by the end. But the most successful were the high-insulin-secretors on the low-glycemic-load diet. They lost nearly 13 pounds and kept it off.
F
F. What if your fat is caused not by diet or genes, but by germs — say, a virus? It sounds like a sci-fi horror movie, but research suggests some dimension of the obesity epidemic may be attributable to infection by common viruses, says Dhurandhar. The idea of “infect-obesity” came to him 20 years ago when he was a young doctor treating obesity in Bombay. He discovered that a local avian virus, SMAM-1, caused chickens to die, sickened with organ damage but also, strangely, with lots of abdominal fat. In experiments, Dhurandhar found that SMAM-1 -infected chickens became obese on the same diet as uninfected ones, which stayed svelte.
G
G. He later moved to the U.S. and onto a bona fide human virus, adenovirus 36 (AD-36). In the lab, every species of animal Dhurandhar infected with the virus became obese — chickens got fat, mice got fat, even rhesus monkeys at the zoo that picked up the virus from the environment suddenly gained 15 percent of their body weight upon exposure. In his latest studies, Dhurandhar has isolated a gene that, when blocked from expressing itself, seems to turn off the virus’s fattening power. Stem cells extracted from fat cells and then exposed to AD-36 reliably blossom into fat cells — but when stem cells are exposed to an AD-36 virus with the key gene inhibited, the stems cells don’t differentiate. The gene appears to be necessary and sufficient to trigger AD-36-related obesity, and the goal is to use the research to create a sort of obesity vaccine.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Reading Passage has seven sections, A-G.
Which section contains the following information?
NB You may use any letter more than once.
1
evaluation on the effect of weight loss on different kind of diets
2
an example of research which includes the relatives of the participants
3
an example of a group of people who did not regain weight immediately after weight loss
4
long term hunger may appear to be acceptable to most of the participants during the period of losing weight program
5
a continuous experiment may lead to a practical application besides diet or hereditary resort
Question 6 - 10
Look at the following researchers and the list of findings below.
Match each researcher with the correct finding.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
List of Findings
A
Robert Berkowitz
B
Rudolph Leibel
C
Nikhil Dhurandhar
D
Deirdre Barrett
E
Jeffrey Friedman
F
Teresa Hillier
6
A person’s weight is predetermined by the interaction of his/her DNA and the environment
7
Pregnant mothers who are overweight may risk their fetus in gaining weight.
8
The aim of losing weight should be keeping healthy rather than being attractive.
9
Small changes in lifestyle will not help in reducing much weight.
10
Researchers should be divided into different groups with their own point of view about weight loss.
Question 11 - 14
Complete the summery below.
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
In Bombay Clinic, a young doctor who came up with the concept ‘infect-obesity’ believed that the obesity is caused by a kind of virus. For years, he conducted experiments on 
11
 . Finally, later as he moved to America, he identified a new virus named 
12
which proved to be a significant breakthrough inducing more weight. Although there seems no way to eliminate the virus still now, a kind of 
13
can be separated as to block the effectiveness of the virus. In the future, the doctor future is aiming at developing a new 
14
which might effectively combat against the virus.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
E
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để tới cuối cùng khi đã nắm được bố cục thông tin của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nha

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Áp dụng đọc simplify + connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 The paper compared two groups of adults : those who, after eating, secreted high levels of insulin , and those who secreted less.

 2 Within each group, half were put on a low-fat diet and half on a low-glycemic-load diet.

Xem full giải thích
2
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

'relatives of the participants' -> nghĩ về việc có những người quen biết được nghiên cứu cùng nhau

Step 2: Tìm thứ paraphrase

'relatives of the participants' -> mother-child

=> Tìm được thông tin ở đoạn D

Xem full giải thích
3
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 group of more than 5,000 successful weight-losers who have shed diets an average 66 pounds and kept it off 5.5 years

=> Nhóm người giảm cân thành công này - trung bình giảm được 66 pounds - và giữ được trong vòng 5.5 năm

=> Không tăng cân lại ngay sau đó

=> Chọn paragraph C



Xem full giải thích
4
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Dựa vào từ 'hunger', ta có thể khoanh vùng thông tin ở đoạn B



Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Obese dieters’ bodies go into a state of chronic hunger , a feeling  Rudolph Leibel compares to thirst. 

 2 Some people might be able to tolerate chronic thirst , but the majority couldn’t stand it”

=> Câu 1 : Rudolph Leibel so sánh chronic hunger với chronic thirst

Xem full giải thích
5
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

'a practical application' -> Tìm một ứng dụng thực tế nào đó giải quyết obesity

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine + xác định info

'a practical application' -> a sort of obesity vaccine

=> Tìm được thông tin ở đoạn G

Xem full giải thích
6
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi

 A person’s weight is predetermined by the interaction of his/her DNA and the environment

=> Tiền tố 'pre-' chỉ việc xảy ra trước -> Weight được định trước thông qua - interaction giữa DNA và environment

Xem full giải thích
7
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Pregnant mothers who are overweight may risk their fetus in gaining weight

=> Mẹ bầu mà thừa cân -> Tăng nguy cơ thai nhi bị béo phì

Phân tích info:

Xem full giải thích
8
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha

Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 + 2 The goal shouldn’t be getting thin, but getting healthy , says Jefffrey Friedman

 3 + 4 đưa ra ví dụ cho 1 + 2 : Giảm 10kg là giảm nguy cơ mắc nhiều loại bệnh rồi, đừng bỏ cuộc vì không nhìn giống người mẫu

=> Tóm lại, Jefffrey nói mục đích của việc giảm cân nên là getting healthy, chứ không phải getting thin (attractive)

Xem full giải thích
9
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Radical changes are necessary ,” says Deirdre Barrett 

 2 People don’t lose weight by choosing the small fries or talking a little walk every other day.”

=> Câu 1 : Deidre Barrett nói những thay đổi lớn lao là cần thiết

Xem full giải thích
10
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha

Ở đây nếu có vốn từ tốt, chỉ cần đọc câu "Everyone subscribes to their own little theory"

=> Với 'subscribes to something' là 'to agree with or support with an opinion/theory'

=>Ta có thể suy ra được đáp án là mỗi người support giả thuyết của riêng họ -> everyone has different point of view



Xem full giải thích
11
chickens
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ở câu này ta được cho rất nhiều hints như 'a young doctor' + 'Bombay' + 'infect obesity'

=> Việc tìm thông tin không quá khó khăn





Vì thông tin bị phân mảnh ở nhiều câu, Linearthinking sẽ rất hữu ích

Hiểu câu hỏi: a young doctor believed that the obesity is caused by a kind of virus . For years, he conducted experiments on _____ 

Xem full giải thích
12
adenovirus 36/ AD-36
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'later as he moved to America', ta dễ dàng locate được info



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu đáp án: he identified a new virus named ____ => Tìm tên virus

Phân tích info: He later moved to the U.S and onto a bona fide human virus , adenovirus 36 (AD-36).

=> Vậy ta biết tên virus là 'adenovirus 36 (AD-36)'

Xem full giải thích
13
gene
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Vì dạng summary thường đi theo thứ tự từ trên xuống, và thông tin thường sẽ trải dài từ 2 - 3 paragraphs, ta có thể dựa vào câu trước để biết đọc tiếp từ đâu



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Dhurandhar has isolated a gene that, when blocked from expressing itself , seems to turn off the virus’s fattening power

=> Dhurandhar cô lập 1 gene - khi đó, fattening power của virus trở nên vô dụng

=> Nói cách khác, có một loại gene mà khi bị tách ra/ cô lập - sẽ khiên virus bị vô hiệu hóa

Xem full giải thích
14
gene
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu hỏi: aiming at developing a new ______   which might effectively combat against the virus. 

Bài đọc: the goal is to create a sort of obesity vaccine.

=> Create a vaccine = Develop a vaccine

=> Như đã biết, loại virus này gây ra obesity -> Tạo ra vaccine chống lại nó -> Tạo ra obesity vaccine

Xem full giải thích

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