Quantitative Research In Education IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Quantitative Research In Education được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 6 - Test 2 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Quantitative Research In Education IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Quantitative Research in Education
Many education researchers used to work on the assumption that children experience different phases of development, and that they cannot execute the most advanced level of cognitive operation until they have reached the most advanced forms of cognitive process. For example, one researcher Piaget had a well-known experiment in which he asked the children to compare the amount of liquid in containers with different shapes. Those containers had the same capacity, but even when the young children were demonstrated that the same amount of fluid could be poured between the containers, many of them still believed one was larger than the other. Piaget concluded that the children were incapable of performing the logical task in figuring out that the two containers were the same size even though they had different shapes, because their cognitive development had not reached the necessary phase. Critics on his work, such as Donaldson, have questioned this interpretation. They point out the possibility that the children were just unwilling to play the experimenter’s game, or that they did not quite understand the question asked by the experimenter. These criticisms surely do state the facts, but more importantly, it suggests that experiments are social situations where interpersonal interactions take place. The implication here is that Piaget’s investigation and his attempts to replicate it are not solely about measuring the children’s capabilities of logical thinking, but also the degree to which they could understand the directions for them, their willingness to comply with these requirements, how well the experimenters did in communicating the requirements and in motivating those children, etc. The same kinds of criticisms have been targeted to psychological and educational tests. For instance, Mehan argues that the subjects might interpret the test questions in a way different from that meant by the experimenter. In a language development test, researchers show children a picture of a medieval fortress, complete with moat, drawbridge, parapets and three initial consonants in it: D, C, and G. The children are required to circle the correct initial consonant for ‘castle’. The answer is C, but many kids choose D. When asked what the name of the building was, the children responded ‘Disneyland’. They adopted the reasoning line expected by the experimenter but got to the wrong substantive answer. The score sheet with the wrong answers does not include in it a child’s lack of reasoning capacity; it only records that the children gave a different answer rather than the one the tester expected. Here we are constantly getting questions about how valid the measures are where the findings of the quantitative research are usually based. Some scholars such as Donaldson consider these as technical issues, which can be resolved through more rigorous experimentation. In contrast, others like Mehan reckon that the problems are not merely with particular experiments or tests, but they might legitimately jeopardise the validity of all researches of this type. Meanwhile, there are also questions regarding the assumption in the logic of quantitative educational research that causes can be identified through physical and/or statistical manipulation of the variables. Critics argue that this does not take into consideration the nature of human social life by assuming it to be made up of static, mechanical causal relationships, while in reality, it includes complicated procedures of interpretation and negotiation, which do not come with determinate results. From this perspective, it is not clear that we can understand the pattern and mechanism behind people’s behaviours simply in terms of the casual relationships, which are the focuses of quantitative research. It is implied that social life is much more contextually variable and complex. Such criticisms of quantitative educational research have also inspired more and more educational researchers to adopt qualitative methodologies during the last three or four decades. These researchers have steered away from measuring and manipulating variables experimentally or statistically. There are many forms of qualitative research, which is loosely illustrated by terms like ‘ethnography’, ‘case study’, ‘participant observation’, ‘life history’, ‘unstructured interviewing’, ‘discourse analysis’ and so on. Generally speaking, though, it has characteristics as follows: Qualitative researches have an intensive focus on exploring the nature of certain phenomena in the field of education, instead of setting out to test hypotheses about them. It also inclines to deal with ‘unstructured data’, which refers to the kind of data that have not been coded during the collection process regarding a closed set of analytical categories. As a result, when engaging in observation, qualitative researchers use audio or video devices to record what happens or write in detail open-ended field-notes, instead of coding behaviour concerning a pre-determined set of categories, which is what quantitative researchers typically would do when conducting ‘systematic observation’. Similarly, in an interview, interviewers will ask open-ended questions instead of ones that require specific predefined answers of the kind typical, like in a postal questionnaire. Actually, qualitative interviews are often designed to resemble casual conversations. The primary forms of data analysis include verbal description and explanations and involve explicit interpretations of both the meanings and functions of human behaviours. At most, quantification and statistical analysis only play a subordinate role. The sociology of education and evaluation studies were the two areas of educational research where criticism of quantitative research and the development of qualitative methodologies initially emerged in the most intense way. A series of studies conducted by Lacey, Hargreaves and Lambert in a boys’ grammar school, a boys’ secondary modem school, and a girls’ grammar school in Britain in the 1960s marked the beginning of the trend towards qualitative research in the sociology of education. Researchers employed an ethnographic or participant observation approach, although they did also collect some quantitative data, for instance on friendship patterns among the students. These researchers observed lessons, interviewed both the teachers and the students, and made the most of school records. They studied the schools for a considerable amount of time and spent plenty of months gathering data and tracking changes over all these years.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Look at the following statements or descriptions and the list of people below.
Match each statement or description with the correct person or people A , B, C or D.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
List of Findings
A
Piaget
B
Mehan
C
Donaldson
D
Lacey, Hargreaves and Lambert
1
A wrong answer indicates more of a child’s different perspective than incompetence in reasoning.
2
Logical reasoning involving in the experiment is beyond children’s cognitive development.
3
Children’s reluctance to comply with the game rules or miscommunication may be another explanation.
4
There is an indication of a scientific observation approach in research.
5
There is a detail of flaw in experiments on children’s language development.
Question 6 - 9
Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
6
In Piaget’s experiment, he asked the children to distinguish the amount of

in different containers.
7
In response to Mehan’s question, subjects are more inclined to answer with the wrong answer '

' instead of the correct answer C.
8
Some people criticised the result of Piaget experiment, but Donaldson thought the flaw could be rectified by

.
9
Most qualitative researches conducted by Lacey, Hargreaves and Lambert were done in a

.
Question 10 - 12
Choose THREE letters, A-F.
The list below includes characteristics of the ‘qualitative research’. Which THREE are mentioned by the writer of the passage?
A
Coding behaviour in terms of a predefined set of categories
B
Designing an interview as an easy conversation
C
Working with well-organised data in a closed set of analytical categories
D
Full of details instead of loads of data in questionnaires
E
Asking to give open-ended answers in questionnaires
F
Recording the researching situation and applying note-taking
Question 13
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
13
What is the main idea of the passage?
A
to prove that quantitative research is most applicable to children’s education
B
to illustrate the society lacks of deep comprehension of educational approach
C
to explain the ideas of quantitative research and the characteristics of the related criticisms
D
to imply qualitative research is a flawless method compared with quantitative one

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
B
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nên locate các tên riêng trước nhé

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi 

  • Hiểu cấu trúc câu hỏi: wrong answer indicates more of A than B: wrong answer cho thấy A hơn là B

=> Hiểu cả câu: Children trả lời sai cho thấy chúng có quan điểm khác nhau, hơn là do chúng thiếu khả năng lập luận



Xem full giải thích
2
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nên locate các tên riêng trước nhé

Vì nội dung tương đối dài nên Linearthinking sẽ giúp rất nhiều trong việc nắm main idea



 1 Piaget had a well-known experiment

 3 Children were incapable of performing the logical task in figuring out ... different shapes , because their cognitive development had not reached the necessary phase

=> Qua experiment của Piaget, ông thấy children không thực hiện được logical task vì cognitive development của chúng chưa phát triển tới mức cần thiết

Xem full giải thích
3
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nên locate các tên riêng trước nhé



Mình đọc cấu trúc theo Linearthinking để rút ra main idea:

 1 Critics , such as Donaldson , have questioned this interpretation .

 2 They point out the possibility that children were just unwilling to play the experimenter’s game , or they did not understand the question

Qua 1 + 2 ta rút ra được: Donaldson chỉ ra rằng một khả năng khác là do trẻ em unwilling to play game, hoặc không understand question

Xem full giải thích
4
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm bài này nhanh hơn các bạn nên locate các tên riêng trước nhé

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info

There is an indication of + N: Có dấu hiệu của N tồn tại

=> Hiểu cả câu: Có dấu hiệu của scientific observation approach được sử dụng trong research.

=> Dựa vào cụm 'observation approach', ta locate được đáp án

Xem full giải thích
5
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Imagine thứ cần tìm + xác định info trong bài:

  • a flawed detail -> nghĩ tới 1 sai sót/problem nào đó 

  • experiments on children’s language development -> tìm phần mô tả về 1 thí nghiệm cụ thể đối với children’s language development

=> Dựa vào cụm 'language development', ta có thể locate được đáp án



Step 2: Phân tích info + chọn đáp án

Xem full giải thích
6
liquid
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể dễ dàng locate thông tin qua 'Piaget' + 'experiment' + containers'

Sau khi xác định được thông tin cần đọc, ta thấy chỗ trống cần điền theo sau 'amount of'

=> So sánh với bài đọc ta dễ dàng biết được đáp án là 'liquid'

=> Có thể dùng những cụm từ paraphrase để xác định lại

=> Đáp án; liquid



Xem full giải thích
7
Disneyland
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta dễ dàng xác định được thông tin cần đọc với tên 'Mehan' + cụm 'wrong answer', 'correct answer C'

Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea

Simplify located info:

 2 ... three initial consonants : D, C, and G . The children  are required to circle the correct initial consonant for ‘castle’

 3 The answer is C , but many kids choose D . When asked what the name of the building was , the children responded ‘Disneyland’

Xem full giải thích
8
rigorous experimentation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Donaldson cho rằng: technical issues can be resolved through more rigorous experimentation  

=> Chỗ trống cần điền theo sau cụm 'could be rectified by'

=> Mà cụm đó là paraphrase của 'can be resolved through'

=> Đáp án là rigorous experimentation (đáp án ko được quá 2 words)



Xem full giải thích
9
grammar school
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta dễ dàng locate được info với các cụm paraphrasing gần như hoàn toàn giống nhau và các tên riêng





Đáp án theo sau cụm 'in a', và khi so với bài đọc ta thấy có nhăc tới 3 trường học

  • a boys’ grammar school

  • a boys’ secondary modem school

  • a girls’grammar school

=> Ta thấy có 2 grammar school nhưng chỉ có 1 modern school

Xem full giải thích
10
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info trong bài

Câu hỏi yêu cầu tìm info về qualitative research. Lưu ý rằng cụm này khác với topic của bài đọc là quantitative research

=> Tìm theo cụm qualitative research locate được đoạn 6.



Step 2: Phân tích info 

Xem full giải thích
11
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info trong bài

Câu hỏi yêu cầu tìm info về qualitative research. Lưu ý rằng cụm này khác với topic của bài đọc là quantitative research

=> Tìm theo cụm qualitative research locate được đoạn 6.



Step 2: Phân tích info

Xem full giải thích
12
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi + xác định info trong bài

Câu hỏi yêu cầu tìm info về qualitative research. Lưu ý rằng cụm này khác với topic của bài đọc là quantitative research

=> Tìm theo cụm qualitative research locate được đoạn 6.



Step 2: Phân tích info

Xem full giải thích
13
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đây là dạng tìm main idea của cả bài đọc, và với dạng này bạn nên làm cuối cùng một khi bạn đã đọc hết bài đọc và hiểu được phần lớn bài đọc



Ta sẽ nhìn ra main idea từng đoạn và sâu chuỗi chúng lại

Đoạn 1 + 2 : Đưa ra 1 experiment của Piaget + criticisms đối với experiment này cũng như những psychological and educational tests khác

Đoạn 3 : Bàn về những problems tồn tại trong quantitative research

Đoạn 4 : quantitative research ko thể nói lên hết các vấn đề phức tạp trong human social life

Xem full giải thích

Download PDF

Bạn có thể tải bản đẹp của đề và đáp án Quantitative Research in Education tại đây