Music And The Emotions IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Music And The Emotions được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Cambridge IELTS Practice Test 12 - Test 3 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Music And The Emotions IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Music and the emotions
Neuroscientist Jonah Lehrer considers the emotional power of music
Why does music make us feel? On the one hand, music is a purely abstract art form, devoid of language or explicit ideas. And yet, even though music says little, it still manages to touch us deeply. When listening to our favourite songs, our body betrays all the symptoms of emotional arousal. The pupils in our eyes dilate, our pulse and blood pressure rise, the electrical conductance of our skin is lowered, and the cerebellum, a brain region associated with bodily movement, becomes strangely active. Blood is even re-directed to the muscles in our legs. In other words, sound stirs us at our biological roots. A recent paper in Neuroscience by a research team in Montreal, Canada, marks an important step in repealing the precise underpinnings of ‘the potent pleasurable stimulus’ that is music. Although the study involves plenty of fancy technology, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, the experiment itself was rather straightforward. After screening 217 individuals who responded to advertisements requesting people who experience ‘chills’ to instrumental music, the scientists narrowed down the subject pool to ten. They then asked the subjects to bring in their playlist of favourite songs - virtually every genre was represented, from techno to tango - and played them the music while their brain activity was monitored. Because the scientists were combining methodologies (PET and fMRI), they were able to obtain an impressively exact and detailed portrait of music in the brain. The first thing they discovered is that music triggers the production of dopamine - a chemical with a key role in setting people’s moods - by the neurons (nerve cells) in both the dorsal and ventral regions of the brain. As these two regions have long been linked with the experience of pleasure, this finding isn’t particularly surprising. What is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate - a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli - were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music. The researchers call this the ‘anticipatory phase’ and argue that the purpose of this activity is to help us predict the arrival of our favourite part. The question, of course, is what all these dopamine neurons are up to. Why are they so active in the period preceding the acoustic climax? After all, we typically associate surges of dopamine with pleasure, with the processing of actual rewards. And yet, this cluster of cells is most active when the ‘chills’ have yet to arrive, when the melodic pattern is still unresolved. One way to answer the question is to look at the music and not the neurons. While music can often seem (at least to the outsider) like a labyrinth of intricate patterns, it turns out that the most important part of every song or symphony is when the patterns break down, when the sound becomes unpredictable. If the music is too obvious, it is annoyingly boring, like an alarm clock. Numerous studies, after all, have demonstrated that dopamine neurons quickly adapt to predictable rewards. If we know what’s going to happen next, then we don’t get excited. This is why composers often introduce a key note in the beginning of a song, spend most of the rest of the piece in the studious avoidance of the pattern, and then finally repeat it only at the end. The longer we are denied the pattern we expect, the greater the emotional release when the pattern returns, safe and sound. To demonstrate this psychological principle, the musicologist Leonard Meyer, in his classic book Emotion and Meaning in Music (1956), analysed the 5th movement of Beethoven’s String Quartet in C-sharp minor, Op. 131. Meyer wanted to show how music is defined by its flirtation with - but not submission to - our expectations of order. Meyer dissected 50 measures (bars) of the masterpiece, showing how Beethoven begins with the clear statement of a rhythmic and harmonic pattern and then, in an ingenious tonal dance, carefully holds off repeating it. What Beethoven does instead is suggest variations of the pattern. Me wants to preserve an element of uncertainty in his music, making our brains beg for the one chord he refuses to give us. Beethoven saves that chord for the end. According to Meyer, it is the suspenseful tension of music, arising out of our unfulfilled expectations, that is the source of the music’s feeling. While earlier theories of music focused on the way a sound can refer to the real world of images and experiences - its ‘connotative’ meaning - Meyer argued that the emotions we find in music come from the unfolding events of the music itself. This ‘embodied meaning’ arises from the patterns the symphony invokes and then ignores. It is this uncertainty that triggers the surge of dopamine in the caudate, as we struggle to figure out what will happen next. We can predict some of the notes, but we can’t predict them all, and that is what keeps us listening, waiting expectantly for our reward, for the pattern to be completed.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.

The Montreal Study
Participants, who were recruited for the study through advertisements, had their brain activity monitored while listening to their favourite music. It was noted that the music stimulated the brain’s neurons to release a substance called
1
in two of the parts of the brain which are associated with feeling
2

Researchers also observed that the neurons in the area of the brain called the
3
were particularly active just before the participants’ favourite moments in the music - the period known as the
4
Activity in this part of the brain is associated with the expectation of ‘reward’ stimuli such as
5

Question 6 - 10
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. 
Write the correct letter in boxes on your answer sheet
6
What point does the writer emphasise in the first paragraph?
A
how dramatically our reactions to music can vary
B
how intense our physical responses to music can be
C
how little we know about the way that music affects us
D
how much music can tell us about how our brains operate
7
What view of the Montreal study does the writer express in the second paragraph?
A
Its aims were innovative.
B
The approach was too simplistic.
C
It produced some remarkably precise data.
D
The technology used was unnecessarily complex.
8
What does the writer find interesting about the results of the Montreal study?
A
the timing of participants’ neural responses to the music
B
the impact of the music on participants’ emotional state
C
the section of participants’ brains which was activated by the music
D
the type of music which had the strongest effect on participants’ brains
9
Why does the writer refer to Meyer’s work on music and emotion?
A
to propose an original theory about the subject
B
to offer support for the findings of the Montreal study
C
to recommend the need for further research into the subject
D
to present a view which opposes that of the Montreal researchers
10
According to Leonard Meyer, what causes the listener’s emotional response to music?
A
the way that the music evokes poignant memories in the listener
B
the association of certain musical chords with certain feelings
C
the listener’s sympathy with the composer’s intentions
D
the internal structure of the musical composition
Question 11 - 14
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes on your answer sheet.
List of Findings
A
our response to music depends on our initial emotional state.
B
neuron activity decreases if outcomes become predictable.
C
emotive music can bring to mind actual pictures and events
D
experiences on our past can influence our emotional reaction to music.
E
emotive music delays giving listeners what they expect to hear.
F
neuron activity increases prior to key points in a musical piece.
11
The Montreal researchers discovered that
12
Many studies have demonstrated that
13
Meyer’s analysis of Beethoven’s music shows that
14
Earlier theories of music suggested that

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
dopamine
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking

để simplify câu:

 music triggers the production of dopamine - a chemical ... - by the neurons 

=> cấu trúc: music gây ra the production of dopamine by the neurons = Music khiến neurons produce (=sản xuất) dopamine

=> Vậy chất được neurons giải phóng ra là dopamine.

=> dopamine là đáp án cần tìm



Xem full giải thích
2
pleasure
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 1 music triggers the production of dopamine in both the dorsal and ventral regions of the brain 

 2 As these two regions have long been linked with the experience of pleasure , this finding isn’t surprising 

=> these two regions ở câu 2 là referencing cho the dorsal and ventral regions of the brain

=> Suy ra: 2 vùng dorsal and ventral trong não được linked with (=associated with) pleasure

Xem full giải thích
3
caudate
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 dopamine neurons in the caudate - a region of the brain... - were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music 

=> Meaning: neurons ở caudate (đây là 1 khu vực ở não) trở nên active nhất 15s trước favourite moments in the music. => Đáp án cần tìm là caudate



Xem full giải thích
4
anticipatory phase
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 1 neurons in the caudate were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music 

 2 The researchers call this the ‘anticipatory phase’ 

=> Từ “this” thay thế cho khoảng thời gian ở câu 1 “participants’ favourite moments in the music”

=> Suy ra: researchers gọi “participants’ favourite moments in the music” là anticipatory phase

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5
food
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Locate info theo cụm reward’ stimuli --> Tìm được câu 1 đoạn 3.

Câu này có nhắc đến: … in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli… 

=> food và những ‘reward’ stimuli khác

=> Nghĩa là: food là 1 trong những ‘reward’ stimuli

=> Đáp án là food



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6
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 1 Why does music make us feel? 

 2 music is abstract , devoid of language or explicit ideas 

 3 even though music says little , it touch us deeply => ý vế 1 giống câu 2 

 4 When listening to our favourite songs , our body betrays emotional arousal => câu này giống ý của vế 2 câu 3 

Xem full giải thích
7
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Trong đoạn 2 có info:

 scientists were able to obtain an impressively exact and detailed portrait of music in the brain 

=> scientists thu được 1 cái nhìn vô cùng (impressively) chính xác (exact)chi tiết (detailed) về music đối với não

=> exact = detailed = precise và impressively = remarkably

=> Info ứng với ý trong option C

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8
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đoạn 3 có đưa ra 1 kết luận khác từ Montreal study mà tác giả cho rằng “rather more significant” (quan trọng) = “interesting”

=> Simplify câu này:

 What is rather more significant is that neurons were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music 

=> Thứ significant (=interesting) chính là: neurons trở nên active nhất vào khoảng 15s trước khoảnh khắc yêu thích nhất trong bài nhạc của người nghe

=> Tác giả thấy hứng thú với: thời gian phản ứng nơ-ron xảy ra = the timing of participants’ neural responses to the music 

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9
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu chỉ scan skim keyword thì sẽ ko trả lời được vì câu này yêu cầu sự đọc hiểu main idea

=> dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để tìm ra main idea



Simplify câu:

 1 . Leonard Meyer analysed Beethoven’s String Quartet 

 2 . Meyer wanted to show how music is defined by its flirtation with our expectations of order 

Xem full giải thích
10
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đoạn 6 cho biết: Meyer argued that the emotions we find in music come from the unfolding events of the music itself 

=> Meaning: cảm xúc đối với âm nhạc đến từ the unfolding events of the music itself

=> Vậy the unfolding events of the music itself chính là thứ gây nên cảm xúc đối với âm nhạc

=> Có cấu trúc: A comes from B = B causes A (A là kết quả, B là nguyên nhân). 

=> Đáp án cần tìm là: the music itself (bản thân của bài nhạc)

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11
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching sentence endings:

  • Trước tiên khoan đọc options (option A=>F) mà hãy chỉ đọc từng câu hỏi sentence beginnings (câu hỏi 37=>38).

  • Dùng keyword để tìm trong bài thông tin cho câu đầu.

  • Nhìn sang list endings xem option nào ứng với thông tin vừa đọc



Từ sentence beginning suy ra cần tìm: 1 kết quả hay 1 phát hiện nào đó từ nghiên cứu ở Montreal (lưu ý ko cần đọc đoạn miêu tả thí nghiệm mà chỉ cần tìm phần kết luận rút ra) => Đọc đoạn 2+3 gắn với nghiên cứu này.

Trong đoạn 2, kết luận được đưa ra là:

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12
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching sentence endings:

  • Trước tiên khoan đọc options (option A=>F) mà hãy chỉ đọc từng câu hỏi sentence beginnings (câu hỏi 37=>38).

  • Dùng keyword để tìm trong bài thông tin cho câu đầu.

  • Nhìn sang list endings xem option nào ứng với thông tin vừa đọc.



Từ sentence beginning suy ra cần tìm 1 thông tin được nhiều nghiên cứu đưa ra => Tìm “many studies” trong bài.

Ở đoạn 4 có thông tin về 1 phát hiện từ numerous studies (=many studies):

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13
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Để trả lời câu hỏi này cần tìm theo tên riêng “Meyer” => Locate được đoạn 5+6



Nếu chỉ scan skim keyword thì sẽ ko trả lời được vì câu này yêu cầu sự đọc hiểu main idea.

=> Dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để tìm ra main idea của phần này



Simplify câu:

 1 . Leonard Meyer analysed Beethoven’s String Quartet 

Xem full giải thích
14
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching sentence endings:

  • Trước tiên khoan đọc options (option A=>F) mà hãy chỉ đọc từng câu hỏi sentence beginnings (câu hỏi 37=>38).

  • Dùng keyword để tìm trong bài thông tin cho câu đầu.

  • Nhìn sang list endings xem option nào ứng với thông tin vừa đọc.



Từ sentence beginning suy ra cần tìm 1 thông tin được “earlier theories of music” đưa ra

=> Tìm cụm “earlier theories of music” trong bài

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