Keep The Water Away IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Keep The Water Away được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 5 - Test 4 - Passage 2 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Keep The Water Away IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Keep the Water Away
A
A. Last winter’s floods on the rivers of central Europe were among the worst since the Middle Ages, and as winter storms return, the spectre of floods is returning too. Just weeks ago, the river Rhone in south-east France burst its banks, driving 15,000 people from their homes, and worse could be on the way. Traditionally, river engineers have gone for Plan A: get rid of the water fast, draining it off the land and down to the sea in tall-sided rivers re-engineered as high-performance drains. But however big they dug city drains, however wide and straight they made the rivers, and however high they built the banks, the floods kept coming back to taunt them, from the Mississippi to the Danube. Arid when the floods came, they seemed to be worse than ever. No wonder engineers are turning to Plan B: sap the water’s destructive strength by dispersing it into fields, forgotten lakes, flood plains and aquifers.
B
B. Back in the days when rivers took a more tortuous path to the sea, flood waters lost impetus and volume while meandering across flood plains and idling through wetlands and inland deltas. But today the water tends to have an unimpeded journey to the sea. And this means that when it rains in the uplands, the water comes down all at once. Worse, whenever we close off more flood plains, the river’s flow farther downstream becomes more violent and uncontrollable. Dykes are only as good as their weakest link—-and the water will unerringly find it. By trying to turn the complex hydrology of rivers into the simple mechanics of a water pipe, engineers have often created danger where they promised safety, and intensified the floods they meant to end. Take the Rhine, Europe’s most engineered river. For two centuries, German engineers have erased its backwaters and cut it off from its flood plain.
C
C. Today, the river has lost 7 percent of its original length and runs up to a third faster. When it rains hard in the Alps, the peak flows from several tributaries coincide in the main river, where once they arrived separately. And with four-fifths of the lower Rhine’s flood plain barricaded off, the waters rise ever higher. The result is more frequent flooding that does ever-greater damage to the homes, offices and roads that sit on the flood plain. Much the same has happened in the US on the mighty Mississippi, which drains the world’s second largest river catchment into the Gulf of Mexico.
D
D. The European Union is trying to improve rain forecasts and more accurately model how intense rains swell rivers. That may help cities prepare, but it won’t stop the floods. To do that, say hydrologists, you need a new approach to engineering not just rivers, but the whole landscape. The UK’s Environment Agency -which has been granted an extra £150 million a year to spend in the wake of floods in 2000 that cost the country £1 billion- puts it like this: “The focus is now on working with the forces of nature. Towering concrete walks are out, and new wetlands are in.” To help keep London’s feet dry, the agency is breaking the Thames’s banks upstream and reflooding 10 square kilometres of ancient flood plain at Otmoor outside Oxford. Nearer to London it has spent £100 million creating new wetlands and a relief channel across 16 kilometres of flood plain to protect the town of Maidenhead, as well as the ancient playing fields of Eton College. And near the south coast, the agency is digging out channels to reconnect old meanders on the river Cuckmere in East Sussex that were cut off by flood banks 150 years ago.
E
E. The same is taking place on a much grander scale in Austria, in one of Europe’s largest river restorations to date. Engineers are regenerating flood plains along 60 kilometres of the river Drava as it exits the Alps. They are also widening the river bed and channelling it back into abandoned meanders, oxbow lakes and backwaters overhung with willows. The engineers calculate that the restored flood plain can now store up to 10 million cubic metres of flood waters and slow storm surges coming out of the Alps by more than an hour, protecting towns as far downstream as Slovenia and Croatia.
F
F. “Rivers have to be allowed to take more space. They have to be turned from flood-chutes into flood-foilers,” says Nienhuis. And the Dutch, for whom preventing floods is a matter of survival, have gone furthest. A nation built largely on drained marshes and seabed had the fright of its life in 1993 when the Rhine almost overwhelmed it. The same happened again in 1995, when a quarter of a million people were evacuated from the Netherlands. But a new breed of “soft engineers” wants our cities to become porous, and Berlin is their shining example. Since reunification, the city’s massive redevelopment has been governed by tough new rules to prevent its drains becoming overloaded after heavy rains. Harald Kraft, an architect working in the city, says: “We now see rainwater as a resource to be kept rather than got rid of at great cost.” A good illustration is the giant Potsdamer Platz, a huge new commercial redevelopment by Daimler Chrysler in the heart of the city.
G
G. Los Angeles has spent billions of dollars digging huge drains and concreting river beds to carry away the water from occasional intense storms. The latest plan is to spend a cool $280 million raising the concrete walls on the Los Angeles river by another 2 metres. Yet many communities still flood regularly. Meanwhile this desert city is shipping in water from hundreds of kilometres away in northern California and from the Colorado river in Arizona to fill its taps and swimming pools, and irrigate its green spaces. It all sounds like bad planning. “In LA we receive half the water we need in rainfall, and we throw it away. Then we spend hundreds of millions to import water,” says Andy Lipkis, an LA environmentalist, along with citizen groups like Friends of the Los Angeles River and Unpaved LA, want to beat the urban flood hazard and fill the taps by holding onto the city’s flood water. And it’s not just a pipe dream. The authorities this year launched a $100 million scheme to road-test the porous city in one flood-hit community in Sun Valley. The plan is to catch the rain that falls on thousands of driveways, parking lots and rooftops in the valley. Trees will soak up water from parking lots. Homes and public buildings will capture roof water to irrigate gardens and parks. And road drains will empty into old gravel pits and other leaky places that should recharge the city’s underground water reserves. Result: less flooding and more water for the city. Plan B says every city should be porous, every river should have room to flood naturally and every coastline should be left to build its own defences. It sounds expensive and utopian, until you realise how much we spend trying to drain cities and protect our watery margins -and how bad we are at it.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 6
Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
1
a new approach carried out in the UK
2
the reason why twisty path and dykes failed
3
illustration of an alternative plan in LA which seems much unrealistic
4
traditional way of tackling flood
5
efforts made in Netherlands and Germany
6
one project on a river that benefits three nations
Question 7 - 10
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
7
In the ancient times, the people in Europe made their efforts to improve the river banks, so the flood was becoming less severe than before.
8
Flood makes river shorter than it used to be, which means faster speed and more damage to the constructions on flood plain.
9
The new approach in the UK is better than that in Austria.
10
At least 300,000 people left from Netherlands in 1995.
Question 11 - 13
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
UK’s Environment Agency carried out one innovative approach: a wetland is generated not far from the city of
11
to protect it from flooding,
12
suggested that cities should be porous, and Berlin set a good example. Another city devastated by heavy storms casually is
13
, though government pours billions of dollars each year in order to solve the problem.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Với cụm 'a new approach' ta có thể khoanh vùng được info cần đọc



Sau đó áp dụng đọc simplify + connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 The European Union is trying to improve rain forecasts and model how intense rains swell rivers.

 2 That may help cities prepare , but it won’t stop the floods.

 3 To do that , you need a new approach

Xem full giải thích
2
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này tuy nhiều từ vựng khó nhưng tương đối dễ chọn đáp án vì từ 'dykes' chỉ được nhắc đến duy nhất ở đoạn này

Và nếu bạn biết 'tortuous path' = 'twisty path' sẽ càng rõ hơn

=> Những thông tin này được tìm thấy ở đoạn B





Sau đó ta phân tích info để confirm đáp án:

Xem full giải thích
3
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể dễ dàng chọn được đáp án qua từ LA vì chỉ có đoạn G là đề cập tới Los Angeles

=> Xác định thông tin ở đoạn G



Sau đó đọc thông tin trong đoạn để confirm lại đáp án, ta thấy:

 alternative plan = plan B

 much unrealistic = utopian

Xem full giải thích
4
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào từ 'traditional way' ta có thể tìm được từ 'traditionally'

=> Từ đó khoanh vùng được thông tin ở đoạn A



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Traditionally , river engineers have gone for Plan A : get rid of the water fast, draining it off the land and down to the sea in tall-sided rivers re-engineered as high-performance drains. 

=> Main idea: Theo cách truyền thống thì engineers thực hiện plan A, sau đó liệt kê từng bước 1

Xem full giải thích
5
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'the Netherlands' + 'Berlin', ta dễ dàng locate được info ở đoạn F

Vì trong bài chỉ có đoạn này nói về 'Netherlands' và 'Berlin'

=> Ta có thể chọn đáp án là F





Ngoài ra để confirm, ta có thể xác định các efforts của cả 2 nước:

Xem full giải thích
6
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 The same is taking place in Austria 

 2 Engineers are regenerating flood plains along the river Drava 

 3 They are also widening the river bed and channelling it back into abandoned meanders 

 4 The engineers calculate that the restored flood plain can store up to 10 million cubic metres of flood waters and slow storm surges , protecting Slovenia and Croatia.

Xem full giải thích
7
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi

Ngày xưa, people in Europe improve river bank -> flood was becoming ít dữ dội/khắc nghiệt hơn trước đây

Step 2: Phân tích info trong bài đọc

 Last winter’s floods  on the rivers of central Europe were among the worst since the Middle Ages

Xem full giải thích
8
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking dể nắm main idea:

 1 Today, the river has lost 7 percent of its original length and runs up to a third faster 

 2 + 3 : Mô tả quá trình mưa to (rains hard) -> Dẫn tới water rise ever higher

 4 The result is more frequent flooding does ever-greater damage to the homes, offices and roads that sit on the flood plain

=> Câu 1 ứng với 2 ý của câu hỏi là 'make river shorter' + 'faster speed'

Xem full giải thích
9
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin cần đọc nằm ở 2 đoạn D và E



Sau khi đoạn D nói về 'new approach' ở UK thì sang đoạn E ta thấy có câu:

 The same is taking place on a much grander scale in Austria

=> Nếu không cẩn thận có khả năng sẽ chọn FALSE vì nghĩ new approach ở Austria tốt hơn

=> Tuy nhiên ở đây người ta chỉ nói approach diễn ra trên quy mô lớn hơn, không nói nó tốt/ hiệu quả hơn

Xem full giải thích
10
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào các cụm 'left from Netherlands' + 'in 1995', ta dễ dàng locate được info cần đọc



Tuy nhiên ta thấy có sự mâu thuẫn trong con số ở câu hỏi và bài đọc:

(Câu hỏi) At least 300,000 people -> Ít nhất 300,000 người

(Bài đọc) a quarter of a million people -> 1/4 của 1 triệu = 250,000

=> Ít nhất 300,000 > 250,000

Xem full giải thích
11
London
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'UK's Environment Agency', ta dễ dàng locate được info



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 The UK’s Environment Agency puts it like this : “The focus is now on working with the forces of nature. Towering concrete walks are out, and new wetlands are in" 

 2 To help keep London’s feet dry, the agency is breaking the Thames’s banks upstream and reflooding ancient flood plain

 3 Nearer to London it has spent £100 million creating new wetlands

Xem full giải thích
12
soft engineers
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'Berlin set a good example' ta dễ dàng locate được info cần đọc



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 a new breed of “soft engineers” wants our cities to become porous , and Berlin is their shining example.

=> Vậy soft engineers là đối tượng wants our cities to become porous

=> Answer: soft engineers



Xem full giải thích
13
Los Angeles
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi

 Another city devastated by heavy storms casually is ____

=> Biết đáp cần điền là tên một thành phố

Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea



 1 Los Angeles has spent billions of dollars digging huge drains and concreting river beds 

Xem full giải thích

Download PDF

Bạn có thể tải bản đẹp của đề và đáp án Keep the Water Away tại đây