In Praise Of Amateurs IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage In Praise Of Amateurs được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Practice Test Plus 1 - Test 1 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
In Praise Of Amateurs IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

In Praise of Amateurs
Despite the specialization of scientific research, amateurs still have an important role to play.
During the scientific revolution of the 17th century, scientists were largely men of private means who pursued their interest in natural philosophy for their own edification. Only in the past century or two has it become possible to make a living from investigating the workings of nature. Modern science was, in other words, built on the work of amateurs. Today, science is an increasingly specialized and compartmentalized subject, the domain of experts who know more and more about less and less. Perhaps surprisingly, however, amateurs – even those without private means – are still important. A recent poll carried out at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science by astronomer Dr Richard Fienberg found that, in addition to this field of astronomy, amateurs are actively involved in such field as acoustics, horticulture, ornithology, meteorology, hydrology and palaeontology. Far from being crackpots, amateur scientists are often in close touch with professionals, some of whom rely heavily on their co-operation. Admittedly, some fields are more open to amateurs than others. Anything that requires expensive equipment is clearly a no-go area. And some kinds of research can be dangerous; most amateur chemists, jokes Dr Fienberg, are either locked up or have blown themselves to bits. But amateurs can make valuable contributions in fields from rocketry to palaeontology and the rise of the Internet has made it easier than before to collect data and distribute results. Exactly which field of study has benefited most from the contributions of amateurs is a matter of some dispute. Dr Fienberg makes a strong case for astronomy. There is, he points out, a long tradition of collaboration between amateur and professional sky watchers. Numerous comets, asteroids and even the planet Uranus were discovered by amateurs. Today, in addition to comet and asteroid spotting, amateurs continue to do valuable work observing the brightness of variable stars and detecting novae- ‘new’ stars in the Milky Way and supernovae in other galaxies. Amateur observers are helpful, says Dr Fienberg, because there are so many of them (they far outnumber professionals) and because they are distributed all over the world. This makes special kinds of observations possible:’ if several observers around the world accurately record the time when a star is eclipsed by an asteroid, for example, it is possible to derive useful information about the asteroid’s shape. Another field in which amateurs have traditionally played an important role is palaeontology. Adrian Hunt, a palaeontologist at Mesa Technical College in New Mexico, insists that his is the field in which amateurs have made the biggest contribution. Despite the development of high-tech equipment, he says, the best sensors for finding fossils are human eyes – lots of them. Finding volunteers to look for fossils is not difficult, he says, because of the near universal interest in anything to do with dinosaurs. As well as helping with this research, volunteers learn about science, a process he calls ‘recreational education’. Rick Bonney of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology in Ithaca, New York, contends that amateurs have contributed the most in his field. There are, he notes, thought to be as many as 60 million birdwatchers in America alone. Given their huge numbers and the wide geographical coverage they provide, Mr Bonney has enlisted thousands of amateurs in a number of research projects. Over the past few years their observations have uncovered previously unknown trends and cycles in bird migrations and revealed declines in the breeding populations of several species of migratory birds, prompting a habitat conservation programme. Despite the successes and whatever the field of study, collaboration between amateurs and professionals is not without its difficulties. Not everyone, for example is happy with the term ‘amateur’. Mr Bonney has coined the term ‘citizen scientist’ because he felt that other words, such as ‘volunteer’ sounded disparaging. A more serious problem is the question of how professionals can best acknowledge the contributions made by amateurs. Dr Fienberg says that some amateur astronomers are happy to provide their observations but grumble about not being reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses. Others feel let down when their observations are used in scientific papers, but they are not listed as co-authors. Dr Hunt says some amateur palaeontologists are disappointed when told that they cannot take finds home with them. These are legitimate concerns but none seems insurmountable. Provided amateurs and professionals agree the terms on which they will work together beforehand, there is no reason why co-operation between the two groups should not flourish. Last year Dr S.Carlson, founder of the Society for Amateur Scientists won an award worth $290,000 for his work in promoting such co-operation. He says that one of the main benefits of the prize is the endorsement it has given to the contributions of amateur scientists, which has done much to silence critics among those professionals who believe science should remain their exclusive preserve. At the moment, says Dr Carlson, the society is involved in several schemes including an innovative rocket-design project and the setting up of a network of observers who will search for evidence of a link between low- frequency radiation and earthquakes. The amateurs, he says, provide enthusiasm and talent, while the professionals provide guidance ‘so that anything they do discover will be taken seriously’. Having laid the foundations of science, amateurs will have much to contribute to its ever – expanding edifice.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 8
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE or TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. 
Summary

Prior to the 19th century, professional
1
. did not exist and scientific research was largely carried out by amateurs. However, while
2
. today is mostly the domain of professionals, a recent US survey highlighted the fact that amateurs play an important role in at least seven
3
. and indeed many professionals are reliant on their
4
. In areas such as astronomy, amateurs can be invaluable when making specific
5
. on a global basis. Similarly in the area of palaeontology their involvement is invaluable and helpers are easy to recruit because of the popularity of
6
. Amateur birdwatchers also play an active role and their work has led to the establishment of a
7
. Occasionally the term 'amateur' has been the source of disagreement and alternative names have been suggested but generally speaking, as long as the professional scientists
8
. the work of the non professionals, the two groups can work productively together.  
Question 9 - 13
Reading Passage contains a number of opinions provided by four different scientists.
Match each opinion with the scientists A-D. 
NB You may use any of the scientists A-D more than once
List of Findings
A
Dr Fienberg
B
Adrian Hunt
C
Rick Bonney
D
Dr Carlson
9
Amateur involvement can also be an instructive pastime.
10
Amateur scientists are prone to accidents.
11
Science does not belong to professional scientists alone.
12
In certain areas of my work, people are a more valuable resource than technology.
13
It is important to give amateurs a name which reflects the value of their work.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
scientists
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scannning:



Nếu chỉ dựa vào skim/scan keyword, thí sinh sẽ rất khó locate đáp án vì câu này paraphrase dựa trên ngữ nghĩa.

Linearthinking:



Bài đọc:

 During 17th century , scientists were largely men of private means who pursued their interest in natural philosophy for their own edification .

Xem full giải thích
2
science
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: while _____ today is mostly  the domain of professionals

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một thứ gì ngày nay là 'domain of professionals'

Phân tích info: Today , science is a specialized subject , the domain of experts

=> Today, science is the domain of experts.

Xem full giải thích
3
fields
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Đơn giản hóa câu (simplify):

 A recent poll found that , in addition to his field of astronomy , amateurs are actively involved in such field as acoustics, horticulture, .... 

=> Ngoài N1, amateurs còn tham gia vào N2 -> N7

=> Và ta thấy N1 -> N7 được gọi chung là 'fields'

Xem full giải thích
4
co-operation/collaboration
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này có các cụm paraphrase khá đơn giản, ta chỉ cần so sánh câu hỏi và bài đọc là rút ra được đáp án rồi

Câu hỏi: many professionals are reliant on their ____ 

Bài đọc: professionals, some of whom rely heavily on their co-operation

=> Thay vì dùng động từ 'rely', câu hỏi đã paraphrase lại bằng tính từ 'reilant'

=> Answer: co-operation



Xem full giải thích
5
observations
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: In areas such as astronomy, amateurs can be invaluable when making specific _____

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một thứ gì đó amateurs làm khiến họ rất hữu ích trong lĩnh vực thiên văn học

Đọc connection:

 1 Amateur observers are helpful , because there are so many of them 

Xem full giải thích
6
dinosaurs
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: helpers are easy to recruit because of the popularity of _____

=> Đáp án là danh từ - cái gì đó được quan tâm mà giúp việc tìm kiếm helpers trở nên dễ dàng

Phân tích info: Finding volunteers... is not difficult , because of the universal interest in ... dinosaurs 

=> Việc tìm volunteers (=helpers) - không khó - nhờ vào sự hứng thú với khủng long của đa số mọi người

Xem full giải thích
7
conservation programme
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'birdwatchers', ta có thể khoanh vùng được thông tin cần đọc, nhưng vì thông tin phân mảnh ở nhiều câu, ta:



Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 There are million birdwatchers in America

 2 Given their huge numbers , Mr Bonney has enlisted thousands of amateurs in research projects .

 3 their observations have uncovered trends in bird migrations , prompting a habitat conservation programme

Xem full giải thích
8
acknowledge
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Khi đọc tới 'Not everyone, is happy with the term ‘amateur’' -> ứng với thông tin 'the term 'amateur' has been the source of disagreement'

=> Ta biết đáp án ở ngay phía sau





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: as long as the professional scientists _______ the work of the non professionals , the two groups can work productively together.

Xem full giải thích
9
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea: As well as helping with this research , volunteers learn about science , a process he (Adrian Hunt) calls ‘recreational education’.

=> Adrian Hunt nói việc volunteers tham gia trợ giúp nghiên cứu giống như một "recreational education" - tức một thú vui bổ ích, giúp mình học được nhiều cái.

So với câu hỏi: Amateur involvement can also be an instructive pastime

=> Pastime thú vui khi rảnh, còn instructive nghĩa là 'cung cấp thông tin bổ ích'

Xem full giải thích
10
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'accidents', ta nghĩ tới các từ, yếu tố liên quan như ví dụ về các accidents

=> Từ đó tìm được 'dangerous' + 'locked up or have blown themselves to bits'

>>> Có thể nhiều bạn sẽ không hiểu 'prone to', nhưng nhờ tìm được thông tin, ta sẽ đọc thử và đoán nghĩa nhé





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
11
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/ scanning



Nếu chỉ dựa vào skim/scan từ khóa, sẽ khó để locate info vì câu paraphrase dựa trên ngữ nghĩa.

2. Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea



 1 Dr S.Carlson won an award for his work in promoting such co-operation (between professionals and amateurs) 

=> Dr. S.Carlson giành giải thưởng - vì nỗ lực trong việc ủng hộ sự hợp tác (giữa professionals và amateurs)

Xem full giải thích
12
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta thấy đề bài đề cập tới sự so sánh giữa 'people' và 'technology'

=> Tìm các thông tin liên quan đến công nghệ mà được so sánh với con người

=> Thấy thông tin 'Despite the development of high-tech equipment ... best sensors... are human eyes'





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
13
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'give amateurs a name' -> Ta tìm các thông tin liên quan đến tên gọi của 'amateur'

Câu chứa đáp án có nhiều từ vựng khó như "coined", "disparaging"



Tuy nhiên, bạn vẫn có thể vượt qua rào cản từ vựng với Linearthinking



Simplify + Read connection:

 1 collaboration between amateurs and professionals is not without its difficulties.

Xem full giải thích

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