I Contain Multitudes IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage I Contain Multitudes được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Cambridge IELTS Practice Test 16 - Test 2 - Passage 2 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
I Contain Multitudes IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

I contain multitudes
Wendy Moore reviews Ed Yong's book about microbes
Microbes, most of them bacteria, have populated this planet since long before animal life developed and they will outlive us. Invisible to the naked eye, they are ubiquitous. They inhabit the soil, air, rocks and water and are present within every form of life, from seaweed and coral to dogs and humans. And, as Yong explains in his utterly absorbing and hugely important book, we mess with them at our peril. Every species has its own colony of microbes, called a 'microbiome', and these microbes vary not only between species but also between individuals and within different parts of each individual. What is amazing is that while the number of human cells in the average person is about 30 trillion, the number of microbial ones is higher - about 39 trillion. At best, Yong informs us, we are only 50 per cent human. Indeed, some scientists even suggest we should think of each species and its microbes as a single unit, dubbed a 'holobiont'. In each human there are microbes that live only in the stomach, the mouth or the armpit and by and large they do so peacefully. So 'bad' microbes are just microbes out of context. Microbes that sit contentedly in the human gut (where there are more microbes than there are stars in the galaxy) can become deadly if they find their way into the bloodstream. These communities are constantly changing too. The right hand shares just one sixth of its microbes with the left hand. And, of course, we are surrounded by microbes. Every time we eat, we swallow a million microbes in each gram of food; we are continually swapping microbes with other humans, pets and the world at large. It's a fascinating topic and Yong, a young British science journalist, is an extraordinarily adept guide. Writing with lightness and panache, he has a knack of explaining complex science in terms that are both easy to understand and totally enthralling. Yong is on a mission. Leading us gently by the hand, he takes us into the world of microbes - a bizarre, alien planet - in a bid to persuade us to love them as much as he does. By the end, we do. For most of human history we had no idea that microbes existed. The first man to see these extraordinarily potent creatures was a Dutch lens-maker called Antony van Leeuwenhoek in the 1670s. Using microscopes of his own design that could magnify up to 270 times, he examined a drop of water from a nearby lake and found it teeming with tiny creatures he called 'animalcules'. It wasn't until nearly two hundred years later that the research of French biologist Louis Pasteur indicated that some microbes caused disease. It was Pasteur's 'germ theory that gave bacteria the poor image that endures today. Yong's book is in many ways a plea for microbial tolerance, pointing out that while fewer than one hundred species of bacteria bring disease, many thousands more play a vital role in maintaining our health. The book also acknowledges that our attitude towards bacteria is not a simple one. We tend to see the dangers posed by bacteria, yet at the same time we are sold yoghurts and drinks that supposedly nurture 'friendly' bacteria. In reality, says Yong, bacteria should not be viewed as either friends or foes, villains or heroes. Instead we should realise we have a symbiotic relationship, that can be mutually beneficial or mutually destructive. What then do these millions of organisms do? The answer is pretty much everything. New research is now unravelling the ways in which bacteria aid digestion, regulate our immune systems, eliminate toxins, produce vitamins, affect our behaviour and even combat obesity. “They actually help us become who we are,' says Yong. But we are facing a growing problem. Our obsession with hygiene, our overuse of antibiotics and our unhealthy, low-fibre diets are disrupting the bacterial balance and may be responsible for soaring rates of allergies and immune problems, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most recent research actually turns accepted norms upside down. For example, there are studies indicating that the excessive use of household detergents and antibacterial products actually destroys the microbes that normally keep the more dangerous germs at bay. Other studies show that keeping a dog as a pet gives children early exposure to a diverse range of bacteria, which may help protect them against allergies later. The readers of Yong's book must be prepared for a decidedly unglamorous world. Among the less appealing case studies is one about a fungus that is wiping out entire populations of frogs and that can be halted by a rare microbial bacterium. Another is about squid that carry luminescent bacteria that protect them against predators. However, if you can overcome your distaste for some of the investigations, the reasons for Yong's enthusiasm become clear. The microbial world is a place of wonder. Already, in an attempt to stop mosquitoes spreading dengue fever - a disease that infects 400 million people a year - mosquitoes are being loaded with a bacterium to block the disease. In the future, our ability to manipulate microbes means we could construct buildings with useful microbes built into their walls to fight off infections. Just imagine a neonatal hospital ward coated in a specially mixed cocktail of microbes so that babies get the best start in life.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 3
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes on your answer sheet.
1
What point does the writer make about microbes in the first paragraph?
A
They adapt quickly to their environment.
B
The risk they pose has been exaggerated.
C
They are more plentiful in animal life than plant life.
D
They will continue to exit for longer than the human race.
2
In the second paragraph, the writer is impressed by the fact that
A
each species tends to have vastly different microbes.
B
some parts of the body contain relatively few microbes.
C
the average individual has more microbial cells than human ones.
D
scientists have limited understanding of how microbial cells behave.
3
What is the writer doing in the fifth paragraph?
A
explaining how a discovery was made
B
comparing scientists' theories about microbes
C
describing confusion among scientists
D
giving details of how microbes cause disease
Question 4 - 7
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-H, below.
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes on your answer sheet.
We should be more tolerant of microbes
Yong's book argues that we should be more tolerant of microbes. Many have a beneficial effect, and only a relatively small number lead to
4
. And although it is misleading to think of microbes as 'friendly', we should also stop thinking of them as the enemy. In fact, we should accept that our relationship with microbes is one based on
5
.
New research shows that microbes have numerous benefits for humans. Amongst other things, they aid digestion, remove poisons, produce vitamins and may even help reduce obesity. However, there is a growing problem. Our poor
6
, our overuse of antibiotics, and our excessive focus on
7
are upsetting the bacterial balance and may be contributing to the huge increase in allergies and immune system problems.
A
solution
B
partnership
C
destruction
D
exaggeration
E
cleanliness
F
regulations
G
illness
H
nutrition
Question 8 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
In boxes on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
8
It is possible that using antibacterial products in the home fails to have the desired effect.
9
It is a good idea to ensure that children come into contact with as few bacteria as possible.
10
Yong's book contains more case studies than are necessary.
11
The case study about bacteria that prevent squid from being attacked may have limited appeal.
12
Efforts to control dengue fever have been surprisingly successful.
13
Microbes that reduce the risk of infection have already been put inside the walls of some hospital wards.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Microbes have populated this planet since long before animal life developed and they will outlive us.

=> Main idea: Microbes - đã có mặt trên hành tinh này - từ rất lâu - và - chúng sẽ sống còn lâu hơn chúng ta

>>> Tiền tố 'out-' khi đi với động từ sẽ làm cho động từ có nghĩa 'mạnh hơn, tốt hơn' Ex: He outplayed me (Anh ấy đã chơi tốt hơn tôi)

=> Vậy Microbes sẽ tồn tại lâu hơn con người

Xem full giải thích
2
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

What is amazing is that while the number of human cells in the average person is about 30 trillion , the number of microbial ones is higher - about 39 trillion.

=> Main idea: Điều ấn tượng/ đáng ngạc nhiên là:

  • Số lượng tế bào trung bình ở người là 30 trillion

  • Số lượng tế bào trung bình ở microbe là 39 trillion

=> Vậy Microbes có nhiều tế bào hơn con người

Xem full giải thích
3
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 The first man to see these extraordinarily potent creatures was Antony in the 1670s.

 2 Using microscopes of his own design he examined a drop of water and found it teeming with 'animalcules'

=> Main idea: Câu 2 giải thích cách làm của Antony về việc phát hiện được extraordinarily potent creatures

=> Tương ứng với đáp án A. explaining how a discovery was made



Xem full giải thích
4
illness
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi:  Yong's book argues that we should be more tolerant of microbes. Many have a beneficial effect, and only a relatively small number lead to _____

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một điều gì đó không tốt mà số ít microbes mang lại (trái ngược với beneficial effect)





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Yong's book is a plea for microbial tolerance , pointing out that while fewer than one hundred species of bacteria bring  disease , many thousands more play a vital role in maintaining our health.

Xem full giải thích
5
partnership
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 In reality bacteria should not be viewed as either friends or foes, villains or heroes.

 2 Instead we should realise we have a symbiotic relationship that can be mutually beneficial or mutually destructive.

=> Main idea: Trên thực tế thì bacteria không nên được xem là bạn hay thù mà chúng ta nên nhận ra rằng giữa ta và microbes có mối quan hệ cộng sinh

>>> Chú ý: Nếu không hiểu nghĩa từ symbiotic bạn có thể đọc tiếp MĐQH phía sau -> Có thể có cả lợi và cả có hại đối với nhau -> Có thể hiểu là có mối quan hệ tác động lẫn nhau.

Xem full giải thích
6
nutrition
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Our obsession with hygiene , our overuse of antibiotics and our unhealthy, low-fibre diets are disrupting the bacterial balance and may be responsible for soaring rates of allergies and immune problems

=> Main idea:3 yếu tố làm rối loạn bacterial balance và làm tăng những vấn đề về dị ứng và hệ thống miễn dịch

  • Our obsession with hygiene (obsession: sự ám ảnh = excessive focus on...)

  • our overuse of antibiotics

  • our unhealthy, low-fibre diets (=poor diet)



Xem full giải thích
7
cleanliness
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Our obsession with hygiene , our overuse of antibiotics and our unhealthy, low-fibre diets are disrupting the bacterial balance 

 and may be responsible for  soaring rates of allergies and immune problems 

=> Main idea:3 yếu tố làm rối loạn bacterial balance và làm tăng những vấn đề về dị ứng và hệ thống miễn dịch

  • Our obsession with hygiene (obsession: sự ám ảnh = excessive focus on...)

  • our overuse of antibiotics

  • our unhealthy, low-fibre diets (=poor diet)

Xem full giải thích
8
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 the excessive use of household detergents and antibacterial products destroys the microbes that normally keep the more dangerous germs at bay.

=> Main idea: Việc lạm dụng chất tẩy nhà cửa và những sản phẩm antibacterial - có thể destroy - những microbes mà giúp ngăn chặn vi trùng có hại

=> Microbes thường được hi vọng là sẽ ngăn chặn được vi trùng có hại -> Đây chính là 'desired effect'

=> Nếu dùng antibacterial products -> Microbes chết -> Không có được 'desired effect' này

Xem full giải thích
9
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 keeping a dog as a pet gives children early exposure to a diverse range of bacteria , which may help protect them against allergies later

=> Main idea: Nuôi chó như là thú cưng - giúp children - tiếp xúc sớm với nhiều loại bacteria - việc này có thể bảo vệ chúng khỏi những allergies sau này

So sánh với câu hỏi: It is a good idea to ensure that children come into contact with as few bacteria as possible. 

=> Main idea: Ý tưởng hay là nên cho trẻ tiếp xúc với càng ít bacteria càng tốt

Xem full giải thích
10
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Yong's book contains more case studies than are necessary.

=> Sách của Yong - chứa - nhiều case studies - hơn cần thiết

=> Nhưng bài đọc chỉ cho biết về những less appealling case studies, chứ không cung cấp thông tin về số lượng case studies trong Young's book

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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11
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 Among the less appealing case studies...

 2 Another is about squid that carry luminescent bacteria that protect them against predators.

=> Câu 1 cho biết về những case studies mà 'less appealing'

=> Ở câu 2 thấy từ 'Another' -> Biết tác giả chuẩn bị đưa ra một ví dụ khác bổ sung cho câu 1

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12
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Already , in an attempt to stop mosquitoes spreading dengue fever - mosquitoes are being loaded with a bacterium to block the disease.

=> Họ chỉ nói là họ dùng một loại bacterium để ngăn chặn dengue fever gây ra bởi muỗi

=> Sau đó chuyển ý, và không đề cập tới kết quả

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
13
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 In the future , our ability to manipulate microbes means we could construct buildings with useful microbes built into their walls to fight off infections. 

=> Main idea: Trong tương lai - khả năng kiểm soát microbes - có nghĩa là chúng ta có thể xây dựng - buildings with useful microbes được tích hợp trong walls - để chống lại infections

=> Rõ ràng là tác giả đang nói tới tương lai -> Hiện tại vẫn chưa áp dụng được công nghệ này

=> Thông tin mâu thuẫn với bài đọc -> Chọn NO



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