Great Migrations IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Great Migrations được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Cambridge IELTS Practice Test 11 - Test 3 - Passage 2 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Great Migrations IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Great Migrations
Animal migration, however it is defined, is far more than just the movement of animals. It can loosely be described as travel that takes place at regular intervals - often in an annual cycle - that may involve many members of a species, and is rewarded only after a long journey. It suggests inherited instinct. The biologist Hugh Dingle has identified five characteristics that apply, in varying degrees and combinations, to all migrations. They are prolonged movements that carry animals outside familiar habitats; they tend to be linear, not zigzaggy; they involve special behaviours concerning preparation (such as overfeeding) and arrival; they demand special allocations of energy. And one more: migrating animals maintain an intense attentiveness to the greater mission, which keeps them undistracted by temptations and undeterred by challenges that would turn other animals aside. An arctic tern, on its 20,000 km flight from the extreme south of South America to the Arctic circle, will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird-watcher's boat along the way. While local gulls will dive voraciously for such handouts, the tern flies on. Why? The arctic tern resists distraction because it is driven at that moment by an instinctive sense of something we humans find admirable: larger purpose. In other words, it is determined to reach its destination. The bird senses that it can eat, rest and mate later. Right now it is totally focused on the journey; its undivided intent is arrival. Reaching some gravelly coastline in the Arctic, upon which other arctic terns have converged, will serve its larger purpose as shaped by evolution: finding a place, a time, and a set of circumstances in which it can successfully hatch and rear offspring. But migration is a complex issue, and biologists define it differently, depending in part on what sorts of animals they study. Joe! Berger, of the University of Montana, who works on the American pronghorn and other large terrestrial mammals, prefers what he calls a simple, practical definition suited to his beasts: 'movements from a seasonal home area away to another home area and back again'. Generally the reason for such seasonal back- and-forth movement is to seek resources that aren't available within a single area year- round. But daily vertical movements by zooplankton in the ocean - upward by night to seek food, downward by day to escape predators - can also be considered migration. So can the movement of aphids when, having depleted the young leaves on one food plant, their offspring then fly onward to a different host plant, with no one aphid ever returning to where it started. Dingle is an evolutionary biologist who studies insects. His definition is more intricate than Berger's, citing those five features that distinguish migration from other forms of movement. They allow for the fact that, for example, aphids will become sensitive to blue light (from the sky) when it's time for takeoff on their big journey, and sensitive to yellow light (reflected from tender young leaves) when it's appropriate to land. Birds will fatten themselves with heavy feeding in advance of a long migrational flight. The value of his definition, Dingle argues, is that it focuses attention on what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids, and therefore helps guide researchers towards understanding how evolution has produced them all. Human behaviour, however, is having a detrimental impact on animal migration. The pronghorn, which resembles an antelope, though they are unrelated, is the fastest land mammal of the New World. One population, which spends the summer in the mountainous Grand Teton National Park of the western USA, follows a narrow route from its summer range in the mountains, across a river, and down onto the plains. Here they wait out the frozen months, feeding mainly on sagebrush blown clear of snow. These pronghorn are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks. If they can't pass through each of the three during their spring migration, they can't reach their bounty of summer grazing; if they can't pass through again in autumn, escaping south onto those windblown plains, they are likely to die trying to overwinter in the deep snow. Pronghorn, dependent on distance vision and speed to keep safe from predators, traverse high, open shoulders of land, where they can see and run. At one of the bottlenecks, forested hills rise to form a V, leaving a corridor of open ground only about 150 metres wide, filled with private homes. Increasing development is leading toward a crisis for the pronghorn, threatening to choke off their passageway. Conservation scientists, along with some biologists and land managers within the USA's National Park Service and other agencies, are now working to preserve migrational behaviours, not just species and habitats. A National Forest has recognised the path of the pronghorn, much of which passes across its land, as a protected migration corridor. But neither the Forest Service nor the Park Service can control what happens on private land at a bottleneck. And with certain other migrating species, the challenge is complicated further - by vastly greater distances traversed, more jurisdictions, more borders, more dangers along the way. We will require wisdom and resoluteness to ensure that migrating species can continue their journeying a while longer.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Local gulls and migrating arctic terns behave in the same way when offered food
2
Experts’ definitions of migration tend to vary according to their area of study.
3
Very few experts agree that the movement of aphids can be considered migration.
4
Aphids’ journeys are affected by changes in the light that they perceive.
5
Dingles aim is to distinguish between the migratory behaviours of different species.
Question 6 - 9
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
List of Endings
A
be discouraged by difficulties.
B
travel on open land where they can look out for predators.
C
eat more than they need for immediate purposes.
D
be repeated daily.
E
ignore distractions.
F
be governed by the availability of water.
G
follow a straight line.
According to Dingle, migratory routes are likely to
6
To prepare for migration, animals are likely to
7
During migration, animals are unlikely to
8
Arctic terns illustrate migrating animals’ ability to
9
Question 10 - 13
Complete the summary below. 
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
The migration of pronghorns
Pronghorns rely on their eyesight and
10
to avoid predators. One particular population’s summer habitat is a national park, and their winter home is on the
11
where they go to avoid the danger presented by the snow at that time of year.
However, their route between these two areas contains three
12
.
One problem is the construction of new homes in a narrow
13
of land on the pronghorns’ route.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking works perfectly ở câu này vì nếu bạn nắm được cấu trúc thì từ vựng khó bạn cũng sẽ dễ dàng để giải quyết

 An arctic tern will take no notice of a nice smelly herring 

 While local gulls will dive for such handouts , the tern flies on 

→ Từ cấu trúc trên, bạn đã có 1 cơ sở kết luận an arctic ternlocal gulls không giống nhau

-> Main idea: Local gulls sẽ lao xuống để ăn đồ ăn # Arctic tern vẫn sẽ tiếp tục bay tiếp

Xem full giải thích
2
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc như sau:

 But migration is a complex issue , and biologists define it differently , depending in part on what sorts of animals they study 

-> Main idea: Việc di cư là 1 vấn đề phức tạp , nên các nhà sinh vật học định nghĩa việc này khác nhau, phụ thuộc vào động vật nào mà họ nghiên cứu.

So sánh với câu hỏi: Experts’ definitions of migration tend to vary according to their area of study = biologists define it differently, depending in part on what sorts of animals they study

=> Answer: TRUE 



Xem full giải thích
3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin câu này nếu bạn đọc lướt hay dịch word by word sẽ rất khó cấu trúc phức tạp + từ vựng mới. Nếu áp dụng Linearthinking (Read in structure)

thì bạn sẽ nắm được ngay ý chính mà không phải gặp quá nhiều khó khăn.

 1 But daily vertical movements can also be considered migration.

 2 So can the movement of aphids when their offspring then fly onward to a different host plant with no one aphid ever returning to where it started

--> Cấu trúc: S-V so V-S -> khẳng định 2 vế 

Main idea: daily movements được xem là sự di cư, thì movement of aphids cũng được xem là sự di cư.

Xem full giải thích
4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 They allow for the fact that for example , aphids will become sensitive to blue light when it's time for takeoff on their big journey , and sensitive to yellow light when it's appropriate to land. 

-> Main idea: aphids trở nên nhạy cảm với blue light khi bắt đầu hành trình, và nhạy cảm với yellow light khi đáp xuống

-> Vậy chứng tỏ: Aphids bị ảnh hưởng bởi sự thay đổi về light (blue & yellow) when they are on their journeys

So sánh với câu hỏi:

Xem full giải thích
5
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 The value of his definition , Dingle argues , is that it focuses attention on what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids  

Main idea: Dingle's focus: pay attention vào sự giống nhau giữa wildebeest migration the aphids migration

So sánh với câu hỏi: distinguish between the migratory behaviours of different species # what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids

=> Answer: FALSE 



Xem full giải thích
6
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc dài nên bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính của thông tin nha.



Tip: trong câu hỏi đề cập tới Dingle nên các bạn tìm thông tin liên quan đến Dingle

 Hugh Dingle has identified five characteristics that apply to all migrations. 

 They are prolonged movements ; they tend to be linear, , not zigzaggy ; ... ; ...

(writer sử dụng biện pháp listing nên đọc tới thông tin cần tìm có thể skip phần còn lại)

Xem full giải thích
7
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc dài nên bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính của thông tin nha. (biện pháp sử dụng: listing)

 They are prolonged movements that carry animals outside familiar habitats ; they tend to be linear, not zigzaggy ; they involve special behaviours concerning preparation (such as overfeeding) and arrival ; they demand special allocations of energy

--> S3-V3 liên quan đến việc chuẩn bị cho migration

-> Main idea: Chúng có những hành vi đặc biệt cho quá trình chuẩn bị migration - ví dụ - ăn nhiều hơn (overfeeding)

So sánh với các câu trả lời: eat more than they need for immediate purposes = such as overfeeding

Xem full giải thích
8
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin sử dụng cấu trúc phức tạp, nên bạn sử dụng Linearthinking để phân tích và nắm ý chính của câu:

 And one more migrating animals maintain an intense attentiveness to the greater mission , which keeps them undeterred by challenges that would turn other animals aside 

Main idea: Động vật đang di trú - duy trì sự tập trung cao độ - để giúp chúng không bị nản chí bởi các khó khăn

So sánh với câu trả lời: are unlikely to be discouraged by difficulties = to be undeterred by challenges  

=> Chọn đáp án A - are unlikely to be discouraged by difficulties



Xem full giải thích
9
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc thông tin trong bài như sau:

 An arctic tern will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird-watcher's boat along the way. 

Main idea: An arctic tern sẽ không để ý đến mùi thơm của đồ ăn - được a bird-watcher's boat cung cấp

Vậy, an arctic tern sẽ không bị ảnh hưởng bởi các yếu tố ngoại cảnh (đồ ăn) khi trên đường đi di cư

So sánh với câu trả lời: ignore = will take no notice of ; distractions = nice smelly herring 

Xem full giải thích
10
speed
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Pronghorn , dependent on distance vision and speed to keep safe from predators , traverse high, open shoulders of land 

-> Main idea: Pronghorn dựa vào 2 thứ - tầm nhìn xa và tốc độ - để có sự an toàn trước kẻ ăn thịt - khi đi qua các dải đất cao

So sánh với câu hỏi: distance vision chính là eyesight --> đáp án cần tìm là speed

=> Answer: SPEED



Xem full giải thích
11
plains
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin nằm trong 2 câu nên các bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính nha:

 One population which spends the summer in National Park follows a route from its summer range in the mountains across a river, and down onto the plains. 

 Here they wait out the frozen months feeding mainly on sagebrush blown clear of snow. 

-> Main idea: One population vượt núi -> vượt sông -> xuống đồng bằng (down onto the plains) --> chờ các tháng mùa đông trôi qua ở đồng bằng này

-> Vậy đích đến cuối cùng là on the plains để chờ qua hết các tháng mùa đông 

Xem full giải thích
12
bottlenecks
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 These pronghorn are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks. 

-> Main idea: These pronghorn - lưu ý về con đường di chuyển và sự thắt chặt tại 3 nút cổ chai (at three bottlenecks)

--> Giữa 2 areas (migration route + the severity of its constriction) có tồn tại three bottlenecks

=> Answer: bottlenecks



Xem full giải thích
13
corridor/passageway
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin được kéo dài ở 2 câu nên mình áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính của thông tin nha:

 1 At one of the bottlenecks , forested hills rise to form a V , leaving a corridor of open ground only about 150 metres wide , filled with private homes.

 2 Increasing development is leading toward a crisis for the pronghorn , threatening to choke off their passageway. 

-> Main idea: forested hills dâng cao lên để tạo thành một hình chữ V --> làm cho corridor hẹp lại ~ khoảng 150 mét - nhưng corridor này mọc lên rất nhiều nhà --> Việc phát triển nhiều nhà riêng như vậy gây ra 1 sự khủng hoảng cho pronghorn - cụ thể: gây cản trở cho passageway

-> vậy the construction of new homes được diễn ra ở narrow corridor / narrow passageway

Xem full giải thích

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