Communicating In Colour IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Communicating In Colour được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS IELTS Trainer - Test 6 - Passage 1 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Communicating In Colour IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Communicating in Colour
There are more than 160 known species of chameleons. The main distribution is in Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe and Asia. There are introduced populations in Hawaii and probably in California and Florida too. New species are still discovered quite frequently. Dr Andrew Marshall, a conservationist from York University, was surveying monkeys in Tanzania, when he stumbled across a twig snake in the Magombera forest which, frightened, coughed up a chameleon and fled. Though a colleague persuaded him not to touch it because of the risk from venom, Marshall suspected it might be a new species, and took a photograph to send to colleagues, who confirmed his suspicions. Kinyongia magomberae, literally “the chameleon from Magombera”, is the result, and the fact it was not easy to identify is precisely what made it unique. The most remarkable feature of chameleons is their ability to change colour, an ability rivalled only by cuttlefish and octopi in the animal kingdom. Because of this, colour is not the best thing for telling chameleons apart and different species are usually identified based on the patterning and shape of the head, and the arrangement of scales. In this case it was the bulge of scales on the chameleon’s nose. Chameleons are able to use colour for both communication and camouflage by switching from bright, showy colours to the exact colour of a twig within seconds. They show an extraordinary range of colours, from nearly black to bright blues, oranges, pinks and greens, even several at once. A popular misconception is that chameleons can match whatever background they are placed on, whether a chequered red and yellow shirt or a Smartie box. But each species has a characteristic set of cells containing pigment distributed over their bodies in a specific pattern, which determines the range of colours and patterns they can show. To the great disappointment of many children, placing a chameleon on a Smartie box generally results in a stressed, confused, dark grey or mottled chameleon. Chameleons are visual animals with excellent eyesight, and they communicate with colour. When two male dwarf chameleons encounter each other, each shows its brightest colours. They puff out their throats and present themselves side-on with their bodies flattened to appear as large as possible and to show off their colours. This enables them to assess each other from a distance. If one is clearly superior, the other quickly changes to submissive colouration, which is usually a dull combination of greys or browns. If the opponents are closely matched and both maintain their bright colours, the contest can escalate to physical fighting and jaw-locking, each trying to push each other along the branch in a contest of strength. Eventually, the loser will signal his defeat with submissive colouration. Females also have aggressive displays used to repel male attempts at courtship. When courting a female, males display the same bright colours that they use during contests. Most of the time, females are unreceptive and aggressively reject males by displaying a contrasting light and dark colour pattern, with their mouths open and moving their bodies rapidly from side to side. If the male continues to court a female, she often chases and bites him until he retreats. The range of colour- change during female displays, although impressive, is not as great as that shown by males. Many people assume that colour change evolved to enable chameleons to match a greater variety of backgrounds in their environment. If this was the case, then the ability of chameleons to change colour should be associated with the range of background colours in the chameleon’s habitat, but there is no evidence for such a pattern. For example, forest habitats might have a greater range of brown and green background colours than grasslands, so forest-dwelling species might be expected to have greater powers of colour change. Instead, the males whose display colours are the most eye-catching show the greatest colour change. Their displays are composed of colours that contrast highly with each other as well as with the background vegetation. This suggests that the species that evolved the most impressive capacities for colour change did so to enable them to intimidate rivals or attract mates rather than to facilitate camouflage. How do we know that chameleon display colours are eye-catching to another chameleon – or, for that matter, to a predatory bird? Getting a view from the perspective of chameleons or their bird predators requires information on the chameleon s or bird’s visual system and an understanding of how their brains might process visual information. This is because the perceived colour of an object depends as much on die brain’s wiring as on the physical properties of the object itself. Luckily, recent scientific advances have made it possible to obtain such measurements in the field, and information on visual systems of a variety of animals is becoming increasingly available. The spectacular diversity of colours and ornaments in nature has inspired biologists for centuries. But if we want to understand the function and evolution of animal colour patterns, we need to know how they are perceived by the animals themselves – or their predators. After all, camouflage and conspicuousness are in the eye of the beholder.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 4
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
1
What kind of climate do most chameleons live in?
2
Which animal caught a chameleon that Dr. Andrew Marshall saw?
3
What was the new species named after?
4
Which part of the body is unique to the species Kinyongla magomberae?
Question 5 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
5
Few creatures can change colour as effectively as cuttlefish.
6
Chameleons can imitate a pattern provided there are only two colours.
7
Chameleons appear to enjoy trying out new colours.
8
Size matters more than colour when male chameleons compete.
9
After a fight, the defeated male hides among branches of a tree.
10
Females use colour and movement to discourage males.
11
The popular explanation of why chameleons change colour has been proved wrong.
12
There are more predators of chameleons in grassland habitats than in others.
13
Measuring animals’ visual systems necessitates removing them from their habitat.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
tropical
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Scan skim:



Nếu ko hiểu câu hỏi mà chỉ tập trung vào keyword live in => Có thể bị đề bẫy và vội vàng chọn đáp án là các từ chỉ nơi chốn, khu vực như: “Africa and Madagascar” hoặc “Europe and Asia”



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

There are more than 160 known species of chameleons .

 The main distribution is in Africa and Madagascar , and other tropical regions

Xem full giải thích
2
a snake/twig snake/a twig snake/snake
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Scan skim:



Nếu chỉ cố gắng scan skim từ khóa caught thì sẽ ko tìm được info trong bài. Ko hiểu nghĩa cả câu hỏi mà chỉ chú ý vào từ khóa animal.

=> Vội chọn đáp án monkeys.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 Dr Andrew Marshall was surveying monkeys , when he stumbled across a twig snake which coughed up a chameleon 

Xem full giải thích
3
forest/a forest/the forest/forest of Magombera/a forest of Magombera/the forest of Magombera/Magombera/Magombera forest
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:



- Nếu ko hiểu câu hỏi mà chỉ tập trung vào keyword name

=> Có thể bị đề bẫy và vội vàng chọn đáp án là tên của new species - Kinyongia magomberae

2. Với Linearthinking



Step 1: Hiểu đáp án cần tìm + tìm info: Marshall suspected it might be a new species ... Kinyongia magomberae , literally “the chameleon from Magombera” , is the result .

Xem full giải thích
4
the nose/nose
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:



Nếu ko hiểu câu hỏi mà chỉ tập trung vào keyword part of the body => Có thể bị đề bẫy và vội vàng chọn đáp án là head.

Nếu chỉ scan skim theo keyword “unique” => Ko tìm được info trong bài.

2. Với Linearthinking

Colour is not the best thing for telling chameleons apart 

 In this case (of (Kinyongla magomberae) it was the bulge of scales on the chameleon’s nose 

Xem full giải thích
5
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:



Cố gắng scan skim theo những keyword như few creatures + effectively  => Ko tìm được những keyword trên trong bài

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN => Sai

2. Với Linearthinking

The most remarkable feature of chameleons is their ability to change colour , an ability rivalled only by cuttlefish and octopus

=> chameleons’ ability to change colour is rivalled only by cuttlefish and octopus

Xem full giải thích
6
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:



Cố gắng scan skim theo keyword như imitate a pattern + only two colours => Ko tìm được những keyword trên trong bài

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN => Sai

2. Với Linearthinking



 Chameleons are able to…switch from bright, showy colours to the exact colour of a twig => Đây là ví dụ về việc imitate a pattern (bắt chước hoa văn mẫu)

Xem full giải thích
7
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:



Cố gắng scan skim theo những keyword như enjoy + new colours => Ko tìm được những keyword trên trong bài

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN => Sai

2. Với Linearthinking

A popular misconception is that chameleons can match whatever background (example: a Smartie box)

 Placing a chameleon on a Smartie box generally results in a stressed, confused chameleon 

Xem full giải thích
8
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s  Linearthinking



 When two male dwarf chameleons encounter each other , each shows its brightest colours .

 They present themselves side-on with their bodies flattened to appear as large as possible and to show off their colours .

=> Male chameleons compete with each other by showing off their size and colours.

=> Khi miêu tả về sự cạnh tranh giữa male chameleons, bài đọc đề cập đến cả size (=bodies appear as large as possible) và colours.

Xem full giải thích
9
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:



Scan trong bài đọc thấy các từ khóa the loser (=the defeated male) và “branches” như trong câu hỏi. => Vội chọn TRUE => Sai => Cần đọc hiểu main idea cả câu thay vì chỉ bắt keyword

2. Với Linearthinking



 If the opponents are closely matched , the contest can escalate to physical fighting 

 the loser will signal his defeat with submissive colouration 

Xem full giải thích
10
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:



Cố gắng scan skim theo những keyword như movement + discourage => Ko tìm được những keyword trên trong bài

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN => Sai

2. Với Linearthinking



 females reject males by displaying a contrasting light and dark colour pattern , with their mouths open and moving their bodies 

Xem full giải thích
11
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Scan skim:

Cố gắng scan skim theo những keyword như popular explanation + proved wrong. => Ko tìm được những keyword trên trong bài

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN => Sai

2. Với Linearthinking

colour change evolved to enable chameleons to match a greater variety of backgrounds => Đây chính là popular explanation của nhiều người về color change.

 If this was the case , then the ability of chameleons to change colour should be associated with background colours , but there is no evidence for such a pattern 

- Tiếp theo bài đọc cho biết: If this was the case, then S+V, but there is no evidence for such a pattern.

Xem full giải thích
12
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Nếu chỉ scan skim:



Scan trong bài đọc thấy các từ predators và grasslands như trong câu hỏi, đồng thời thấy có tính từ so sánh greater = more => Vội chọn TRUE => Sai

2. Với Linearthinking

forest habitats might have a greater range of brown and green background colours than grasslands 

=> forest habitats có chứa nhiều brown and green background colours hơn là ở grasslands

=> Tuy nhiên câu này ko liên quan gì đến predators of chameleons.

Xem full giải thích
13
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:



Cố gắng scan skim theo cụm “necessitates removing them from their habitat” => Ko tìm được những keyword trên trong bài

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN => Sai

2. Với Linearthinking



 Getting a view from the perspective of chameleons requires information on the chameleons or bird’s visual system ....

Xem full giải thích

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