Are Artists Liars? IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage Are Artists Liars? được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 5 - Test 2 - Passage 2 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Are Artists Liars? IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

Are Artists Liars?
A
A. Shortly before his death, Marlon Brando was working on a series of instructional videos about acting, to he called "Lying for a Iiving”. On the surviving footage, Brando can be seen dispensing gnomic advice on his craft to a group of enthusiastic, if somewhat bemused, Hollywood stars, including Leonardo Di Caprio and Sean Penn. Brando also recruited random people from the Los Angeles street and persuaded them to improvise (the footage is said to include a memorable scene featuring two dwarves and a giant Samoan). "If you can lie, you can act." Brando told Jod Kaftan, a writer for Rolling Stone and one of the few people to have viewed the footage. “Are you good at lying?” asked Kaftan. "Jesus." said Brando, “I'm fabulous at it".
B
B. Brando was not the first person to note that the line between an artist and a liar is a line one. If art is a kind of lying, then lying is a form of art, albeit of a lower order-as Oscar Wilde and Mark Twain have observed. Indeed, lying and artistic storytelling spring from a common neurological root-one that is exposed in the cases of psychiatric patients who suffer from a particular kind of impairment. Both liars and artists refuse to accept the tyranny of reality. Both carefully craft stories that are worthy of belief - a skill requiring intellectual sophistication, emotional sensitivity and physical self-control (liars are writers and performers of their own work). Such parallels are hardly coincidental, as I discovered while researching my book on lying.
C
C. A case study published in 1985 by Antonio Damasio, a neurologist, tells the story of a middle-aged woman with brain damage caused by a series of strokes. She retained cognitive abilities, including coherent speech, but what she actually said was rather unpredictable. Checking her knowledge of contemporary events, Damasio asked her about the Falklands War. In the language of psychiatry, this woman was “confabulating”. Chronic confabulation is a rare type of memory problem that affects a small proportion of brain damaged people. In the literature it is defined as "the production of fabricated, distorted or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive”. Whereas amnesiacs make errors of omission, there are gaps in their recollections they find impossible to fill – confabulators make errors of commission: they make tilings up. Rather than forgetting, they are inventing. Confabulating patients are nearly always oblivious to their own condition, and will earnestly give absurdly implausible explanations of why they're in hospital, or talking to a doctor. One patient, asked about his surgical sear, explained that during the Second World War he surprised a teenage girl who shot him three times in the head, killing him, only for surgery to bring him back to life. The same patient, when asked about his family, described how at various times they had died in his arms, or had been killed before his eyes. Others tell yet more fantastical tales, about trips to the moon, fighting alongside Alexander in India or seeing Jesus on the Cross. Confabulators aren’t out to deceive. They engage in what Morris Moseovitch, a neuropsychologist, calls “honest lying". Uncertain and obscurely distressed by their uncertainty, they are seized by a “compulsion to narrate": a deep-seated need to shape, order and explain what they do not understand. Chronic confabulators are often highly inventive at the verbal level, jamming together words in nonsensical but suggestive ways: one patient, when asked what happened to Queen Marie Antoinette of France, answered that she had been “suicided" by her family. In a sense, these patients are like novelists, as described by Henry James: people on whom "nothing is wasted". Unlike writers, however, they have little or no control over their own material.
D
D. The wider significance of this condition is what it tells us about ourselves. Evidently, there is a gushing river of verbal creativity in the normal human mind, from which both artistic invention and lying are drawn. We are born storytellers, spinning narrative out of our experience and imagination, straining against the leash that keeps us tethered to reality. This is a wonderful thing; it is what gives us our ability to conceive of alternative futures and different worlds. And it helps us to understand our own lives through the entertaining stories of others. But it can lead us into trouble, particularly when we try to persuade others that our inventions are real. Most of the time, as our stories bubble up to consciousness, we exercise our cerebral censors, controlling which stories we tell, and to whom. Yet people lie for all sorts of reasons, including the fact that confabulating can be dangerously fun.
E
E. During a now-famous libel case in 1996, Jonathan Aitken, a former cabinet minister, recounted a tale to illustrate the horrors he endured after a national newspaper tainted his name. The case, which stretched on for more than two years, involved a series of claims made by the Guardian about Aitken's relationships with Saudi arms dealers, including meetings he allegedly held with them on a trip to Paris while he was a government minister. What amazed many in hindsight was the sheer superfluity of the lies Aitken told during his testimony. Aitken’s case collapsed in June 1997, when the defence finally found indisputable evidence about his Paris trip. Until then, Aitken's charm, fluency and flair for theatrical displays of sincerity looked as if they might bring him victory, they revealed that not only was Aitken’s daughter not with him that day (when he was indeed doorstepped), but also that the minister had simply got into his car and drove off, with no vehicle in pursuit.
F
F. Of course, unlike Aitken, actors, playwrights and novelists are not literally attempting to deceive us, because the rules are laid out in advance: come to the theatre, or open this book, and we'll lie to you. Perhaps this is why we felt it necessary to invent art in the first place: as a safe space into which our lies can be corralled, and channeled into something socially useful. Given the universal compulsion to tell stories, art is the best way to refine and enjoy the particularly outlandish or insight till ones. But that is not the whole story. The key way in which artistic “lies" differ from normal lies, and from the "honest lying” of chronic confabulators, is that they have a meaning and resonance beyond their creator. The liar lies on behalf of himself; the artist tell lies on behalf of everyone. If writers have a compulsion to narrate, they compel themselves to find insights about the human condition. Mario Vargas Llosa has written that novels “express a curious truth that can only be expressed in a furtive and veiled fashion, masquerading as what it is not.”. Art is a lie whose secret ingredient is truth.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 6
Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
List of Headings
I
Unsuccessful deceit
II
Biological basis between liars and artists
III
How to lie in an artistic way
IV
Confabulations and the exemplifiers
V
The distinction between artists and common liars
VI
The fine line between liars and artists
VII
The definition of confabulation
VIII
Creativity when people lie
1
Paragraph A
2
Paragraph B
3
Paragraph C
4
Paragraph D
5
Paragraph E
6
Paragraph F
Question 7 - 8
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Which TWO of the following statements about people suffering from confabulation are true?
A
They have lost cognitive abilities.
B
They do not deliberately tell a lie.
C
They are normally aware of their condition.
D
They do not have the impetus to explain what they do not understand.
E
They try to make up stories.
Question 9 - 10
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Which TWO of the following statements about playwrights and novelists are true?
A
They give more meaning to the stories.
B
They tell lies for the benefit of themselves.
C
They have nothing to do with the truth out there.
D
We can be misled by them if not careful.
E
We know there are lies in the content.
Question 11 - 13
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
A
11
accused Jonathan Aitken, a former cabinet minister, who was selling and buying with
12
. Aitken’s case collapsed in June 1997, when the defence finally found indisputable evidence about his Paris trip. He was deemed to have his
13
. They revealed that not only was Aitken’s daughter not with him that day, but also that the minister had simply got into his car and drove off, with no vehicle in pursuit.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
VI
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Với đoạn này khi các bạn đọc xong, sẽ thấy rối vì cấu trúc + từ vựng khó, nên chỉ đi dò keywords. Thấy sự xuất hiện của liars và artists, các bạn có thể chọn heading v hoặc heading ii vì không hiểu “the fine line between”



Vì vậy các bạn cần đọc theo phương pháp Linearthinking tóm lại được main idea như sau: 

 1 : đề cập tới videos của Brando - 'Lying for a living'

 2 + 3 : mô tả các diễn biến trong một đoạn phim

 4 + 5 + 6 : Brando nói về mối liên hệ giữa lying và acting

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2
II
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc connection giữa các câu nhé

Câu 1 + 2 đề cập tới sự tương đồng giữa artist và liar

Câu 3 nói về nguồn gốc của lying và artistic storytelling (acting) dựa trên yếu tố tâm lý

Câu 4 + 5 bổ sung cho các câu trên: đưa chi tiết các điểm giống nhau giữa artist và liars

Câu 6 : quan điểm của tác giả rằng những điểm tương đồng đó không phải ngẫu nhiên

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3
IV
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta vận dụng Lineathinking để nắm main idea nhanh:

Câu 1 + 2 đề cập tới trường hợp người phụ nữ bị chấm thương não

Câu 3 + 4 nói người phụ nữ này trải qua confabulating (có ký ức sai lệch)

Câu 6 + 7 + 8 bổ sung cho câu 5 : giải thích thêm cho “chronic confabulation problem"

Câu 10 + 11 + 12 đưa example cho confabulating patient ở câu 9

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4
VIII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Apply Lineathinking để nắm main idea nhanh: 

Câu 2 bổ sung cho câu 1 : cho biết con người có nhiều creativity, và ta dùng trí tưởng tượng để bịa ra/ nói dối

Câu 3 nói chúng ta đều là storytellers

Câu 4 + 5 nói về lợi ích của việc là storytellers

Câu 6 cho biết việc nói dối cũng có thể gây ra rắc rối cho chúng ta

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5
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea của cả đoạn:

Câu 1 : Aitken kể lại câu chuyện những điều tồi tệ mà anh ấy phải chịu đựng sau khi a newsspaper hủy hoại tên tuổi anh ấy

Câu 2 : Vụ án đó cáo buộc Aitken qua lại với những tên buôn bán vũ khí

Câu 3 : Aitken đã nói dối rất nhiều

Câu 4 + 5 : Tuy nhiên đã có những bằng chứng không thể chối cãi và anh ấy đã thất bại trong việc nói dối

Xem full giải thích
6
V
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu 1 nói không giống nhưu Aitken (common liars), artists không muốn lừa dối chúng ta

Câu 2 + 3 + 4 bổ sung cho câu 1

Câu 5 nói artistic lies khác với normal lies

Câu 6 nói liars nói dối trên danh nghĩa của họ, còn artists nói dối trên danh nghĩa của mọi người

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7
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng câu hỏi là về people suffering confabulation

=> Ta tìm được thông tin tương ứng ở đoạn C, đoạn cho nhiều ví dụ về confabulators





Áp dụng đọc cấu trúc với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Ở câu 7 có thông tin: Confabulator aren’t out to deceive

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8
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng câu hỏi là về people suffering confabulation

=> Ta tìm được thông tin tương ứng ở đoạn C, đoạn cho nhiều ví dụ về confabulators





Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Whereas amnesiacs make errors of omission , there are gaps in their recollections they find impossible to fill confabulators make errors of commission : they make tilings up.

Xem full giải thích
9
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 playwrights and novelists are not literally attempting to deceive us , because the rules are laid out in advance : come to the theatre, or open this book, and we'll lie to you.

=> Playwrights and novelists không muốn nói dối chúng ta, và có rules sẵn: đến theatre/ mở sách, chúng tôi sẽ lừa dối bạn

=> Chúng ta biết sẽ có lies trong content (nội dung) -> Chọn E



Xem full giải thích
10
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 The key way  in which artistic “lies"  differ from normal lies, and from the "honest lying” of chronic confabulators , is that they have a meaning and resonance beyond their creator.

=> Paraphrase gọn lại: Artistic "lies" are different from normal lies and "honest lying" because they have a meaning beyond their creator

=> Artistic "lies" (lies của playwrights and novelists) có nhiều ý nghĩa hơn

=> Playwrights and novelists give more meaning to the stories -> Chọn đáp án A

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11
national newspaper
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi:

A ______ accused (buộc tội) Jonathan Aitken, a former cabinet minister

=> Cần tìm 1 người/ tổ chức mà buộc tội Jonathan



Step 2: Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea

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12
arms dealers
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The case involved a series of claims about Aitken's relationships with Saudi arms dealers

=> Main idea: The case involved một loạt các cáo buộc về relationships giữa Aitken và Saudi arms dealers

=> Có relationships với arm dealers (người buôn bán vũ trang) -> buy and sell with arm dealers => Answer: arm dealers



Xem full giải thích
13
victory
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Dựa vào cụm exact paraphrase ở câu hỏi, ta biết được đáp án sẽ tới trước đoạn 'they revealed that not only...'



Áp dung Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Aitken's charm, fluency and flair for theatrical displays of sincerity looked as if they might bring him victory

=> Những biểu hiện chân thành (displays of sincerity) của Aitken trông như thể đã đem lại victory cho ông ấy

=> Đồng nghĩa với việc: He was deemed to have his victory -> Answer: victory



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