America's Oldest Art IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Reading Practice với passage America's Oldest Art được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS IELTS Trainer - Test 5 - Passage 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
America's Oldest Art IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation

📖 Bài đọc (reading passage)

America’s oldest art?
Set within treacherously steep cliffs, and hidden away valleys of northeast Brazil, is some of Southeast America’s most significant and spectacular rock-art. Most of the art so far discovered from the ongoing excavations comes from the archaeologically – important National Park o’ the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piaui, and it is causing quite a controversy. The reason for the uproar? The art is being dated to around 25,000 or perhaps. According to some archaeologists, even 36,000 years ago. If correct, this is set to challenge the widely field view that the America were first colonized from the north, via the Bering Straits from eastern Siberia at around 10.000 BC. only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter. Prior to the designation of 130,000 hectares as a National Park, the rock-art sites were difficult to get to and often dangerous to enter. In ancient times, this inaccessibility must have heightened the importance of the sites, and indeed of the people who painted on the rocks. Wild animals and human figures dominate the art and are incorporated into often-complex scenes involving hunting, supernatural beings, fighting and dancing. The artists depicted the animals that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest. The large mammals are usually painted in groups and tend to be shown a running stance, as though trying to escape from hunting parties. Processions – lines of human and animal figures – also appear of great impotence to these ancient artists. Might such lines represent family units or groups of warriors? On a number of panels, rows of stylized figures, some numbering up to 30 individual figures, were painted using the natural undulating contours of the rock surface, so evoking the contours of the seconding landscape Other interesting, but very rare, occurrences are scenes that show small human figures holding on to and dancing around a tree, possibly involved in some tom of a ritual dance. Due to the favourable climatic conditions. the imagery on many panels is in a remarkable state of preservation. Despite this, however, there are serious conservation issues that affect their long term survival. The chemical and mineral quantities of the rock on which the imagery is panted is fragile and on several panels it is unstable. As well as the secretion of sodium carbonate on the rock surface, complete panel sections have, over the ancient and recent past, broken away from the main rock surface. These have then become buried and sealed into sometimes-ancient floor deposits. Perversely, this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition has assisted archaeologists in dating several major rock-art sites. Of course, dating the art is extremely difficult oven the non-existence of plant and animal remains that might be scientifically dated. However, there am a small number of sites in the Serra da Capivara that are giving up their secrets through good systematic excavation. Thus, at Toca do Roqiomo da Pedra Furada. rock-art researcher Niéde Guidon managed to obtain a number of dates. At different levels of excavation, she located fallen painted rock fragments, which she was able to dale to at least 36,000 years ago. Along with toe painted fragments, crude stone tools were found. Also discovered wore a series of scientifically datable sites of fireplaces, or hearths, the earliest dated to 46,000 BC. arguably the oldest dates for human habitation in the America. However, these conclusions are net without controversy. Critics, mainly from North America, have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires. Several North American researchers have gone further and suggested that the rock art from this site dates from no earlier than about 3,730 years age, based on the results of limited radiocarbon dating. Adding further fool to the general debate is the fact that the artists in the area of the National Hark tended not to draw over old motifs (as often occurs with rock-art), which makes it hard to work out the relative chronology of the images or styles. However, the diversity of imagery and tho narrative the paintings create from each of the many sites within the National Park suggests different artists were probably making their art at efferent times, and potentially using each site over many thousands of years. With fierce debates thus raging over the dating, where these artists originate from is also still very much open to speculation. The traditional view ignores the early dating evidence from the South American rock-art sites. In a revised scenario, some palaeo – anthropologists are now suggesting that modern humans may’ have migrated from Africa using the strong currents of the Atlantic Ocean some 63.000 years or more ago, while others suggest a more improbable colonization coming from the Pacific Ocean. Yet, while ether hypothesis is plausible, there is still no supporting archaeological evidence between the South American coastline and the interior. Rather, it seems possible that there were a number of waves of human colonization of the Americas occurring possibly over a 60,000-100,000 year period, probably using the Bering Straits as a land bridge to cross into the Americas. Despite the compelling evidence from South America, it stands alone: the earliest secure human evidence yet found in the state of Oregon in North America only dates to 12,300 years BC. So this is a fierce debate that is likely to go on for many more years. However, the splendid rock art and its allied anthropology of northeast of Brazil, described here, is playing a huge and significant role in the discussion.

❓ Câu hỏi (questions)

Question 1 - 3
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
1
According to the first paragraph, the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionize accepted ideas about
A
the way primitive people lived in North America.
B
the date when the earliest people arrived in South America.
C
the origin of the people who crossed the Bering Straits.
D
the variety of cultures which developed in South America.
2
How did the ancient artists use the form of the rock where they painted?
A
to mimic the shape of the countryside nearby
B
to emphasize the shape of different animals
C
to give added light and shade to their paintings
D
to give the impression of distance in complex works
3
In the fourth paragraph, what does the winter say is unusual about the rock-artists of Serra da Capivara?
A
They had a very wide range of subject-matter.
B
Their work often appears to be illustrating a story.
C
They tended to use a variety of styles in one painting.
D
They rarely made new paintings on top of old ones.
Question 4 - 10
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
4
Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui.
5
The location of the rock-art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society.
6
The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by the ancient humans.
7
Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region.
8
The fact that some paintings wore buried is useful to archaeologists.
9
The tools found near some paintings were probably used for hunting animals.
10
The North American researchers have confirmed Niede Guidons dating of the paintings.
Question 11 - 14
Complete each sentence with the correct ending. A-F below.
Write the correct letter A-F.
List of Endings
A
are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists.
B
do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America.
C
are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara.
D
have not been accepted by academics outside America.
E
centre on whether or not they are actually man-made.
F
reflect the advances in scientific dating methods.
Materials derived from plants or animals
11
The discussions about the ancient hearths
12
Theories about where the first South Americans originated from
13
The finds of archaeologists in Oregon
14

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
B
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

1. The art is being dated to around 25,000 or according to some archaeologists , even 36,000 years ago

=> Đưa ra mốc thời gian của các tác phẩm nghệ thuật.

2. If this is correct , this challenge the widely held view that the America were first colonized from the north at around 10.000 BC, only moving down into Central and South America thereafter => Giải thích nếu mốc thời gian này đúng thì nó sẽ challenge the widely held view về thời gian mà con người tới Central và South America (in the millennia after 10,000 BC) -> Vậy đoạn đầu này nói về việc the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionize accepted ideas about khoảng thời gian mà con người tới Central và South America

-> Đáp án: B. the date when the earliest people arrived in South America.



Xem full giải thích
2
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

figures were painted using the natural undulating contours of the rock surface , so evoking the contours of the landscape 

=> Figures were painted using the natural contours of the rock surface, reminding of the contours of the landscape. => Figures vẽ trên rock surface có contours (hình dạng) làm gợi nhớ tới contours của landscape. => Figures vẽ trên rock surface có contours (hình dạng) giống với contours của landscape. -> Vậy ancient artists đã bắt chước contours của landscape (= use the form of the rock where they painted) => Vì: mimic = bắt chước, giống nhau; countryside trong bài chính là landscape được nhắc tới

Nên trong các lựa chọn, lựa chọn phù hợp nhất là: A. to mimic the shape of the countryside nearby

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3
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

the artists in the area of the National Hark tended not to draw over old motifs -> Artists thường không draw over old motifs (vẽ đè lên bức vẽ cũ) -> Việc artists draw over old motifs là việc hiếm và lạ -> Vậy artists hiếm khi vẽ tranh mới đè lên cái cũ => Vì draw over old motifs = made new paintings on top of old ones(vẽ đè lên bức vẽ cũ)

Nên Lựa chọn phù hợp nhất là: D. They rarely made new paintings on top of old ones

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4
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Most of the art so far discovered from the ongoing excavations comes from the archaeologically – important National Park

=> Main idea: Đa số art được phát hiện từ những excavations vẫn còn đang thực hiện có nguồn gốc từ...

=> Vậy những excavations này vẫn còn đang diễn ra Câu hỏi: Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui.

=> Trong bài đọc nói rõ là excavations vẫn đang diễn ra (ongoing) , trong khi câu hỏi nói là đã hoàn thành (have completed)

-> Thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc trái ngược nhau

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5
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

this inaccessibility must have heightened  the importance of the sites , and of the people who painted on the rocks 

=> The inaccessibility of the sites increased the importance of the people who painted on the rocks.

-> The inaccessibility of the sites đã nâng tầm quan trọng của những người vẽ lên đá

- Câu hỏi: The location of the rock-art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society.

=> Vị trí rock-art chứng tỏ artists có tầm quan trọng

Xem full giải thích
6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Wild animals and human figures dominate  the art   and are incorporated into  complex scenes 

 The artists depicted the animals that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest .

 The large mammals are usually painted in groups and tend to be shown a running stance ... => Trong bài chỉ nói animals được vẽ như thế nào: vẽ kết hợp cùng humans (incorporated into complex scenes…), vẽ trong rừng (ancient forest), vẽ thành nhóm (painted in group…) Câu hỏi:  The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by the ancient humans (be regarded as = be perceived as = be considered as = được xem là) => Dù cả 3 keywords “animals", “ancient" và “humans" đều được tìm thấy trong bài đọc nhưng bài chẳng nói gì về việc ancient humans xem animals là thiêng liêng (sacred) cả -> Không tìm được thông tin => Đáp án: Not Given

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7
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Due to the favourable climatic conditions , the imagery on panels is in a remarkable state of preservation .

 Despite this , there are serious conservation issues that affect their long term survival . => Due to good climatic conditions, the paintings (= imagery) are in good preservation. However, there are conservation issues that affect their survival. => Bài nói rất rõ là thời tiết không làm ảnh hưởng tới paintings, chỉ có conservation issues mới ảnh hưởng paintings. Câu hỏi: Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region. => Weather of the region causes damage to paintings. => Trái ngược hẳn với thông tin trong bài. => Đáp án: No



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8
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

These have become buried and sealed into floor deposits .

 Perversely , this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition has assisted archaeologists in dating rock-art sites . => Cụm “this form of natural erosion and deposition" chính là thay cho việc “buried" paintings đề cập ở câu trước => Thông tin bài đọc có thể hiểu là: Burying paintings has assisted archeologists in dating rock-art sites. => Burying paintings has helped archeologists to identify the age of rock-art sites. (assist = help)

- Câu hỏi: The fact that some paintings were buried is useful to archaeologists.

-> useful là help archeologists xác định the age of rock-art sites

-> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc 

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9
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Along with the painted fragments , crude stone tools were found 

=> paintings and tools were found - Trong bài đúng là có đề cập tới tools được tìm thấy, nhưng không hề nói tools này dùng để làm gì => Không đủ thông tin để kết luận liệu tools này có phải dùng để “hunt animals” hay không.

=> Đáp án: Not Given



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10
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

rock-art researcher Niéde Guidon managed to obtain a number of dates

[...] (3 câu sau đó đưa ra dẫn chứng cụ thể cho conclusion của Guidon)

 However , these conclusions are not without controversy .

 Critics , mainly from North America , have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires . [...] => Từ “However" thể hiện rõ sự tương phản giữa 2 câu: Niede Guidon đưa ra a number of dates tuy nhiên lại vấp phải tranh cãi (controversy) từ critics from North America => Critics from North America không đồng ý với Niede Guidon.

Câu hỏi: The North American researchers have confirmed Niede Guidon’s dating of the paintings. (North American researchers đồng ý với Niede Guidon)

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11
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

dating the art is difficult since the non-existence of plant and animal remains might be scientifically dated .

 However , there are a small number of sites in the Serra da Capivara that are giving up their secrets through good systematic excavation .

=> Câu đầu tiên đọc khó hiểu, tuy nhiên bạn chỉ cần nắm được: “the non-existence of plant and animals remains" có nghĩa là “there are no plant and animal remains” So với các lựa chọn, ta có C là phù hợp nhất: Materials derived from plants or animals are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara.

Vì no plant and animal tức là chúng absent from rock-art sites.

=> Đáp án: C. Materials derived from plants or animals are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara.  



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12
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon => Từ “in fact" thể hiện ý nhấn mạnh => Thông tin được tác giả nhấn mạnh trong câu là việc hearths là “natural phenomenon" (tự nhiên, không phải nhân tạo) - Xét các lựa chọn, E là phù hợp nhất : The discussions about the ancient hearths centre on whether or not they are actually man-made. (= The discussions about the hearths are mainly about whether they are man-made or a natural phenomenon) => Đáp án: E. The discussions about the ancient hearths centre on whether or not they are actually man-made.


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13
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

some palaeo – anthropologists are now suggesting that modern humans may have migrated from Africa , while others suggest a more improbable colonization

=> Cả khi không hiểu "improbable colonization", bạn vẫn có thể lựa chọn đáp án dựa vào đọc cấu trúc câu: Cấu trúc S + V while S + V thể hiện sự tương phản giữa 2 vế => Có sự đối lập về ý kiến của palaeo-anthropologist về việc modern humans di cư (migrated) từ đâu.  => Có sự đối lập về ý kiến của palaeo-anthropologist về việc modern humans có nguồn gốc từ đâu

So với list đáp án, ta có A. phù hợp nhất : Theories about where the first South Americans originated from are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists

Vì debate = có sự đối lập của 2 ý kiến; nguồn gốc của modern humans = where the first South Americans originated from

=> Đáp án: A. Theories about where the first South Americans originated from are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists



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14
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Despite the evidence from South America , it stands alone : the earliest secure human evidence yet found in the state of Oregon in North America only dates to 12,300 years BC . => “Despite the evidence from SA, it stands alone…” => “stand alone" (đứng một mình) ở đây nghĩa là không còn bằng chứng nào khác ủng hộ cho bằng chứng này. Dấu “:” sau vế đầu tiên giải thích rõ hơn: bằng chứng tìm thấy ở Oregon cho ra một kết quả khác.

-> Vậy những phát hiện của archaeologists in Oregon không ủng hộ chứng cứ về thời gian con người đến America

So với list đáp án, ta có B. phù hợp nhất : The finds of archaeologists in Oregon do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America.

=> Đáp án B là phù hợp nhất 

The finds of archaeologists in Oregon do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America.

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