Đề thi IELTS Online Test Practice Test Plus 3 - Listening Test 6 - Download PDF Câu hỏi, Transcript và Đáp án

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Practice Test Plus 3 - Listening Test 6 được lấy từ cuốn sách Practice Test Plus 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Đề thi IELTS Online Test Practice Test Plus 3 - Listening Test 6 - Download PDF Câu hỏi, Transcript và Đáp án

Section 1

👂️ Bài nghe section 1

00:00
Question 1 - 10
Complete the table below.
Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
HOLIDAY RENTALS

❓ Tapescript section 1

Holiday Rentals
00:00
Liz:
Hello?
Ken:
Hi Liz, it’s Ken here.
Liz:
Hi Ken! Nice to hear from you! Are you ...
Ken:
This is just a quick call, but Mary and I have just been talking about our summer holiday - we haven’t booked a place yet and we’ve left it a bit late. We were just wondering if you know of any holiday rentals in your area - it’s so nice there.
Liz:
Well yes, I can think of two or three places that are very nice - what dates have you got in mind?
Ken:
Example The 10th of July to the 22nd of July.
Liz:
Oh yes, that is quite soon isn’t it? Well there’s a place near here called Moonfleet ...
Ken:
Is that M-double O- N-F-L-double E- T?
Liz:
That’s right. It’s quite a rural location, and it’s next to the owner’s house, but it’s got fields all around it, so it’s very pretty.
Ken:
Mm. Sounds OK. Can you tell me a bit more about it?
Liz:
Well it’s an annexe to the owner’s house, and it’s an apartment with two bedrooms, and an open-plan living area.
Ken:
Well I like the sound of it. Is there anything we might not like about it?
Liz:
Well it’s quite a distance from the nearest shops, that’s all ...
Ken:
OK. And ... well, I’ll tell Mary but I don’t think she’d mind that. Do you know how you book it?
Liz:
You have to book on the internet. There’s a web address - it’s www. summerhouses ...
Ken:
One word?
Liz:
Yes ... Then dot com. You’ll be able to look at a photograph on that.
Ken:
OK . And what about the others? Where are they?
Liz:
The second one I’m thinking of is called Kingfisher, and that’s even more rural. It’s a really beautiful location in fact, it’s by the Q5 river, and it’s got nice views - it overlooks woodland on the other side.
Ken:
Is that an apartment?
Liz:
No, it’s a three-bedroomed house. And that’s got a Q6 dining room as well as a separate living room and a kitchen. But I expect it’s more expensive. You’ll have to check the prices.
Ken:
Mm. It’s probably a bit bigger than we need, but our nephew might be joining us, we’re not sure yet. How do you book Kingfisher?
Liz:
You have to phone the owner directly. Shall I give you the number? I’ve got it here in my phone book ... It’s oh one seven five two, double six nine, two one eight.
Ken:
Right ...
Ken:
And you mentioned a third place?
Liz:
Yes, there’s a house that my sister stayed in last year - it’s called Sunnybanks.
Ken:
Nice name.
Liz:
And the location of that one is rather different ... It’s in the centre of a village, but it’s a very small and quaint place.
Ken:
Did your sister like it?
Liz:
Oh yes, it’s by the sea so her children really loved it ...
Ken:
What’s the accommodation like?
Liz:
I’m not sure about the number of rooms because I haven’t been in it myself, but I think she said it’s quite spacious ... And I know it’s got its own garden. It’s not very big, but it’s not shared with anyone else, and it’s supposed to be very pretty.
Ken:
Any snags? Problems?
Liz:
The only other thing I can think of is that there’s nowhere for parking. The streets are too narrow. So you have to leave your car somewhere else and then walk to the house - it’s only about ten minutes away, but ...
Ken:
OK. Well ... I don’t think it matters personally. How do you book it?
Liz:
There’s an agent you have to contact. I don’t know his details, but I can ask my sister and let you know tomorrow.
Ken:
Thanks Liz, that’d be great. I’ll talk to Mary and see what she says. Thanks for your help.
Liz:
That’s OK Ken, I’ll speak to you again tomorrow. I hope you find what you’re looking for ...

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 1

1
Moonfleet
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần điền tên địa điểm (giống Kingfisher hay Sunnybanks ở các cột dưới)



Đầu tiên, Liz nhắc tới tên một địa điểm là ''Well there’s a place near here called Moonfleet ...''

Sau đó Ken đánh vần là ''Is that M-double O- N-F-L-double E- T?'' và Liz xác nhận là đúng

=> Đáp án là Moonfleet



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2
fields
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem xung quanh Moonfleet có gì (surrounded by ___)

=> Biết đáp án sẽ tới khi nghe '' It’s quite a rural location ...'' (ý tới trước đáp án)

Sau đó, Liz nói là ''and it’s next to the owner’s house, but it’s got fields all around it, so it’s very pretty.''

=> Địa điểm được bao quanh bởi fields (all around = surround) => Đáp án là fields



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3
shops
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về điểm bất lợi của nơi này (distance from ___ )

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Is there anything we might not like about it?''

Liz nói nó chỉ có một điểm xấu, đó là ''Well it’s quite a distance from the nearest shops, that’s all ...''

=> Điểm xấu là nó cách khá xa cửa hàng => Đáp án: shops



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4
summerhouses
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần biết thông tin đặt chỗ

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Do you know how you book it?''

Dựa vào đề bài, đáp án là tên trang web (www. ____ . com)

Liz trả lời là ''There’s a web address - it’s www.summerhouses ...''

Và sau đó là '' Yes ... Then dot com.''

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5
river
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem KingFisher ở kế bên cái gì (next to the ___ )

=> Đáp án sẽ đến sau ''The second one I’m thinking of is called Kingfisher''

Mình nghe được là ''It’s a really beautiful location in fact, it’s by the river''

=> Địa điểm nằm cạnh một con sông (by = next to) => Đáp án: river



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6
dining
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về loại phòng có ở KingFisher

=> Biết đáp án sẽ tới khi nghe "No, it's a three-bedroomed house" (ý tới trước dáp án)

Tiếp theo, ''And that’s got a dining room as well as a separate living room and a kitchen.''

=> Căn phòng còn thiếu trong bài là dining room => Đáp án: dining



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7
sea
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem Sunnybanks ở kế bên cái gì (next to the ___ )

=> Phần này bắt đầu từ ''Yes, there’s a house that my sister stayed in last year - it’s called Sunnybanks.''

Liz có nhắc là ''Oh yes, it’s by the sea so her children really loved it ...''

=> Nó nằm cạnh biển => Đáp án: sea



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8
garden
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem căn nhà có cái gì private

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''What’s the accommodation like?'' (yêu cầu mô tả căn nahf)

Liz nói, ''And I know it’s got its own garden. It’s not very big, but it’s not shared with anyone else''

=> Căn phòng có một khu vườn và nó không được dùng chung với ai khác (tức là nó private, riêng tư) => Đáp án: garden



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9
parking
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem Sunnybanks không có cái gì (no ___ )

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Any snags? Problems?'' (đề cập tới khuyết điểm)

Liz chỉ nhắc đến một vấn đề, đó là '' The only other thing I can think of is that there’s nowhere for parking.''

=> Căn nhà không có chỗ để xe => Đáp án: parking



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10
agent
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu cuối cùng là về cách đặt chỗ (contact the ___ )

=> Mình sẽ biết đáp án sau ''How do you book it?''

Theo Liz, ''There’s an agent you have to contact.''

=> Mình sẽ phải liên hệ một agent => Đáp án là agent



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Section 2

👂️ Bài nghe section 2

00:00
Question 11 - 14
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
11
According to the speaker, why is it a good time for D-l-Y painting?
A
There are better products available now.
B
Materials cost less than they used to.
C
People have more free time than before.
12
What happened in 2009 in the UK?
A
A record volume of paint was sold
B
A large amount of paint was wasted.
C
There was a major project to repaint public buildings.
13
What does the speaker say about paint quantity?
A
It’s not necessary to have exact room measurements.
B
It’s better to overestimate than to underestimate.
C
An automatic calculator can be downloaded from the Internet.
14
What does Community RePaint do?
A
It paints people’s houses without payment.
B
It collects unwanted paint and gives it away.
C
It sells unused paint and donates the money to charity.
Question 15 - 20
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about paint?
A
Don’t buy expensive paint.
B
Test the colour before buying a lot.
C
Choose a light colour.
D
Use water-based paint.
E
Buy enough paint for more than one application.
What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about preparation?
A
Replace any loose plaster.
B
Don’t spend too long preparing surfaces.
C
Use decorators’ soap to remove grease from walls.
D
Wash dirty walls with warm water.
E
Paint over cracks and small holes.
What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about painting?
A
Put a heater in the room.
B
Wash brushes in cold water.
C
Use a roller with a short pile.
D
Apply paint directly from the tin.
E
Open doors and windows.

❓ Tapescript section 2

Do-It-Yourself House Painting
00:00
Good morning everyone, and welcome to our weekly series on home improvements. Today’s programme is about Do-It-Yourself house painting ... There’s never been a better time for people who like to do their own interior house painting.
Although people still lead very busy lives, thanks to the availability of various new DIY materials, you can now decorate your home in a more efficient and a more environmentally-friendly way.
In two thousand and nine alone, approximately fifty-three million litres of the paint that was sold in the UK were left untouched - that’s enough to fill twenty one Olympic-sized swimming pools.
It's easy to overestimate how much paint you’ll need to decorate your room if you use guesswork. And if you know exactly how much paint is needed, you avoid unnecessary waste.
There are automatic paint calculators available now - most of the major paint manufacturers provide them - look on their websites, or just google ‘paint calculator’ and see what comes up.
Then simply measure the circumference and height of the room in metres, enter this into the calculator along with the type of surface you're painting, and it will tell you how many litres of paint you’ll need.
But if you do end up with leftover paint, you can donate it to an organisation like Community RePaint. They will take the paint from you and redistribute it to local charities and voluntary organisations, so it goes to a good home.
You can find more information about Community RePaint on communityrepaint - all one word - dot org dot uk.
Another way of avoiding paint wastage is to check you're completely happy with your colour choice before starting to paint. For example, you can get a small sample of the colour you’re thinking of using, then paint a board and move it around the room, so you can see how it looks against your furnishings, and in different lights.
Also, it’s always better to buy high quality paints, because you get what you pay for. If you buy cheap paint you might need to apply two or three coats to achieve the same coverage that you’d get from one coat of a good-quality paint. You could also spend a week on a job that could have been done in a day or two. And consider the environment.
Most paint manufacturers now sell water-based paints that don’t contain harmful chemicals or give off harmful odours, so get one of these. You can also buy paint that’s packaged in recyclable containers. There’s a lot more choice than there used to be.
You can only do a good job, which will last, if you prepare the surfaces thoroughly before painting. In fact, in many ways if you want to do a professional-looking job, this is more important than the painting itself. If there are any cracks or patches of loose plaster, painting over them won’t solve the problem.
Take the plaster out and fill the holes, allowing enough time for the new plaster to dry. And you won’t get a smooth finish if the walls are dusty or greasy, so washing with water isn’t enough. Use a solution of decorator’s soap and rinse well with warm water afterwards.
When you're ready to paint, we suggest you use a medium-pile roller for walls and ceilings. A lot of people tend to use short-pile rollers, but these give a patchy finish, and that wastes paint and time. Similarly, long-pile rollers can create a thick, textured effect, which looks messy.
The same goes for brushes. The stronger the bristles, the easier they are to wash and reuse. And as you’ve chosen a water-based paint, clean your brushes with cold water, because it’s more energy-efficient that way.
As you're decorating, keep transferring small amounts of paint into a tray and keep topping it up when you need to. This reduces the chance of it being contaminated by dust and pieces of dirt ...
And finally, water-based paint doesn’t have a lingering smell, so that's not an issue any more, but it’s air flow rather than heat that helps the paint dry quicker, so to help finish the job in the quickest time leave your doors and windows open. The faster the paint is dry and the job finished, the quicker you can start enjoying your room!
In tomorrow’s programme I’ll be giving some advice ...

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 2

11
A
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần biết tại sao giờ là thời điểm tốt cho DIY painting

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''There’s never been a better time for people who like to do their own interior house painting.'' (Không có thời điểm nào tốt hơn để ...)

Đầu tiên, ''Although people still lead very busy lives''

=> Cuộc sống của mọi người vẫn bận rộn, tức là họ không có nhiều thời gian rảnh hơn => Loại đáp án C



Sau đó, ''thanks to the availability of various new DIY materials, you can now decorate your home in a more efficient and a more environmentally-friendly way.''

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12
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem điều gì xảy ra ở UK năm 2009

=> Đáp án sẽ tới sau ''In two thousand and nine alone, ...''

Theo người nói, ''approximately fifty-three million litres of the paint that was sold in the UK were left untouched''

=> Một lượng lớn sơn bán ra không được dùng, có nghĩa là sơn bị lãng phí (wasted) => Đáp án là B



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13
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đối tượng chính của câu là số lượng sơn

Đầu tiên, người nói bảo là ''And if you know exactly how much paint is needed, you avoid unnecessary waste.''

=> Nếu mình biết chính xác lượng sơn cần có, mình sẽ tránh lãng phí => Cần tính toán kích cỡ chính xác của căn phòng => Loại đáp án A



Sau đó người nói nhắc tới đối tượng là automatic calculator, ''There are automatic paint calculators available now - most of the major paint manufacturers provide them - look on their websites, or just google ‘paint calculator’ and see what comes up.''

=> Automatic calculator có thể tìm được ở trên mạng => Đáp án là C



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14
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng của câu là CommunityRepaint

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''you can donate it to an organisation like Community RePaint.''

Theo người nói, ''They will take the paint from you and redistribute it to local charities and voluntary organisations,''

=> Công việc của tổ chức là lấy sơn thừa từ bạn và đem cho các tổ chức từ thiện => Đáp án là B



Bạn cẩn thận với đáp án C tại tổ chức không bán sơn thừa rồi đem tiền lãi cho các tổ chức từ thiện mà họ chuyển luôn sơn thừa cho các tổ chức đó

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15
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Lời khuyên đầu tiên của người nói là ''For example, you can get a small sample of the colour you’re thinking of using,''

=> Mình nên thử một chút mẫu trước rồi mới mua => Đáp án là B



Lời khuyên thứ hai là ''Also, it’s always better to buy high quality paints, because you get what you pay for.''

=> Mình nên mua sơn chất lượng (tiền nào của đó) => Loại đáp án A



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16
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Lời khuyên cuối cùng là ''Most paint manufacturers now sell water-based paints that don’t contain harmful chemicals or give off harmful odours, so get one of these''

=> Mình nên mua sơn làm từ nước để bảo vệ môi trường => Đáp án là D



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17
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hai câu tiếp là lời khuyên về việc chuẩn bị

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''if you prepare the surfaces thoroughly before painting.''

Đầu tiên, ''If there are any cracks or patches of loose plaster, painting over them won’t solve the problem.''

=> Sơn đè lên chỗ nứt và patches sẽ không giúp ích được gì, tức người nói không recommend mình làm việc này => Loại đáp án E



Điều mình cần làm là ''Take the plaster out and fill the holes, allowing enough time for the new plaster to dry.''

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18
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Sau đó, ''And you won’t get a smooth finish if the walls are dusty or greasy, so washing with water isn’t enough.''

=> Nếu tường bẩn hay bụi thì chỉ lau bằng nước là không đủ (không đề cập là nước ấm hay lạnh) => Loại đáp án D



Mình cần phải ''Use a solution of decorator’s soap and rinse well with warm water afterwards.''

=> Mình nên dùng decorator's soap rồi mới dùng nước ấm để lau => Đáp án là C



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19
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Hai câu cuối là lời khuyên khi mình bắt đầu sơn

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''When you're ready to paint ...''

Đầu tiên, ''we suggest you use a medium-pile roller for walls and ceilings'' => Mình nên dùng medium-pile roller



Còn với short-pile thì không nên, ''A lot of people tend to use short-pile rollers, but these give a patchy finish, and that wastes paint and time.''

=> Short-pile tô không đều và còn tốn sơn và thời gian => Loại đáp án C



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20
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Sau đó, ''keep transferring small amounts of paint into a tray and keep topping it up when you need to''

=> Mình không nên dùng trực tiếp sơn từ tin mà đổ nó ra một cái khay trước => Loại đáp án D







Cuối cùng, ''but it’s air flow rather than heat that helps the paint dry quicker''

=> Thông thoáng khí giúp sơn khô nhanh hơn là hơi nóng => Từ đó người nói mới khuyên là ''leave your doors and windows open'' => Loại đáp án A

=> Chọn đáp án E


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Section 3

👂️ Bài nghe section 3

00:00
Question 21 - 26
Choose the correct letter A, B or C.
21
Why is Matthew considering a student work placement?
A
He was informed about an interesting vacancy.
B
He needs some extra income.
C
He wants to try out a career option.
22
Which part of the application process did Linda find most interesting?
A
The psychometric test.
B
The group activity.
C
The individual task.
23
During her work placement, Linda helped find ways to
A
speed up car assembly.
B
process waste materials.
C
calculate the cost of design faults
24
Why did Linda find her work placement tiring?
A
She wasn’t used to full-time work.
B
The working hours were very long.
C
She felt she had to prove her worth
25
What did Linda’s employers give her formal feedback on?
A
engineering ability
B
organisational skills
C
team working
26
What was the main benefit of Linda’s work placement?
A
Improved academic skills.
B
An offer of work.
C
The opportunity to use new software.
Question 27 - 30
What does Linda think about the books on Matthew’s reading list?
Choose FOUR answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-F
List of Findings
A
helpful illustrations
B
easy to understand
C
up-to-date
D
comprehensive
E
specialised
F
useful case studies
27
The Science of Materials
28
Materials Engineering
29
Engineering Basics
30
Evolution of Materials

❓ Tapescript section 3

Benefits Of Student Work Placements
00:00
Matthew:
Hi Linda. Can you spare a few minutes?
Linda:
Hello Matthew, no problem.
Matthew:
I just wanted to talk to you about temporary work placements ... I’ve never really thought there was a good reason for doing one. I’ve got some savings, so I don’t really need the money at the moment.
Matthew:
But I’ve had an email from the university about a vacancy that looks quite interesting. You did a placement last year didn’t you?
Linda:
I did, yes. In my case I wanted to find out if I was making the right career choice before I began applying for permanent jobs. I thought I wanted to work in car manufacturing but I wasn’t sure. So I applied to Toyota.
Matthew:
What was the application process like?
Linda:
Lengthy. There were a lot of different parts to it. The dullest one was a psychometric test - you know, when you have to answer loads of questions about yourself.
Matthew:
And you’re trying to guess what’s the best thing to say!
Linda:
Yes. Then there was an activity that we did in groups, which I found really fascinating. Engineers are renowned for being a bit unsociable, but I thought we made a great team.
Linda:
And we had an individual task too. We had to sort through various business documents and prioritise them. It was just like what you have to do as a student really, just with different content.
Matthew:
What exactly were you doing on the placement?
Linda:
I was helping to design some diagnostic software to identify any waste in the car assembly process
Matthew:
Do you mean waste of materials?
Linda:
No, time anything that can speed the process up helps to cut costs.
Matthew:
How did the work placement compare to being a student? Was it hard work?
Linda:
Yes, it was. I’d had full-time work before - I’ve done various unskilled jobs during university holidays, and some of those involved long hours - so I thought I’d find it easy. I was wrong though. I think when you’re on placement you’re always trying to prove yourself ...
Matthew:
So you push yourself hard to succeed?
Linda:
Yes. But I got a lot of support from my employers. They were always helpful. And then at the end of the placement I was given formal feedback.
Matthew:
Do you mean on your engineering ability?
Linda:
Well, no, I didn’t really need that because we had team meetings every other day, and so I had the chance to discuss technical issues and ask about anything that wasn’t clear. The evaluation was about general workplace things, like organisational ability, initiative ... That sort of thing …
Matthew:
I get the impression you think you benefited from the placement ... ?
Linda:
Well the best thing is that they’ve offered me a job for next year! Depending on my exam results of course, but still ...
Matthew:
A permanent one?
Linda:
Yes! But apart from that I learned so much . The industrial environment was much more demanding than the academic one, so my general skills improved. Like time Management ... meeting deadlines ... And on the technical side I learned new software packages like MS Project.
Matthew:
Well, I think you’ve convinced me that work placements are worthwhile ... But while you’re here can you give me advice on something else?
Matthew:
I’m about to make a start on the Engineering Materials module, and I’ve got a booklist here - can you have a quick look and tell me what you would recommend - that’s if you can remember?
Linda:
Let’s see ... I do remember some of them ... Yes, this one ...The Science of Materials. I found the subject quite hard generally, but this book is very accessible so it suited me. It doesn’t cover everything though …
Matthew:
What about this one then . Materials Engineering?
Linda:
Oh yes, I do remember that. But it’s a bit out-of-date now isn’t it, unless it’s a new edition?
Matthew:
I don’t think so ...
Linda:
But what I liked about it were the pictures. They really helped to understand the descriptions. It’s useful just from that point of view ... Let’s see ... What else? Oh yes ... That one there - Engineering Basics - I think out of all these that’s got the widest coverage ...
Matthew:
But I’ve looked at the contents page, and it hardly mentions nanotechnology.
Linda:
Yes, you’re right. The Evolution of Materials does though. It’s a recent publication so it covers all the latest developments. It’s a bit thin on the nineteen sixties though, and that decade was quite important.
Matthew:
Well it sounds as if they all complement each other in some ways. I don’t suppose you can lend me .

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 3

21
A
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem tại sao Matthew muốn tham gia thực tập

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''I just wanted to talk to you about temporary work placements ...''

Đầu tiên, ''I’ve got some savings, so I don’t really need the money at the moment.''

=> Lý do mà Matthew chọn work placement không phải là vì tiền => Loại đáp án B



Sau đó, ''But I’ve had an email from the university about a vacancy that looks quite interesting.''

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22
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem Linda thấy phần nào trong application process thú vị nhất

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''What was the application process like?''

Đầu tiên, theo Liz, ''The dullest one was a psychometric test''

=> Phần chán nhất là bài kiểm tra tâm lý, còn mình đang cần tìm phần thú vị nhất => Loại đáp án A



Tiếp theo, ''Then there was an activity that we did in groups, which I found really fascinating''

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23
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe về công việc của Liz

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''What exactly were you doing on the placement?''

Đầu tiên, Liz nói tổng quát là ''I was helping to design some diagnostic software to identify any waste in the car assembly process''

=> Cô ấy thiết kế phần mềm để xác định lãng phí trong khâu lắp ráp xe (bạn lưu ý là cô ấy xác định, identify, chứ không trực tiếp xử lý waste như đáp án B nói)

Tuy nhiên, khi Matthew hỏi ''Do you mean waste of materials?''

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24
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần tìm lý do tại sao Liz lại thấy mệt khi làm việc

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''How did the work placement compare to being a student? Was it hard work?'' (hỏi có vất vả không)

Đầu tiên, Liz trả lời là ''I’d had full-time work before [...] some of those involved long hours - so I thought I'd find it easy ...''

=> Cô ấy đã làm việc toàn thời gian từ trước rồiđã quen với việc làm việc liên tục nhiều giờ => Loại đáp án A

=> Loại đáp án B


Sau đó, ''I think when you’re on placement you’re always trying to prove yourself ...''

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25
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng của câu là formal feedback

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''And then at the end of the placement I was given formal feedback.''

Matthew hỏi là ''Do you mean on your engineering ability?'' (ứng với đáp án A)

nhưng Liz trả lời là ''Well, no''

=> Loại đáp án A



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26
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này là về lợi ích Liz nhận được

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''I get the impression you think you benefited from the placement ... ?''

Theo Liz, ''Well the best thing is that they’ve offered me a job for next year!''

=> Lợi ích lớn nhất là cô ấy nhận được một vị trí công việc vào năm tới => Đáp án là B



Sau đó, ''The industrial environment was much more demanding than the academic one, so my general skills improved.''

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27
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng đầu tiên là cuốn Science of Materials

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Yes, this one ... The Science of Materials.''

Liz nói là ''I found the subject quite hard generally, but this book is very accessible so it suited me''

=> Môn học khó nhưng cuốn sách thì dễ hiểu (accessible là dễ tiếp cận, trong trường hợp này tức là dễ hiểu, dễ tiếp thu) => Đáp án là B



Sau đó, ''It doesn’t cover everything though''

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28
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Cuốn tiếp theo là Materials Engineering

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''What about this one then . Materials Engineering?''

Đầu tiên, ''But it’s a bit out-of-date now isn’t it, unless it’s a new edition?''

=> Nó đã cũ rồi, trừ khi nó là phiên bản mới



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29
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng thứ ba là Engineering Basics

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''That one there - Engineering Basics''

Theo Liz, '' I think out of all these that’s got the widest coverage ...''

=> Trong cả 4 cuốn sách, đây là cuốn bao quát nhất => Đáp án là D



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30
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng cuối cùng là The Evolution of Materials

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''The Evolution of Materials does though.''

Mình nghe được là ''It’s a recent publication so it covers all the latest developments.''

=> Đây là cuốn sách mới nên nó nói về các phát triển mới nhất, tức là nó up-to-date => Đáp án là C



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Section 4

👂️ Bài nghe section 4

00:00
Question 31 - 40
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
Researching the origin of medieval manuscripts
Background
  • Medieval manuscripts - handwritten books produced between the fifth and fifteenth centuries

  • Origin of many manuscripts unknown until 2009; scientists started using DNA testing

Animal hides - two types
Parchment
Sheep skin: white in colour and
31

Greasy - writing can’t be erased so often used for
32

Vellum
Calf skin: most popular for prestigious work because you can get
33
lettering.
Preparation of hides
  • Treated in barrels of lime - where this was not available, skins were

    34
    (removed hair -> more flexible)

  • Stretched tight on a frame

  • Scraped to create same

    35
    

  • Vellum was

    36
    - for correct colour

Genetic testing - finding origins
Previously - analysed handwriting and
37
used by the writer
Now - using genetic data from ‘known manuscripts’ to create a
38

Uses of new data
Gives information on individual books
Shows the
39
of the book industry
Helps define
40
in medieval period

❓ Tapescript section 4

Researching The Origin Of Medieval Manuscripts
00:00
My presentation today is on how the science of genetics is being used to shed light on the origin of manuscripts - anything written by hand - produced in the medieval period ... that is ... the period between the fifth and fifteenth centuries AD.
As many of you know, thousands of medieval handwritten books still exist today. Some of them have a clear provenance, that is, we know exactly where and when they were written, but the origin of many manuscripts has been a complete mystery, that is, until two thousand and nine when geneticists started using DNA testing to shed light on their origins.
But before looking at the new research, I need to explain something about the way the manuscripts were produced - particularly what they were written on. Virtually all were written on treated animal skins and there were essentially two types.
The first was parchment, which is made of sheep skin. It has the quality of being very white but also being thin. It has a naturally greasy surface which meant it was hard to erase writing from it. This made it much sought after for court documents in medieval times.
The second type is vellum, which is calf skin. This was most often used for any very ‘high- status’ documents because it provided the best writing surface so scribes could achieve lettering of high quality.
So, once the animal hides had been chosen, they had to be prepared. Where the right materials were on hand, the skins were put into large barrels or vats of lime, where they were agitated or stirred frequently.
But if lime wasn’t available, then the hides were buried. Both these techniques were designed to cause the hair to slough off, and the skins to become gelatinous and therefore more flexible.
The next stage was to put the hides on stretcher frames and pull them very tight. While on the frame they were scraped with a moon-shaped knife in order to create a uniform thickness.
For parchment, that was the end of the process, but for vellum there was an additional stage where it was bleached, in order to achieve the desired colour.
So, what does all this preparation mean for the quest to identify the origins of ‘mystery’ manuscripts?
Well, until recently the only way historians and other academics were able to guess at origins was either through the analysis of the handwriting style, or from the dialect in which the piece was written. But these techniques have proven unreliable, for a number of reasons.
It was thus decided to try to look at the problem from a different angle ... to start from what is known, that is, the small number of manuscripts whose origins we do already know. Because these parchments and vellum are both made from animal hides, it was possible to subject them to DNA testing and to identify the genetic markers for the date and location of production
From this was created what is known as a ‘ Q38 baseline’. The next stage was to test the mystery manuscripts, finding their DNA characteristics and then making comparisons between the known and the mystery scripts.
Genetic similarities and differences enabled the scientists to gain more information about the origins of the many manuscripts we had known virtually nothing about up to that point.
Now you might ask - what are the potential uses of this new information? Well, obviously, it can shed light on the origin of individual books and manuscripts. But that’s not all. It can also shed light on the evolution of the whole of the manuscripts production industry in medieval times.
And because that was such a thriving business, involving very large-scale movements right across the globe, the new data, in turn, help historians establish which trade routes were in operation during the whole millennium.
Now if anyone has any questions ...

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 4

31
(very) thin
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về đặc điểm của sheep skin (sheepskin: white in colour and ___ )

=> Phần này sẽ bắt đầu từ ''Virtually all were written on treated animal skins and there were essentially two types.''

Đối tượng đầu tiên là parchment làm từ sheep skin, ''The first was parchment, which is made of sheep skin''

Sau đó người nói đưa thông tin là ''It has the quality of being very white but also being thin.''

=> Nó có hai đặc điểm là rất trắng và mỏng => Đáp án: thin



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32
court documents
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về đặc điểm của sheep skin (sheepskin: white in colour and ___ )

=> Phần này sẽ bắt đầu từ ''Virtually all were written on treated animal skins and there were essentially two types.''



Đối tượng đầu tiên là parchment làm từ sheep skin, ''The first was parchment, which is made of sheep skin''



Sau đó người nói đưa thông tin là ''It has the quality of being very white but also being thin.''

=> Nó có hai đặc điểm là rất trắng và mỏng

Xem full giải thích
33
high-quality
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem tại sao calf skin lại được dùng nhiều cho prestigious work

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''The second type is vellum, which is calf skin.''

Mình nghe được là ''This was most often used for any very ‘high- status’ documents because it provided the best writing surface so scribes could achieve lettering of high quality.''

=> Lý do nó được dùng là bởi scribes (người ghi chép) có thể viết chữ chất lượng cao => Đáp án là high-quality



Bạn tránh nhầm với từ high-status do đây là tính từ của documents.

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34
buried
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem nếu không có lime người ta sẽ làm gì



Khi nghe người nói bàn về cách chuẩn bị bằng lime, ''the skins were put into large barrels or vats of lime, where they were agitated or stirred frequently.''

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới

Sau đó, ''But if lime wasn’t available, then the hides were buried.''

=> Nếu không có lime, da động vật sẽ được chôn => Đáp án: buried.



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35
thickness
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem họ cạo da để làm gì (scraped to create same ___ )



Mình sẽ nghe thấy đáp án sau bước stretched on a tight frame, ''The next stage was to put the hides on stretcher frames and pull them very tight.'' (theo thú tự trong đề)





Theo người nói, ''While on the frame they were scraped with a moon-shaped knife in order to create a uniform thickness.''

=> Chúng được cạo để tạo độ dày giống nhau (uniform = same) => Đáp án: thickness.



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36
bleached/whitened
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tiếp đến mình cần nghe về vellum



Người nói đưa thông tin là ''but for vellum there was an additional stage where it was bleached, in order to achieve the desired colour.''

=> Với vellum thì nó sẽ được bleached (tẩy trắng) để tạo màu => Đáp án: bleached



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37
dialect
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về phương pháp cũ để tìm ra nguồn gốc của manuscripts (analysed handwriting and ____ used by the writer)

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''...to identify the origins of 'mystery' manuscripts?"

Mình nghe được là ''The only way [...] was either through the analysis of the handwriting style, or from the dialect in which the piece was written.''

=> Cách duy nhất là phân tích chữ viết và phương ngữ (dialect) => Đáp án : dialect



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38
baseline
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tiếp đến mình nghe về phương pháp hiện đại ( using genetic data from ‘known manuscripts’ to create a ___ )

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''It was thus decided to try to look at the problem from a different angle'' (1 góc nhìn khác -> cách mới)

Mình nghe được là, ''it was possible to subject them to DNA testing and to identify the genetic markers for the date and location of production.''

=> Đầu tiên, người nói bàn về phương pháp sử dụng mã gen

Mục đích của việc này là để ''From this was created what is known as a ‘baseline’''

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39
evolution
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem new data cho thấy cái gì của book industry

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe ''Well, obviously, it can shed light on the origin of individual books and manuscripts.'' (ý tới trước đáp án)

Theo người nói, ''It can also shed light on the evolution of the whole of the manuscripts production industry in medieval times.''

=> Nó sẽ cho mình biết về sự tiến hóa của ngành công nghiệp sản xuất manuscript (=book industry) => Đáp án: evolution



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40
trade routes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem new data giúp define cái gì



Mình nghe được là '' ... the new data, in turn, help historians establish which trade routes were in operation during the whole millennium.''

=> Dữ liệu mới giúp xác định các tuyến đường thương mại trong quá khứ => Đáp án: trade routes



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