Practice Test Plus 3 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Practice Test Plus 3 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Practice Test Plus 3 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Practice Test Plus 3 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Geoff Brash
Geoff Brash, who died in 2010, was a gregarious Australian businessman and philanthropist who encouraged the young to reach their potential. Born in Melbourne to Elsa and Alfred Brash, he was educated at Scotch College. His sister, Barbara, became a renowned artist and printmaker. His father, Alfred, ran the Brash retail music business that had been founded in 1862 by his grandfather, the German immigrant Marcus Brasch, specializing in pianos. It carried the slogan ‘A home is not a home without a piano.’ In his young days, Brash enjoyed the good life, playing golf and sailing, and spending some months travelling through Europe, having a leisurely holiday. He worked for a time at Myer department stores before joining the family business in 1949, where he quickly began to put his stamp on things. In one of his first management decisions, he diverged from his father’s sense of frugal aesthetics by re-carpeting the old man’s office while he was away. After initially complaining of his extravagance, his father grew to accept the change and gave his son increasing responsibility in the business. After World War II (1939-1945), Brash’s had begun to focus on white goods, such as washing machines and refrigerators, as the consumer boom took hold. However, while his father was content with the business he had built, the younger Brash viewed expansion as vital. When Geoff Brash took over as managing director in 1957, the company had two stores, but after floating it on the stock exchange the following year, he expanded rapidly and opened suburban stores, as well as buying into familiar music industry names such as Allans, Palings and Suttons. Eventually, 170 stores traded across the continent under the Brash’s banner. Geoff Brash learned from his father’s focus on customer service. Alfred Brash had also been a pioneer in introducing a share scheme for his staff, and his son retained and expanded the plan following the float. Geoff Brash was optimistic and outward looking. As a result, he was a pioneer in both accessing and selling new technology, and developing overseas relationships. He sourced and sold electric guitars, organs, and a range of other modern instruments, as well as state-of-the-art audio and video equipment. He developed a relationship with Taro Kakehashi, the founder of Japan’s Roland group, which led to a joint venture that brought electronic musical devices to Australia. In 1965, Brash and his wife attended a trade fair in Guangzhou, the first of its kind in China; they were one of the first Western business people allowed into the country following Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution. He returned there many times, helping advise the Chinese in establishing a high quality piano factory in Beijing; he became the factory’s agent in Australia. Brash also took leading jazz musicians Don Burrows and James Morrison to China, on a trip that reintroduced jazz to many Chinese musicians. He stood down as Executive Chairman of Brash’s in 1988, but under the new management debt became a problem, and in 1994 the banks called in administrators. The company was sold to Singaporean interests and continued to trade until 1998, when it again went into administration. The Brash name then disappeared from the retail world. Brash was greatly disappointed by the collapse and the eventual disappearance of the company he had run for so long. But it was not long before he invested in a restructured Allan’s music business. Brash was a committed philanthropist who, in the mid-1980s, established the Brash Foundation, which eventually morphed, with other partners, into the Soundhouse Music Alliance. This was a not-for-profit organization overseeing and promoting multimedia music making and education for teachers and students. The Soundhouse offers teachers and young people the opportunity to get exposure to the latest music technology, and to use this to compose and record their own music, either alone or in collaboration. The organization has now also established branches in New Zealand, South Africa and Ireland, as well as numerous sites around Australia.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
The Brash business originally sold pianos.
2
Geoff Brash’s first job was with his grandfather’s company.
3
Alfred Brash thought that his son wasted money.
4
By the time Geoff Brash took control, the Brash business was selling some electrical products.
5
Geoff Brash had ambitions to open Brash stores in other countries.
Question 6 - 10
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
6
Which arrangement did Alfred Brash set up for his employees?
7
Which Japanese company did Geoff Brash collaborate with?
8
What type of event in China marked the beginning of Geoff Brash’s relationship with that country?
9
What style of music did Geoff Brash help to promote in China?
10
When did the Brash company finally stop doing business?
Question 11 - 13
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Soundhouse Music Alliance
Grew out of the Brash Foundation.
  A non-commercial organisation providing support for music and music 
11
                                
  Allows opportunities for using up-to-date 
12
 
  Has 
13
  in several countries. 

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
True
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: The Brash business originally sold pianos.

=> 'orginally' -> việc bán pianos là hình nhức kinh doanh ban đầu của the Brash business -> Nghĩ về lúc the Brash mới được thành lập





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 His father, Alfred , ran the Brash retail music business that had been founded in 1862 by his grandfather , specializing in pianos.

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2
False
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Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này tương đối dễ, sau khi đọc phần Paraphrasing ta đã có thể dễ dàng nhận ra:

=> Geoff làm việc ở Myer department -> Sau đó mới làm cho gia đình mình

=> His first job wasn't with his grandfather's company

=> Chọn FALSE



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3
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc tới đây thì ta đã biết Alfred Brash là ba của Geoff Brash



Câu này đòi hỏi bạn phải biết từ 'extravagance' là 'sự phung phí', nếu không sẽ rất khó chọn đáp án

=> Nếu không biết 'extravagance', nhìn lại câu trước, ta cũng phải hiểu nghĩa của từ 'frugal''tiết kiệm' để có thể chọn đoán nghĩa của câu

=> Nói chung, ta cần phải biết 1 trong 2 từ trên để có thể chọn đáp án



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4
True
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Giải thích chi tiết



Vì thông tin phân mảnh ở nhiều câu, ta đọc connection với Linearthinking:

 1 After World War II (1939-1945) , Brash’s had begun to focus on white goods , such as washing machines and refrigerators

 2 ....

 3 When Geoff Brash took over as managing director , the company had two stores

=> Thông qua việc đọc connection giữa câu 1 + 3 ta thấy: the Brashs's bán 'white goods' trước rồi sau đó Geoff Brash mới lên làm quản lý

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5
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ở cuối đoạn 4, ta có thể thấy các thông tin về việc Geoff mở rộng chuỗi của hàng như:

  • expanded rapidly and opened suburban stores

  • buying into familiar music industry

=> Tuy nhiên, tất các các stores chỉ 'traded accross the continent' -> Không mở rộng ra nước ngoài

=> Cũng không đề cập tới việc Geoff mong muốn điều đó

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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6
a share scheme/a share scheme
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Which arrangement did Alfred Brash set up for his employees?

=> 'Which arrangement' -> Đáp án là một danh từ - chỉ một sự việc gì đó

=> Tìm thông tin về việc 'Alfred Brash' làm gì đó cho nhân viên của ông





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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7
Roland/Roland group/the Roland group
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin về 'Japanese company', ta có thể dễ dàng được thông tin 'Taro Kakehashi' (tên người Nhật) + 'Japan's Roland group'

=> Đáp án tới đây cũng đã khá rõ ràng

=> Tuy nhiên, các bạn lưu ý, tên công ty chỉ là 'Rolan group' thôi nhé, 'Japan's' dùng để chỉ ra rằng công ty đó của nước Nhật -> Trên đề đã có 'Japanese' rồi, cái mình cần chỉ là tên công ty thôi

=> Answer: Roland/Roland group/the Roland group



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8
a trade fair/trade fair
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Giải thích chi tiết



Vì từ hỏi là 'what type of event', ta sẽ tập trung tìm danh từ chỉ một loại sự kiện diễn ra ở Trung Quốc



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 In 1965 , Brash and his wife attended a trade fair in Guangzhou , the first of its kind in China ; they were one of the first Western business people allowed into the country following Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution.

=> Brash và vợ ông tham dự 'a trade fair' (dễ dàng nhận ra đây là đáp án

)

=> Vì họ là những thương nhân đầu tiên được phép vào Trung Quốc - thông qua 'Cách mạng văn hóa' của Mao Trạch Đông -> Điều này đánh dấu bước đầu trong sự hợp tác với Trung Quốc

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9
jazz
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này rất dễ, ta có thể dễ dàng tìm thông tin về 'China' và nhạc jazz

=> Ngoài ra trong bài đọc cũng không hề nhắc tới một thể loại nhạc nào khác

=> Không có thông tin gây nhiễu

=> Đáp án chỉ có thể là: jazz



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10
1998
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: When did the Brash company finally stop doing business?

=> Với từ hỏi 'when', ta biết đáp án là một mốc thời gian - khi mà company ngừng hoạt động

=> Từ đây, ta sẽ tìm được 3 con số: 1988 + 1994 + 1998

  • stood down as Executive Chairman of Brash’s in 1988 -> Đây là thời gian Brash nghỉ hưu -> Loại

    

  • in 1994 the banks called in administrator -> Đây là thời gian ngân hàng nhờ tới administrator -> Loại

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11
education
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào tiêu đề summary, ta biết cần đọc ở đoạn cuối



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: A non-commercial organization providing support for music and music _____

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một cái gì đó liên quan đến music

Phân tích info: This was a not-for-profit organization overseeing and promoting multimedia music making and education for teachers and students.

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12
technology
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Sau khi đọc câu hỏi, ta biết đáp án là danh từ (theo sau tính từ)

=> Với 2 synonym 'up-to-date' = 'the latests' quá dễ dàng để nhận ra đáp án là danh từ phía sau

=> Tuy nhiên, nhớ là ta chỉ được điền ONE WORD ONLY -> Answer: technology



>>>

Bổ sung thêm: 'get exposure to sth' có nghĩa là được tiếp xúc với cái gì đó -> Tiếp xúc = sử dụng

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13
branches
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Giải thích chi tiết



Biết đáp án là danh từ - thông qua việc liệt kê một loạt các tên quốc gia trong bài đọc, và việc bài đọc không hề có các thông tin gây nhiễu (danh từ khác)

=> Ta dễ dàng điền được đáp án là: branches



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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Early occupations around the river Thames
A
A. In her pioneering survey, Sources of London English, Laura Wright has listed the variety of medieval workers who took their livings from the river Thames. The baillies of Queenhithe and Billingsgate acted as customs officers. There were conservators, who were responsible for maintaining the embankments and the weirs, and there were the garthmen who worked in the fish garths (enclosures). Then there were galleymen and lightermen and shoutmen, called after the names of their boats, and there were hookers who were named after the manner in which they caught their fish. The searcher patrolled the Thames in search of illegal fish weirs, and the tideman worked on its banks and foreshores whenever the tide permitted him to do so.
B
B. All of these occupations persisted for many centuries, as did those jobs that depended upon the trade of the river. Yet, it was not easy work for any of the workers. They carried most goods upon their backs, since the rough surfaces of the quays and nearby streets were not suitable for wagons or large carts; the merchandise characteristically arrived in barrels which could be rolled from the ship along each quay. If the burden was too great to be carried by a single man, then the goods were slung on poles resting on the shoulders of two men. It was a slow and expensive method of business.
C
C. However, up to the eighteenth century, river work was seen in a generally favourable light. For Langland, writing in the fourteenth century, the labourers working on river merchandise were relatively prosperous. And the porters of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries were, if anything, aristocrats of labour, enjoying high status. However, in the years from the late eighteenth to the early nineteenth century, there was a marked change in attitude. This was in part because the working river was within the region of the East End of London, which in this period acquired an unenviable reputation. By now, dockside labour was considered to be the most disreputable, and certainly the least desirable form of work.
D
D. It could be said that the first industrial community in England grew up around the Thames. With the host of river workers themselves, as well as the vast assembly of ancillary trades such as tavern-keepers and laundresses, food-sellers and street-hawkers, shopkeepers and marine store dealers - there was a workforce of many thousands congregated in a relatively small area. There were more varieties of business to be observed by the riverside than ,in any other part of the city. As a result, with the possible exception of the area known as Seven Dials, the East End was also the most intensively inhabited region of London.
E
E. It was a world apart, with its own language and its own laws. From the sailors in the opium dens of Limehouse to the smugglers on the malarial flats of the estuary, the workers of the river were not part of any civilised society. The alien world of the river had entered them. That alienation was also expressed in the slang of the docks, which essentially amounted to backslang, or the reversal of ordinary words. This backslang also helped in the formulation of Cockney rhyming slang, so that the vocabulary of Londoners was directly'affected by the life of the Thames.
F
F. The reports in the nineteenth-century press reveal a heterogeneous world of dock labour, in which the crowds of casuals waiting for work at the dock gates at 7.45 a.m. include penniless refugees, bankrupts, old soldiers, broken-down gentlemen, discharged servants, and ex-convicts. There were some 400-500 permanent workers who earned a regular wage and who were considered to be the patricians of dockside labour. However, there were some 2,500 casual workers who were hired by the shift. The work for which they competed fiercely had become ever more unpleasant. Steam power could not be used for the cranes, for example, because of the danger of fire. So the cranes were powered by treadmills. Six to eight men entered a wooden cylinder and, laying hold of ropes, would tread the wheel round. They could lift nearly 20 tonnes to an average height of 27 feet (8.2 metres), forty times in an hour. This was part of the life of the river unknown to those who were intent upon its more picturesque aspects.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 19
Reading Passage has SIX paragraphs, A-F.
Choose the correct heading, A-F, from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-ix.
List of Headings
I
A mixture of languages and nationalities
II
The creation of an exclusive identity
III
The duties involved in various occupations
IV
An unprecedented population density
V
Imports and exports transported by river
VI
Transporting heavy loads manually
VII
Temporary work for large numbers of people
VIII
Hazards associated with riverside work
IX
The changing status of riverside occupations
14
Paragraph A
15
Paragraph B
16
Paragraph C
17
Paragraph D
18
Paragraph E
19
Paragraph F
Question 20 - 21
Choose TWO letters, A-E
Write the correct letters.
Which TWO statements are made about work by the River Thames before the eighteenth century?
A
Goods were transported from the river by cart.
B
The workforce was very poorly paid.
C
Occupations were specialised.
D
Workers were generally looked down upon.
E
Physical strength was required.
Question 22 - 23
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters.
Which TWO statements are made about life by the River Thames in the early nineteenth century?
A
The area was very crowded.
B
There was an absence of crime.
C
Casual work was in great demand.
D
Several different languages were in use.
E
Inhabitants were known for their friendliness.
Question 24 - 26
Complete the question below.
24
In the nineteenth century, only a minority of dock workers received a
11.....................

25
Cranes were operated manually because
12....................
. created a risk of fire.
26
Observers who were unfamiliar with London’s docks found the River Thames



🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
III
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu 1 cho biết Laura đã liệt kê ra một loại các workers làm việc ở sông Thames

Câu 2 -> 5 đưa thêm thông tin về các workers, bổ sung cho câu 1 : có nhiều công việc - baillies, conservators, garthmen, galleymen, lightermen, shoutmen, searcher, tideman và mỗi người có nhiệm vụ khác nhau

=> Main idea: liệt kê các nghề nghiệp và mô tả sơ về những việc họ phải làm

=> Ứng với heading III - The duties involved in various occupations



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15
VI
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu 1 đề cập đến những người kinh doanh trên sông

Câu 2 nói rằng công việc của họ rất nặng nhọc

Câu 3 + 4 mô tả công việc bổ sung cho câu 2 : phải mang vác hàng hóa trên lưng + hàng nặng phải được vác bởi 2 người

Câu 5 nói rằng phương pháp làm việc của họ rất chậm và tốn kém

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16
IX
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu 1 -> 3 cho biết river workers trước thế kỷ 18 là một công việc tốt

Câu 4 nói rằng sau đó đã có sự thay đổi về quan điểm đối với river wokers

Câu 5 + 6 bổ sung cho câu 4 : đây là công việc ít được tôn trọng nhất không ai muốn làm

=> Main idea: Đã sự thay đổi quan điểm về river works - từ tốt thành xấu

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17
IV
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu 1 cho biết cộng đồng công nghiệp phát triển xung quanh sông Thames

Câu 2 bổ sung cho câu 1 : xung quanh có hàng ngàn người dân lao động

Câu 3 cho biết ở đó có đa dạng các loại hình kinh doanh hơn bất cứ đâu

Câu 4 nói rằng the East End (vị trí của working river) là nơi đông dân nhất

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18
II
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu 1 cho biết cộng đồng ở sông Thames có ngôn ngữ + luật lệ riêng

Câu 2 nói rằng những người sống ở đó không phải một phần của xã hội văn minh

Câu 3 -> 5 bổ sung cho câu 1 + 2 : cho biết về ngôn ngữ đặc trưng của nơi này - backslang - đã ảnh hưởng tới ngôn ngữ của Londoners

=> Main idea: nét đặc trung về ngôn ngữ của đời sống quanh sông Thames đã ảnh hưởng tới ngôn ngữ của Londoners

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19
VII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Câu 1 cho biết các thành phần lao động ở cảng rất đa dạng (đa phần là những người khó khăn)

Câu 2 nói rằng có khoảng 400-500 người là công nhân kỳ cựu, có mức lương trung bình

Câu 3 cho biết tuy nhiên cũng có 2,500 công nhân được thuê theo ca

Câu 4 bổ sung cho câu 3 : cộng việc của họ rất là nặng nhọc

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20
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu đã làm qua phần 'Matching Headings', bạn sẽ làm được phần này rất nhanh vì đã nắm được ý chính của từng đoạn

  • A - Goods were transported from the river by cart.

Ở đoạn B có nói: 'the rough surfaces of the quays and nearby streets were not suitable for wagons or large carts'

=> Bề mặt đường không phù hợp với 'carts' (xe đẩy) -> Loại A



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21
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Chính xác như heading của đoạn B - Transporting heavy loads manually , việc vận chuyển của hàng hóa đều được thực hiên thủ công, ta có thể thấy qua thông tin sau:

 They carried most goods upon their backs

=> Mang vác hàng hóa trên lưng -> Đòi hỏi phải có sức khỏe

=> Chọn E - Physical strength was required





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22
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu đã làm qua phần 'Matching Headings', bạn sẽ làm được phần này rất nhanh vì đã nắm được ý chính của từng đoạn

=> Ở phần này ta nên đọc một lượt qua đáp án để xem có thấy thông tin nào quen không





Đối với đáp án A - The area was very crowded, ta sẽ nghĩ ngay tới paragraph D với heading: An unprecedented population density

=> Từ đây có thể nhanh chóng chọn A



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23
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 However , there were some 2,500 casual workers who were hired by the shift. 

 2 The work for which they competed fiercely had become ever more unpleasant.

=> 1 + 2 : có nhiều casual workers được thuê - và để có được công việc này họ cũng phải cạnh tranh rất khốc liệt

=> Chứng tỏ là có rất nhiều nhu cầu cho casual work

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24
regular wage
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Giải thích chi tiết



Khi thấy nhắc tới 'a minority of dock workers', ta nghĩ ngay tới thông tin về số lượng giữa các workers ở đoạn F

=> 400-500 permanent workers so với 2,500 casual workers -> permanent workerssố ít (minority)





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 There were some 400-500 permanent workers who earned a regular wage

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25
steam power
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Cranes were operated manually because ______ created a risk of fire.

=> Đáp án là danh từ - cái gì đó gây ra nguy cơ bị cháy





Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking:

 1 Steam power could not be used for the cranes , for example , because of the danger of fire.

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26
picturesque
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Observers who were unfamiliar with London’s docks found the River Thames _____

=> Ta có cấu trúc: find something + adj -> Đáp án là tính từ





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 This was part of the life of the river unknown to those who were intent upon its more picturesque aspects.

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Video game research
Although video games were first developed for adults, they are no longer exclusively reserved for the grown ups in the home. In 2006, Rideout and Hamel reported that as many as 29 percent of preschool children (children between two and six years old) in the United States had played console video games, and 18 percent had played hand-held ones. Given young children’s insatiable eagerness to learn, coupled with the fact that they are clearly surrounded by these media, we predict that preschoolers will both continue and increasingly begin to adopt video games for personal enjoyment. Although the majority of gaming equipment is still designed for a much older target audience, once a game system enters the household it is potentially available for all family members, including the youngest. Portable systems have done a particularly good job of penetrating the younger market. Research in the video game market is typically done at two stages: some time close to the end of the product cycle, in order to get feedback from consumers, so that a marketing strategy can be developed; and at the very end of the product cycle to ‘fix bugs’ in the game. While both of those types of research are important, and may be appropriate for dealing with adult consumers, neither of them aids in designing better games, especially when it comes to designing for an audience that may have particular needs, such as preschoolers or senior citizens. Instead, exploratory and formative research has to be undertaken in order to truly understand those audiences, their abilities, their perspective, and their needs. In the spring of 2007, our preschool-game production team at Nickelodeon had a hunch that the Nintendo DS - with its new features, such as the microphone, small size and portability, and its relatively low price point - was a ripe gaming platform for preschoolers. There were a few games on the market at the time which had characters that appealed to the younger set, but our game producers did not think that the game mechanics or design were appropriate for preschoolers. What exactly preschoolers could do with the system, however, was a bit of a mystery. So we set about doing a study to answer the query: What could we expect preschoolers to be capable of in the context of hand-held game play, and how might the child development literature inform us as we proceeded with the creation of a new outlet for this age group? Our context in this case was the United States, although the games that resulted were also released in other regions, due to the broad international reach of the characters. In order to design the best possible DS product for a preschool audience we were fully committed to the ideals of a ‘user-centered approach’, which assumes that users will be at least considered, but ideally consulted during the development process. After all, when it comes to introducing a new interactive product to the child market, and particularly such a young age group within it, we believe it is crucial to assess the range of physical and cognitive abilities associated with their specific developmental stage. Revelle and Medoff (2002) review some of the basic reasons why home entertainment systems, computers, and other electronic gaming devices, are often difficult for preschoolers to use. In addition to their still developing motor skills (which make manipulating a controller with small buttons difficult), many of the major stumbling blocks are cognitive. Though preschoolers are learning to think symbolically, and understand that pictures can stand for real-life objects, the vast majority are still unable to read and write. Thus, using text-based menu selections is not viable. Mapping is yet another obstacle since preschoolers may be unable to understand that there is a direct link between how the controller is used and the activities that appear before them on screen. Though this aspect is changing, in traditional mapping systems real life movements do not usually translate into game-based activity. Over the course of our study, we gained many insights into how preschoolers interact with various platforms, including the DS. For instance, all instructions for preschoolers need to be in voice-over, and include visual representations, and this has been one of the most difficult areas for us to negotiate with respect to game design on the DS. Because the game cartridges have very limited memory capacity, particularly in comparison to console or computer games, the ability to capture large amounts of voice-over data via sound files or visual representations of instructions becomes limited. Text instructions take up minimal memory, so they are preferable from a technological perspective. Figuring out ways to maximise sound and graphics files, while retaining the clear visual and verbal cues that we know are critical for our youngest players, is a constant give and take. Another of our findings indicated that preschoolers may use either a stylus, or their fingers, or both although they are not very accurate with either. One of the very interesting aspects of the DS is that the interface, which is designed to respond to stylus interactions, can also effectively be used with the tip of the finger. This is particularly noteworthy in the context of preschoolers for two reasons. Firstly, as they have trouble with fine motor skills and their hand-eye coordination is still in development, they are less exact with their stylus movements; and secondly, their fingers are so small that they mimic the stylus very effectively, and therefore by using their fingers they can often be more accurate in their game interactions.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 31
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
27
Video game use amongst preschool children is higher in the US than in other countries.
28
The proportion of preschool children using video games is likely to rise.
29
Parents in the US who own gaming equipment generally allow their children to play with it.
30
The type of research which manufacturers usually do is aimed at improving game design.
31
Both old and young games consumers require research which is specifically targeted
Question 32 - 36
Complete each sentences with correct ending
Problems for preschool users of video games
Preschool children find many electronic games difficult, because neither their motor skills nor their 
32
 are sufficiently developed.
Certain types of control are hard for these children to manipulate, for example, 
33
 can be more effective than styluses.
Also, although they already have the ability to relate 
34
 to real-world objects, preschool children are largely unable to understand the connection between their own 
35
 and the movements they can see on the screen. Finally, very few preschool children can understand 
36

A
actions
B
buttons
C
cognitive skills
D
concentration
E
fingers
F
pictures
G
sounds
H
spoken instructions
I
written menus
Question 37 - 40
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
37
In 2007, what conclusion did games producers at Nickelodeon come to?
A
The preschool market was unlikely to be sufficiently profitable.
B
One of their hardware products would probably be suitable for preschoolers.
C
Games produced by rival companies were completely inappropriate for preschoolers.
D
They should put their ideas for new games for preschoolers into practice.
38
The study carried out by Nickelodeon
A
was based on children living in various parts of the world.
B
focused on the kinds of game content which interests preschoolers.
C
investigated the specific characteristics of the target market.
D
led to products which appealed mainly to the US consumers.
39
Which problem do the writers highlight concerning games instructions for young children?
A
Spoken instructions take up a lot of the available memory.
B
Written instructions have to be expressed very simply.
C
The children do not follow instructions consistently.
D
The video images distract attention from the instructions.
40
Which is the best title for Reading Passage 3?
A
An overview of video games software for the preschool market
B
Researching and designing video games for preschool children
C
The effects of video games on the behaviour of young children
D
Assessing the impact of video games on educational achievement

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
Not Given
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Video game use amongst preschool children is higher in the US than in other countries.

=> Việc chơi video game ở trẻ em mẫu giáo ở Mỹ thì thường xuyên hơn ở các nước khác

=> Ta có thể tìm thông tin về số lượng trẻ em ở Mỹ chơi game - tuy nhiên - không hề thấy có thông tin so sánh với các nước khác

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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28
Yes
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking dể nắm main idea:

 we predict that preschoolers will both continue and increasingly begin to adopt video games for personal enjoyment.

=> Theo dự đoán, preschoolers sẽ tiếp tục và sử dụng video games để giải trí nhiều hơn

=> Chọn YES



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29
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Parents in the US who own gaming equipment generally allow their children to play with it.

=> Phụ huynh mà sở hữu thiết bị chơi game thường cho phép con họ chơi chúng

=> Ta có thể tìm thấy thông tin về 'older target audience' có phần liên quan,





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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30
No
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Research is typically done at two stages : some time close to the end of the product cycle , in order to get feedback from consumers , so that a marketing strategy can be developed ; and at the very end of the product cycle to ‘fix bugs’ in the game.

=> Research được thực hiện - để - develop marketing strategy + fix bugs

=> Không phải để improve game desgin -> Chọn NO



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31
Yes
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ta thấy 2 dạng research ở câu trước, đều không giúp cải thiện thiết kế game - đậc biệt là đối với 'preschoolers or senior citizens'

=> Đây chính là 'young and old consumers' cần tìm



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Instead , exploratory and formative research has to be undertaken in order to truly understand those audiences, their abilities, their perspective, and their needs.

=> Cần phải thực hiện 'exploratory and formative research' - để hiểu được đối tượng khách hàng (abilities, perspective, needs của họ)

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32
cognitive skills
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào tiêu đề đoạn summary 'Problems for preschool users of video games' , ta có thể tìm thấy thông tin '...gaming devices, are often difficult for preschoolers to use'

=> Biết cần đọc từ đoạn 5



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Preschool children find many electronic games difficult , because neither their motor skills nor their ______ are sufficiently developed.

=> Ta có cấu trúc: neither S1 nor S2 + V (mang nghĩa phủ định) = cả motor skils và cái gì đó đều chưa hoàn toàn phát triển

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33
fingers
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Certain types of control are hard for these children to manipulate, for example, ____ can be more effective than styluses.

=> Đáp án là danh từ - cái gì đó hiệu quả hơn so với styluses

=> Dựa vào thông tin 'styluses', ta có thể dễ dàng tìm được thông tin cần đọc ở đoạn cuối





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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34
pictures
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Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin 'real-world objects' cho phép ta xác định thông tin rất nhanh



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Though preschoolers understand that pictures can stand for real-life objects , the vast majority  are still unable to read and write.

=> Vị trí của đáp án là danh từ - có liên quan đến real-life objects

=> Ta dễ dàng nhận ra đáp án là: pictures



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35
actions
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 preschoolers may be unable to understand that there is a direct link between how the controller is used and the activities that appear before them on screen.

=> Trẻ em không thể nhận ra mối liên kết giữa - N1 và N2

=> N2 thì đã có sẵn trên đề và rất dễ nhận ra -> So N1 với list đáp án

=> Thấy 'how the controller is used' ứng với đáp án A - actions

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36
written menus
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: : Finally, very few preschool children can understand ______

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một thứ mà trẻ em không hiểu





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Thus , using text-based menu selections is not viable.

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37
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin '2007' + 'Nickelodeon', ta dễ dàng tìm ra thông tin cần đọc



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 In the spring of 2007 , our preschool-game production team at Nickelodeon had a hunch that the Nintendo DS was a ripe gaming platform for preschoolers.

=> Nintendo DS là sản phẩm của team Nickelodeoan - và - nó là một nền tảng phù hợp với preschoolers

=> Ứng với đáp án B - One of their hardware products would probably be suitable for preschoolers



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38
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 So we set about doing a study to answer the query : What could we expect preschoolers to be capable of in the context of hand-held game play , and how might the child development literature inform us as we proceeded with the creation of a new outlet for this age group?

=> Main idea: Team Nickelodeon sẽ nghiên cứu về: những gì trẻ em có thể làm + sự phát triển của chúng

=> Đó chính là những đặc điểm của trẻ em -> Ứng với đáp án C - investigated the specific characteristics of the target market



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39
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 all instructions for preschoolers need to be in voice-over and include visual representations , and this has been one of the most difficult areas for us to negotiate with respect to game design on the DS.

 2 Because the game cartridges have very limited memory capacity , the ability to capture large amounts of voice-over data becomes limited.

=> Câu 1 cho biết instructions dành cho preschoolers - phải bằng giọng nói - cùng với hình ảnh - và điều này gây ra một số khó khăn

=> Câu 2 giải thích cho câu 1 vì các băng trò chơi - có khả năng lưu trữ giới hạn - nên - khả năng thu một lượng lớn âm thanh - bị giới hạn

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40
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Để làm câu này ta cần phải lấy ý chính của từng đoạnđọc connection giữa chúng

Paragraph 1 giới thiệu sơ về thị trường game cho trẻ em

Paragraph 2 nói về việc nghiên cứu đối tượng khách hàng (trẻ em)

Paragraph 3 + 4 nói về việc thiết kế game cho trẻ

Paragraph 5 + 6 cho biết những khó khăn khi thiết kế game cho trẻ

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