Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 7 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 7 được lấy từ cuốn sách Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 7 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

The Hidden Histories of Exploration Exhibition
A
A. We have all heard tales of lone, heroic explorers, but what about the local individuals who guided and protected European explorers in many different parts of the globe? Or the go-betweens - including interpreters and traders - who translated the needs and demands of explorers into a language that locals could understand? Such questions have received surprisingly little attention in standard histories, where European explorers are usually the heroes, sometimes the villains. The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition at Britain's Royal Geographical Society in London sets out to present an alternative view, in which exploration is a fundamentally collective experience of work, involving many different people. Many of the most famous examples of explorers said to have been ‘lone travellers’- say, Mungo Park or David Livingstone in Africa - were anything but ‘alone’ on their travels. They depended on local support of various kinds - for food, shelter, protection, information, guidance and solace - as well as on other resources from elsewhere.
B
B. The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) seeks to record this story in its Hidden Histories project, using its astonishingly rich collections. The storage of geographical information was one of the main rationales for the foundation of the KGS in 1830, and the society’s collections now contain more than two million individual items, including books, manuscripts, maps, photographs, art-works, artefacts and film - a rich storehouse of material rejecting the width geographical extent of British interest across the globe. In addition to their remarkable scope and range, those collections contain a striking visual record of exploration: the impulse to collect the world is reflected in a large and diverse image archive. For the researcher, this archive can yield many surprises; materials gathered Tor one purpose - say, maps relating to an international boundary dispute or photographs taken an a scientific expedition - may today be put to quite different uses.
C
C. In their published narratives, European explorers rarely portrayed themselves as vulnerable or dependent on others, despite the fact that without this support they were quite literally lost. Archival research confirms that Europeans were not merely dependent on the work of porters, soldiers, translators, cooks, pilots, glides, hunters and collectors: they also relied on local expertise. Such assistance was essential in identifying potential dangers -poisonous species, unpredictable rivers, uncharted territories - which could mean the difference between life and death. The assistants themselves were usually in a strong bargaining position in the Amazon, for example, access to entire regions would depend on the willingness of local crew members and other assistants to enter areas inhabited by relatively powerful Amerindian groups. In an account of his journey across South America, published in 1836f William Smyth thus complained of frequent ‘desertion' by his helpers : ‘without them it was impossible to get on’.
D
D. Those providing local support and information to explorers were themselves often not locals'. For example, the history of African exploration in the nineteenth century is dominated by the use of Zanzibar as a recruiting station for porters, soldiers and guides who would then travel thousands of miles across the continent. In some accounts, the leading African members of expedition parties - the ‘officers’ or 'foremen' - are identified, and their portraits published alongside those of European explorers.
E
E. The information provided by locals and intermediaries was of potential importance to geographical science. How was this evidence judged? The formal procedures of scientific evaluation provided one framework. Alongside these were more common sense' notions of veracity and reliability, religiously-inspired judgments about the authenticity of testimony, and the routine procedures for cross-checking empirical observations developed in many professions.
F
F. Given explorers' need for local information and support, it was in their interests to develop effective working partnerships with knowledgeable intermediaries who could act as brokers in their dealings with local inhabitants- Many of these people acquired far more experience of exploration than most Europeans could hope to attain. Some managed large groups of men and women, piloted the explorers’ river craft, or undertook mapping work. The tradition was continued with the Everest expeditions in the 1920s and 1930s, which regularly employed the Tibetan interpreter Karma Paul. In Europe, exploration was increasingly thought of as a career; the same might be said of the non-Europeans on whom their expeditions depended.
G
G. These individuals often forged close working relationships with European explorers. Such partnerships depended on mutual respect, though they were not always easy or intimate, as is particularly clear from the history of the Everest expeditions depicted in the Hidden Histories exhibition. The entire back wall is covered by an enlarged version of a single sheet of photographs of Sherpas taken during the 1936 Everest expedition. The document is a powerful reminder of the manpower on which European mountaineering expeditions depended, and also of the importance of local knowledge and assistance. Transformed from archive to wall display, it tells a powerful story through the medium of individual portraits - including Karma Paul, veteran of previous expeditions, and the young Tensing Norgay, 17 years before his successful 1953 ascent. This was a highly charged and transitional moment as the contribution of the Sherpas, depicted here with identity tags round their necks, was beginning to be much more widely recognised. These touching portraits encourage us Lo see them as agents rather than simply colonial subjects or paid employees. Here is a living history, which looks beyond what we already know about exploration: a larger history in which we come to recognise the contribution of everyone involved.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition aims to show the wide range of people involved in expeditions.
2
The common belief about how Park and Livingstone travelled is accurate.
3
The RGS has organised a number of exhibitions since it was founded.
4
Some of the records in the RGS archives are more useful than others.
5
Materials owned by the RGS can be used in ways that were not originally intended.
6
In their publications, European explorers often describe their dependence on their helpers.
7
Local helpers refused to accompany William Smyth during parts of his journey.
Question 8 - 13
The Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
8
reference to the distances that some non-European helpers travelled
9
description of a wide range of different types of documents
10
belief about the effect of an exhibition on people seeing it
11
examples of risks explorers might have been unaware of without local help
12
reference to various approaches to assessing data from local helpers
13
reference to people whose long-term occupation was to organise local assistance for European explorers

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
True
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition sets out to present an alternative view , in which exploration is a fundamentally collective experience of work , involving many different people . = The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition  sets out to present that many different people are involved in expeditions Câu hỏi: The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition aims to show the wide range of people involved in expeditions. => Trùng khớp => Đáp án: TRUE


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2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn Not Given khi làm câu này vì thí sinh sẽ không tìm được những keyword như “belief" hay “accurate" trong bài. Lí do vì thông tin trong bài được paraphrase bằng meanings chứ không chỉ bằng từ đồng nghĩa. Linearthinking
So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: (1) Many explorers such as Mungo Park or David Livingstone (who are) said to have been ‘lone travellers’ were anything but ‘alone’ on their travels . (2) They depended on local support of various kinds => Many explorers such as Park and Livingstone are believed to be travelling alone, but they depended on local support. => The belief that explorers such as Park and Livingstone travelled alone is false.

- Câu hỏi: The common belief about how Park and Livingstone travelled is accurate. So sánh câu hỏi và bài đọc: False # Accurate => Đáp án: FALSE

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3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Cấu trúc located info: RGS seeks to record this story in its Hidden Histories project , using its rich collections .

 The storage of geographical information was one of the main rationales for the foundation of the KGS , and the society’s collections now contain more than two million individual items , including .... (liệt kê thông tin items) 

=> Dù có nhắc tới thông tin “RGS" và sự thành lập của nó (foundation) nhưng trong bài lại chẳng nhắc gì tới số lượng exhibitions được tổ chức. => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN

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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Nếu skim/scan nhanh, thí sinh rất dễ chọn “True" cho câu này vì tìm được 2 keywords “RGS archives” và “useful" trong bài đọc. 2. Linearthinking
So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc:   this archive can vield many surprises : materials gathered for one purpose may today be put to quite different uses => This archieve can surprise people because materials can be used for different purposes => Không hề so sánh materials hay records nào useful hơn records nào 

- Câu hỏi: Some of the records in the RGS archives are more useful than others. => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN

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5
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Đọc cấu trúc thông tin trong bài đọc: this archive can vield many surprises : materials gathered for one purpose may be put to quite different uses = Materials can be gathered for one purpose but can be used in other ways. 

Câu hỏi: Materials owned by the RGS can be used in ways that were not originally intended . = Materials can be intended for one purpose but can be used in other ways. => Đáp án: TRUE

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6
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: In their published narratives , European explorers rarely portrayed themselves as vulnerable or dependent on others , despite the fact that without this support they were quite literally lost . Câu hỏi:  In their publications, European explorers often describe their dependence on their helpers. rarely # often => Đáp án: FALSE



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7
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: In an account of his journey across South America , William Smyth complained of frequent desertion (= bỏ rơi) by his helpers : without them it was impossible to get on

=> Helpers abandoned/ left  William Smyth  during his journey. - Câu hỏi: Local helpers refused to accompany William Smyth during parts of his journey.

=> Đáp án: True



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8
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: The history of African exploration is dominated by the use of Zanzibar as a recruiting station for porters, soldiers and guides who would then travel thousands of miles across the continent => porters, soldiers and guides chính là những non-European helpers = non-European helpers travelled thousands of miles across the continent.   - Câu hỏi: reference to the distances that some non-European helpers travelled

=> Distances được đề cập trong đoạn D chính là “thousands of miles" => Đáp án: D.



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9
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc (paragraph B): The storage of geographical information was one of the main rationales for the foundation of the RGS , and the Society’s collections [ contain more than two million individual items, including... (liệt kê tài liệu) - Câu hỏi: description of a wide range of different types of documents => trùng khớp

=> Đáp án: B.



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10
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning:

Bạn nào skim/scan câu này để tìm keywords tương tự trong bài thì chắc chắn sẽ không locate được thông tin nằm ở đoạn G, vì thông tin được paraphrase hoàn toàn bằng nghĩa. 2. Linearthinking:
- Bài đọc (đoạn G): These touching portraits encourage us to see them as agents rather than colonial subjects or paid employees .

- Câu hỏi: belief about the effect of an exhibition on people seeing it

=> Câu hỏi nói chung về ảnh hưởng của triển lãm lên những người theo dõi, bài đọc nói rõ ảnh hưởng này là gì (encourage us to see them as … than… - khuyến khích người theo dõi thay đổi cách nhìn nhận của mình)

=> Đáp án: G



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11
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

- Bài đọc:

 Europeans were not merely dependent on the work of.... : they also relied on local expertise Such assistance was essential in identifying potential dangers - (liệt kê cụ thể dangers) = Help from local expertise was important in identifying potential dangers, which could save explores’ lives = Explores need local help to identify potential dangers So với câu hỏi: examples of risks explorers might have been unaware of without local help

= Explorers might have not known about risks without local help = Explorers need local help to know about risks => Đáp án: C



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12
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Thông tin trong bài: (1) The information provided by locals and intermediaries was of potential importance to geographical science . How was this evidence judged? (2) The formal procedures of evaluation provided ... (3) Alongside (= Beside) these were .... => (1) The information provided by locals was judged. (2) The formal way to judge this information is… (3) Other than this way, other ways to judge this information is…. => Main idea: Different ways (= approaches) to judge information provided by locals Câu hỏi: reference to various approaches to assessing data from local helpers

=> Đáp án: E



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13
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Thông tin trong bài: Given explorers’ need for local information and support , it was in their interests to develop working partnerships with intermediaries who could act as brokers in their dealings with local inhabitants . = Explorers need local information and support, so they develop partnerships with people to help them deal with local inhabitants. = Explorers need local information and support, so there are people who work to help them with local inhabitants. - Câu hỏi: reference to people whose long-term occupation was to organise local assistance for European explorers => Đáp án: F


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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Fatal Attraction
Evolutionist Charles Darwin first marvelled at flesh-eating plants in the mid-19th century .Today, biologists, using 21st-century tools to study cells and DNA, are beginning to understand how these plants hunt, eat and digest - and how such bizarre adaptations Arose in the first place.
A
A. The leaves of the Venus flytrap plant are covered in hairs. When an insect brushes against them, this triggers a tiny electric charge, which travels down tunnels in the leaf and opens up pores in the leaf's cell membranes. Water surges from the cells on the Inside of the leaf to those on the outside, causing the leaf to rapidly flip in shape from convex to concave, like a soft contact lens. As the leaves flip, they snap together, trapping the insect in their sharp-toothed jaws.
B
B. The bladderwort has an equally sophisticated way of setting its underwater trap. It pumps water out of tiny bag-like bladders, making a vacuum inside. When small creatures swim past, they bend the hairs on the bladder, causing a flap to open. The low pressure sucks water in, carrying the animal along with it. In one five-hundredth of a second, the door swings shut again. The Drosera sundew, blood, has a thick, sweet liquid oozing from its leaves, which first attracts insects, then holds them fast before the leaves snap shut. Pitcher plants use Yet another strategy, growing long tube-shaped leaves to imprison their prey. Raffles' pitcher plant, from the jungles of Borneo, produces nectar that both lures insects and forms a slick surface on which they can't get a grip. Insects that land On the rim of the pitcher slide on the liquid and tumble in.
C
C. Many carnivorous plants secrete enzymes to penetrate the hard exoskeleton of insects so they can absorb nutrients from inside their prey. But the purple pitcher plant, which lives in bogs and infertile sandy soils in North America, enlists other organisms to process its food. Home to an intricate food web of mosquito larvae, midges and bacteria, many of which can survive only in this unique habitat. These animals shred the prey that fall into the pitcher, and the smaller organisms feed on the debris. Finally, the plant absorbs The nutrients released.
D
D. While such plants clearly thrive on being carnivorous, the benefits of eating flesh are not the ones you might expect. Carnivorous animals such as themselves use the carbon in protein and the fat in meat to build muscles and store energy. Carnivorous plants instead draw nitrogen, Phosphorus, and other critical nutrients from their prey in order to build light-harvesting enzymes. Eating animals, in other words, lets carnivorous plants do what all plants do: carry out photosynthesis, that is, grow by harnessing energy directly from the sun.
E
E. A pitcher or a flytrap cannot carry out much photosynthesis because, unlike plants with ordinary leaves, they do not have flat solar panels that can grab lots of sunlight. There are, however, some special conditions in which the benefits of being carnivorous do outweigh the costs. The poor soil of bogs, For example, offers little nitrogen and phosphorus, so carnivorous plants enjoy an advantage over plants that obtain these nutrients by more conventional means. Bogs are also flooded with sunshine, so even an inefficient carnivorous plant can photosynthesise enough light to survive.
F
F. By comparing the DNA of carnivorous plants with other species, scientists have found that they evolved independently at at six separate occasions. Some carnivorous plants that look nearly identical turn out to be only distantly related. Two kinds of pitcher plants - the tropical genus Nepenthes and the North American Sarracenia - have, surprisingly, evolved from different ancestors, although both grow deep pitcher-shaped leaves and employ the same strategy for capturing prey.
G
G. In several cases, scientists can see how complex carnivorous plants evolved from simpler ones. Venus flytraps, for example, share an ancestor with Portuguese sundews, which only catch prey passively, via 'flypaper' glands on their stems. They share a more recent ancestor With Drosera sundews, which can also curl their leaves over their prey. Venus flytraps appear to have evolved an even more elaborate version of this kind of trap, complete with jaw-like leaves.
H
H. Unfortunately, the adaptations that enable carnivorous plants to thrive in marginal habitats also make them exquisitely sensitive. Agricultural run-off and pollution from power plants are adding extra nitrogen to many bogs in North America. Carnivorous plants are so finely tuned to low levels of nitrogen that this extra fertilizer is overloading their systems, and they eventually burn themselves out and die.
I
I. Humans also threaten carnivorous plants in other ways. The black market trade in exotic carnivorous plants is so vigorous now that botanists are keeping the location of some rare species a secret. But even if the poaching of carnivorous plants can be halted, they will continue to Suscept from other assaults. In the pine savannah of North Carolina, the increasing suppression of fires is possible other plants to grow too quickly and outcompete the flytraps in their native environment. Good news, perhaps, for flies. But a loss for all who, Like Darwin, delight in the sheer inventiveness of evolution.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
Complete the notes below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
How a Venus flytrap traps an insect
Insect touches
14
on leaf of plant.
Small
15
passes through leaf.

16
in cell membrane open.
Outside cells of leaves fill with
17
.
Leaves change so that they have a
18
shape and snap shut.
Question 19 - 22
Look at the following statements and the list of plants.
Match each statement with the correct plant, A, B, C, D or E.
List of Findings
A
Venus flytrap
B
bladderwort
C
Drosera sundew
D
Raffles' pitcher plant
E
purple pitcher plant
19
It uses other creatures to help it digest insects.
20
It produces a slippery substance to make insects fall inside it.
21
It creates an empty space into which insects are sucked.
22
It produces a sticky substance which traps insects on its surface.
Question 23 - 26
Reading Passage has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
23
a mention of a disadvantage of the leaf shape of some carnivorous plants
24
an example of an effort made to protect carnivorous plants
25
unexpected information about the origins of certain carnivorous plants
26
an example of environmental changes that shorten the life cycles of carnivorous plants

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
hairs
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì chỗ trống đứng ngay sau động từ “touch”, mà verb pattern của “touch" là “touch something" => Cần điền một danh từ vào chỗ trống. So sánh thông tin trong câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc:

 1 The leaves of the Venus flytrap plant are covered in hairs

 2 When an insect brushes against them ...

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15
electric charge/charge
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì chỗ trống đứng ngay sau tính tính từ “small" => cần điền một Noun vào đây.

So sánh giữa thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc: When an insect brushes against them , this triggers tiny electric charge , which travels down tunnels in the leaf] ....

=> “Which" là vế mở đầu mệnh đề quan hệ, bổ nghĩa cho “electric charge" => Tiny electric charge travels down tunnels in the leaf

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16
pores
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay trước giới từ “in" => Dự đoán cần điền một Noun (cấu trúc Noun 1 in Noun 2) So sánh giữa thông tin trong câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc: [...] this triggers a tiny electric charge , which travels down tunnels in the leaf and opens up pores in the leaf’s cell membranes

=> Tiny electric charge travels in the leaf and opens up pores in the cell membrane Câu hỏi: _______ in cell membrane open

=> Đáp án: pores



Xem full giải thích
17
water
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning



Ở câu này, nếu chỉ skim/scan thì thí sinh vẫn có thể locate được đúng nơi chứa thông tin, nhưng nếu không thật sự đọc hiểu thì thí sinh sẽ không thể chọn được đâu là từ cần điền vào chỗ trống (water, inside, shape, convex, concave, contact lens…)

Linearthinking



Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Trong câu hỏi này, chỗ trống cần điền đứng ngay sau động từ “fill with", mà pattern của động từ này là “fill with something" => Cần điền một Noun vào đây. So sánh nội dung giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: Water surges from the cells on the inside of the leaf to those on the outside ,...

=> Water moves from the cells on the inside of the leaf to the cells on the outside

Xem full giải thích
18
concave
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning



Nếu chỉ skim/scan mà không thật sự hiểu nghĩa câu, thí sinh vẫn có thể locate được thông tin nhưng sẽ bị rối, không biết nên chọn từ nào điền vào chỗ trống vì trong câu có quá nhiều danh từ lạ (convex, concave, contact lens, sharp-toothed jaws…)

Linearthinking



Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì chỗ trống đứng ngay sau mạo từ “a" => dự đoán cần điền một Noun (số ít) vào đây.

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Xem full giải thích
19
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các cây trước  

Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: The purple pitcher plant enlists other organisms to process its food. (phần mệnh đề quan hệ bổ nghĩa cho purple pitcher plant nên có thể bỏ qua, không cần đọc) = The purple pitcher plant uses other organisms to process its food. - Câu hỏi: It uses other creatures to help it digest insects. => Đáp án: E. purple pitcher plant


Xem full giải thích
20
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các cây trước   Linearthinking

So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Raffles’ pitcher plant produces nectar that lures insects and forms a slick surface on which they can’t get a grip .

 Insects slide on the liquid and tumble in = Raffles’ pitcher plant produces nectar which makes insects fail to get a grip, so insects tumble in.   - Câu hỏi: It produces a slippery substance to make insects fall inside it. => Đáp án: D. Raffles’ pitcher plant 



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21
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các cây trước   Linearthinking

So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc:

(1) The bladderwort has way of setting trap (2) It pumps water out of tiny bag-like bladders , making a vacuum inside . (3) When small creatures swim past , they bend the hairs on the bladder , causing a flap to open . (4) The low pressure sucks water in , carrying the animal along with it (= the water) . => The bladderwort pumps water out, makes a vacuum inside, sucks water and animal .

- Câu hỏi: It creates an empty space into which insects are sucked. => Đáp án: B. bladderwort 



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22
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các cây trước  

Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: The Drosera sundew has a thick, sweet liquid from its leaves , which first attracts insects, then holds them fast before the leaves snap shut . = The Drosera sundew produces a thick, sweet liquid. The liquid attracts insects, holds insects, then closes (= snaps shut) (thu hút côn trùng, giữ côn trùng sau đó đóng lại = nhốt côn trùng lại) => The Drosera sundew produces a thick, sweet liquid which traps insects. - Câu hỏi: It produces a sticky substance which traps insects on its surface.

=> Đáp án: C. Drosera sundew



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23
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

- Bài đọc (đoạn E): A pitcher or a flytrap cannot carry out much photosynthesis because , they do not have flat solar panels that can grab lots of sunlight . = Unlike plants with ordinary leaves, a pitcher or a flytrap do not have flat solar panels to grab sunlight, so they cannot carry out much photosynthesis. (Khác với cây lá bình thường, pitcher or flytrap không có flat solar panels => không tiếp nhận được sunlight)  - Câu hỏi: a mention of a disadvantage of the leaf shape of some carnivorous plants => Disadvantage được đề cập trong bài chính là việc không tiếp nhận được sunlight => Đáp án: E


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24
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



Nếu skim/scan thí sinh chắc chắn sẽ không locate được thông tin nằm đâu, vì những keywords như “effort" hay “protect" không hề được tìm thấy trong đoạn! 2. Linearthinking



So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc (đoạn I): The black market trade in carnivorous plants is so vigorous that botanists are keeping the location of rare species a secret => Cấu trúc “so….Adj….that S +V” nghĩa là “quá… tới nỗi mà…” => Thị trường chợ đen buôn bán carnivorous plants quá ..., tới nỗi mà botanists phải giữ bí mật vị trí của rare species. => Botanists giữ bí mật vị trí của rare species để bảo vệ chúng không bị buôn bán ở thị trường chợ đen. - Câu hỏi: an example of an effort made to protect carnivorous plants (nỗ lực bảo vệ carnivorous plants)

=> Đáp án: I



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25
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh bài đọc và câu hỏi: - Bài đọc (đoạn F): Nepenthes and the North American Sarracenia have, surprisingly, evolved from different ancestors = Nepenthes and the North American Sarracenia developed from different ancestors. This information is surprising. => The information about the ancestors (tổ tiên) of Nepenthes and the North American Sarracenia is surprising. => Thông tin về tổ tiên cũng chính là thông tin về nguồn gốc => The information about the origins of Nepenthes and the North American Sarracenia is surprising. Câu hỏi: unexpected information about the origins of certain carnivorous plants 

=> Đáp án: F



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26
H
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking So sánh câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc (đoạn H): Carnivorous plants are so finely tuned to low levels of nitrogen that this extra fertilizer is overloading their systems , and they burn themselves out and die. 

= Carnivorous plants are familiar with low levels of nitrogen => Extra nitrogen makes carnivorous plants die.

Câu hỏi:  an example of environmental changes that shorten the life cycles of carnivorous plants

=> Đáp án: H

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Want To Be Friends?
Could the benefits of online social networking be too good to miss out on?
A
A. For many hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, online networking has become enmeshed in our daily lives. However, it is a decades-old insight from a study of traditional social networks that best illuminates one of the most important aspects of today’s online networking. In 1973 sociologist Mark Granovetter showed how the loose acquaintances, or weak ties5, in our social network exert a disproportionate influence over our behaviour and choices. Granovetter’s research showed that a significant percentage of people get their jobs as a result of recommendations or advice provided by a weak tie. Today our number of weak-tie contacts has exploded via online social networking. 'You couldn’t maintain all of those weak ties on your own, ' says Jennifer Golbeck of the University of Maryland, 'Online sites, such as Facebook, give you a way of cataloguing them.' The result? It’s now significantly easier for the schoolfriend you haven't seen in years to pass you a tip that alters your behaviour, from recommendation of a low-cholesterol breakfast cereal to a party invite where you meet your future wife or husband.
B
B. The explosion of weak ties could have profound consequences for our social structures too, according to Judith Donath of the Berkman Genter for Internet and Society at Harvard University. 'We’re already seeing changes, ' she says. For example, many people now turn to their online social networks ahead of sources such as newspapers and television for trusted and relevant news or information. What they hear could well be inaccurate, but the change is happening nonetheless. If these huge 'supernets' - some of them numbering up to 5, 000 people - continue to thrive and grow, they could fundamentally change the way we share information and transform our notions of relationships.
C
C. But are these vast networks really that relevant to us on a personal level? Robin Dunbar, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of Oxford, believes that our primate brains place a cap on the number of genuine social relationships we can actually cope with: roughly 150. According to Dunbar, online social networking appears to be very good for 'servicing' relationships, but not for establishing them. He argues that our evolutionary roots mean we still depend heavily on physical and face-to-face contact to be able to create ties.
D
D. Nonetheless, there is evidence that online networking can transform our daily interactions. In an experiment at Cornell University, psychologist Jeff Hancock asked participants to try to encourage other participants to like them via instant messaging conversation. Beforehand, some members of the trial were allowed to view the Facebook profile of the person they were trying to win over. He found that those with Facebook access asked questions to which they already knew the answers or raised things they had in common, and as result were much more successful in their social relationships. Hancock concluded that people who use these sites to keep updated on the activities of their acquaintances are more likely to be liked in subsequent social interactions.
E
E. Online social networking may also have tangible effects on our well-being. Nicole Ellison of Michigan State University found that the frequency of networking site use correlates with greater self- esteem. Support and affirmation from the weak ties could be the explanation, says Ellison. 'Asking your close friends for help or advice is nothing new, but we are seeing a lowering of barriers among acquaintances, ' she says. People are readily sharing personal feelings and experiences to a wider circle than they might once have done. Sandy Pentland at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology agrees. The ability to broadcast to our social group means we need never feel alone/ he says. The things that befall us are often due to a lack of social support. There’s more of a safety net now.'
F
F. Henry Holzman, also at MIT, who studies the interface between online social networking and the real world, points out that increased visibility also means our various social spheres - family, work, friends - are merging, and so we will have to prepare for new societal norms. ‘We’ll have to learn how to live a more transparent life, ’ he says. We may have to give up some ability to show very limited glimpses of ourselves to others.’
G
G. Another way that online networking appears to be changing our social structures is through dominance. In one repeated experiment, Michael Kearns of the University of Pennsylvania asked 30 volunteers to quickly reach consensus in an online game over a choice between two colours. Each person was offered a cash reward if they succeeded in persuading the group to pick one or other colour. All participants could see the colour chosen by some of the other people, but certain participants had an extra advantage: the ability to see more of the participants' chosen colours than others. Every time Kearns found that those who could see the choices of more participants (in other words, were better connected) persuaded the group to pick their colour, even when they had to persuade the vast majority to give up their financial incentive. While Kearns warns that the setting was artificial, he says it’s possible that greater persuasive power could lie with well-connected individuals in the everyday online world too.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
The Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-x.
List of Headings
I
A shift in our fact-finding habits
II
How to be popular
III
More personal information being known
IV
The origins of online social networks
V
The link between knowledge and influence
VI
Information that could change how you live
VII
The emotional benefits of online networking
VIII
A change in how we view our online friendships
IX
The future of networking
X
Doubts about the value of online socialising
27
Paragraph B
28
Paragraph C
29
Paragraph D
30
Paragraph E
31
Paragraph F
32
Paragraph G
Question 33 - 36
Look at the following findings and the list of researchers below.
Match each finding with the correct researcher, A-F.
List of Findings
A
Mark Granovetter
B
Judith Donath
C
Robin Dunbar
D
Jeff Hancock
E
Nicole Ellison
F
Michael Kearns
33
People who network widely may be more able to exert pressure on others.
34
We have become more willing to confide in an extensive number of people.
35
There is a limit to how many meaningful relationships we can maintain.
36
There is a social advantage in knowing about the lives of our online contacts.
Question 37 - 40
Choose TWO answers, A-E.
Which TWO of these advantages of online social networking are mentioned in Reading Passage 3?
A
Social networking sites can be accessed on any day and at any time.
B
Online socialising is an efficient way of keeping in touch with a lot of people.
C
It is very easy to establish new friendships online.
D
Online social networking can solve problems in real-world relationships.
E
It can be reassuring to be part of an online social network.
Which TWO of these disadvantages of online social networking are mentioned in Reading Passage 3?
A
Information from online social contacts may be unreliable.
B
We may become jealous of people who seem to have a wide circle of friends.
C
We may lose the ability to relate to people face-to-face.
D
It is easy to waste a lot of time on social networking sites.
E
Using social networking sites may result in a lack of privacy.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
I
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Simplify + Read connection: Câu 1,2 giới thiệu hiện tượng: tác động của weak ties lên con người Câu 3,4 đưa ví dụ cụ thể về việc weak ties khiến con người thay đổi thói quen tìm information Câu 5 tác động của weak ties lên hành vi con người trong tương lai

=> Main idea: Tác động của weak ties lên hành vi con người

- So với list đáp án, ta có: => i. A shift in our fact-finding habits ( "shift": sự thay đổi)

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28
X
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Simplify + Read connection: (1): đặt nghi vấn về lợi ích mà vast network mang lại (2): ví dụ cụ thể về số lượng social relationship thực tế mà ta có thể lo được (3), (4): đưa ra lập luận củng cố nghi vấn.

=> Main idea: vast network không thật sự có ích như ta nghĩ.

- So với list đáp án, ta có:

x. Doubts about values of online socialising



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29
II
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Simplify + Read connection (1): nêu quan điểm rằng thật ra online networking vẫn có ích (2) -(5): đưa ví dụ cụ thể để chứng minh và rút ra kết luận: online networking có ích khi giúp người ta dễ được liked in social interactions

=> Main idea: online networking có ích trong việc giúp người được liked in social interactions

- So với list đáp án, ta có:

ii. How to be popular



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30
VII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Simplify + Read connection:

(1) Online networking còn có lợi ích về well-being (sức khỏe và hạnh phúc) (2) Cụ thể là lợi ích về self- esteem (lòng tự trọng) (3) - (9): Giải thích chi tiết tại sao có được lợi ích đó

=> Main idea: Ích lợi về well-being mà online networking đem lại

=> Đáp án: vii. The emotional benefits of online networking

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31
III
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Simplify + Read connections:

(1) Một hệ quả khác nữa từ online networking: cuộc sống cá nhân sẽ bị biết tới nhiều hơn (2) - (3) những gì chúng ta cần làm để thích nghi với hệ quả đó

=> Main idea: Vì online networking, thông tin cá nhân sẽ bị biết tới nhiều hơn.

=> Đáp án: iii. More personal information being known



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32
V
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Simplify + Read connection: (1): một ảnh hưởng khác của online networking: dominance (uy thế) (2)-(4): 1 thí nghiệm chứng minh ảnh hưởng này (5)-(6): kết luận: những người biết nhiều info của người khác hơn (=well-connected individuals) có thể có khả năng thuyết phục tốt hơn greater persuasive power

=> Main idea: Online networking giúp có thêm info -> tăng sức ảnh hưởng lên người khác

- So với list đáp án, ta có: v. the link between knowledge and influence







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33
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước   Linearthinking :

- Bài đọc: he (Kearns) says that greater persuasive power could lie with well-connected individuals

= According to Kearns, the more an individual connects well with others, the more he/she can persuade others. -> persuade được người khác theo ý mình, có thể hiểu là có thể tạo áp lực lên người khác được = According to Kearns, the more an individual connects well with others, the more he/she can pressure others

- So với câu hỏi: People who network widely may be more able to exert pressure on others => trùng khớp

=> Đáp án: F. Michael Kearns



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34
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước   Linearthinking:

- Bài đọc:

' Asking your close friends for help or advice is nothing new , but we are seeing a lowering of barriers among acquaintances , ' she (Nicole Ellison) says .

 People are readily sharing personal feelings to a wider circle than they might once have done .

= According to Nicole Ellison, we share our feelings to more people now.

- So với câu hỏi: We have become more willing to confide in an extensive number of people

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35
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước   Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc:

 Robin Dunbar believes that our brains place a cap on the number of genuine social relationships we can actually cope with : roughly 150

-> không hiểu "place a cap" là gì thì đọc khúc sau: "roughly 150" -> số relationship ta có thể giữ gìn được là có giới hạn

= According to Robin Dunbar, their is a limit to the number of genuine social relationships that we can maintain.

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36
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước  

Linearthinking:

- Bài đọc: Hancock concluded that people who use these sites ( =online network) to keep updated on the activities of their acquaintances are more likely to be liked in social interactions .

-> "more likely to be liked in social interactions" : được thích hơn khi tương tác xã giao, tức là có lợi thế khi tương tác hơn.

= Hancock concluded that people who use online network to know about the activities of their acquaintances have advantage in social interaction

- So với câu hỏi: There is a social advantage in knowing about the lives of our online contacts.

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37
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc:

' You couldn’t maintain all of those weak ties on your own , ' says Jennifer Golbeck of the University of Maryland , ' Online sites, such as Facebook , give you a way of cataloguing them .'

-> Nếu không hiểu "cataloguing" thì dựa vào mạch ý trước đó. Đầu tiên người ta nêu vấn đề là bạn không thể tự maintain all of those weak ties, nhưng ngay sau đó nói về những online site như Facebook cho bạn cách "cataloguing them" -> "cataloguing them" chính là maintaining all those weak ties. (Nếu vẫn chưa rõ, có thể đọc thêm ví dụ cụ thể ở câu tiếp theo trong bài)

=> Online sites, such as Facebook, allow you to maintain a lot of weak ties.

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38
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc:

 Ellison found that the frequency of networking site use correlates with greater self- esteem -> correlates: tương quan/ liên quan

 Support and affirmation from the weak ties could be the explanation , says Ellison

=> Support and affirmation from the weak ties is the explanation to why networking site use helps you have greater self- esteem => Networking site use helps you have greater self- esteem because you receive support and affirmation from the weak ties on online social network.

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39
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Bài đọc: people now turn to their online social networks ahead of sources such as newspapers for information .

 What they hear could well be inaccurate , but the change is happening nonetheless .

=> information on online social networks could be inaccurate (=wrong)

- So với list đáp án: => A. Information from online social contacts may be unreliable.

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40
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Bài đọc: We ’ll have to learn how to live a more transparent life -> "transparent" là "trong suốt", "rõ ràng". Ở các đoạn trước, ta biết được social online network giúp kết nối và giữ gìn nhiều mối quan hệ + tâm sự, chia sẻ với nhiều người hơn -> Online network khiến cuộc sống cá nhân của mình "transparent" hơn với người ngoài -> mất đi privacy

- So với list đáp án, ta có: E. Using social networking sites may result in a lack of privacy.





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