Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

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Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

South pole adventurer
In the race to the South Pole, there was a Japanese team attempting to be first, led by heroic explorer Nobu Shirase
For a few weeks in January 1912, Antarctica was full of explorers. Norwegian Roald Amundsen had reached the South Pole on 14 December and was speeding back to the coast. On 17 January, Robert Scott and the men of the British Antarctic expedition had arrived at the pole to find they had been beaten to it. Just then, a third man arrived; Japanese explorer Nobu Shirase. However, his part in one of the greatest adventure stories of the 20th century is hardly known outside his own country, even by fellow explorers. Yet as Scott was nearing the pole and with the rest of the world still unaware of Amundsen’s triumph, Shirase and his team sailed into Antarctica’s Bay of Whales in the smallest ship ever to try its luck in these dangerous waters. Since boyhood Shirase had dreamed of becoming a polar explorer. Like Amundsen, he initially set his sights on the North Pole. But after the American Robert Peary claimed to have reached it in 1909, both men hastily altered their plans. Instead they would aim for the last big prize: the South Pole. In January 1910, Shirase put his plans before Japanese government officials, promising to raise the flag at the South Pole within three years. For many of them, the question wasn’t could he do it but why would it be worth doing? 15 years earlier the International Geographical Congress had said that as the last unknown continent the Antarctic offered the chance to add to knowledge in almost every branch of science. So, like the British, Shirase presented his expedition as a search for knowledge: he would bring back fossils, make meteorological measurements and explore unknown parts of the continent. The response from the government was cool, however, and Shirase struggled to raise funds. Fortunately, a few months later, Japan’s former prime minister Shigenobu Kuma came to Shirase’s rescue. With Kuma’s backing, Shirase got together just enough money to buy and equip a small ship. He eventually acquired a scientist, too, called Terutaro Takeda. At the end of November 1910, his ship the Kainan Maru finally left Tokyo with 27 men and 28 Siberian dogs on board. Before leaving, Shirase confidently outlined his plans to the media. He would sail to New Zealand, then reach Antarctica in February, during the southern summer, and then proceed to the pole the following spring. This was not to be, however. Bad weather delayed the expedition and they didn’t reach New Zealand until 8 February; Amundsen and Scott had already been in Antarctica for a month, preparing for winter. In New Zealand local reporters were astonished: the ship was half the size of Amundsen’s ship. True, it was reinforced with iron plate and extra wood, but the ship had only the feeblest engine to help force its way through ice. Few doubted Shirase’s courage, but most reckoned the expedition to be ill- prepared as the Japanese had only lightweight sledges for transport across the ice, made of bamboo and wood. But Shirase’s biggest challenge was time. Antarctica is only accessible by sea for a few weeks in summer and expeditions usually aimed to arrive in January or February. ‘Even with their determination and daring, our Japanese friends are running it rather fine,’ wrote local reporters. Nevertheless, on 11 February the Kainan Maru left New Zealand and sailed straight into the worst weather the captain had ever seen. Then, on 6 March, they approached the coastline of Antarctica’s Ross Sea, looking for a place to land. The ice began to close in, threatening to trap them for the winter, an experience no one was likely to survive. With a remarkable piece of seamanship, the captain steered the ship out of the ice and turned north. They would have to wait out the winter in a warmer climate. A year later than planned, Shirase and six men finally reached Antarctica. Catching up with Scott or Amundsen was out of the question and he had said he would stick to science this time. Yet Shirase still felt the pull of the pole and eventually decided he would head southward to experience the thrills and hardships of polar exploration he had always dreamed of. With provisions for 20 days, he and four men would see how far they could get. Shirase set off on 20 January 1912 with Takeda and two dog handlers, leaving two men at the edge of the ice shelf to make meteorological measurements. For a week they struggled through one blizzard after another, holing up in their tents during the worst of the weather. The temperature fell to -25°C, and frostbite claimed some of the dogs. On 26 January, Shirase estimated there were enough provisions to continue for two more days. Two days later, he announced it was time to turn back. Takeda calculated they had reached 80° 5 south and had travelled 250 kilometres. The men hoisted the Japanese flag. On 3 February, all the men were heading home. The ship reached Tokyo in June 1912 – and Shirase was greeted like a hero despite the fact that he never reached the pole. Nor did he contribute much to science – but then nor did Amundsen, whose only interest was in being first to the pole. Yet Shirase’s expedition was heroic. They travelled beyond 80° south, one of only four teams to have gone so far south at the time. Furthermore, they did it all without the advantages of the other teams and with no previous experience.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 8
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Shirase’s trip to the South Pole is well-known to other explorers.
2
Since Shirase arrived in Antarctica, smaller ships have also made the journey.
3
Shirase’s original ambition was to travel to the North Pole.
4
Some Japanese officials thought Shirase’s intention to travel to the South Pole was pointless.
5
The British team announced their decision to carry out scientific research in Antarctica before Shirase.
6
Shirase found it easy to raise the money he needed for his trip to the South Pole.
7
A previous prime minister of Japan persuaded a scientist to go with Shirase.
8
The weather that slowed down Shirase’s progress to New Zealand was unusually bad for the season.
Question 9 - 13
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
9
When reporters in New Zealand met Shirase, they were
A
concerned about the quality of his equipment.
B
impressed with the design of his ship.
C
certain he was unaware of the dangers ahead.
D
surprised by the bravery he demonstrated.
10
What are we told about the captain of the Kainan Maru in the fifth paragraph?
A
He had given Shirase some poor advice.
B
His skill at sailing saved the boat and crew.
C
He refused to listen to the warnings of others.
D
He was originally confident they could reach Antarctica.
11
After Shirase finally reached Antarctica he realised that
A
he was unsure of the direction he should follow.
B
he would have to give up on fulfilling his personal ambition.
C
he might not have enough food to get to the South Pole.
D
he still wanted to compete in the race against the other teams.
12
What is the writer doing in the seventh paragraph?
A
criticising a decision concerning scientific research.
B
explaining why a particular mistake had occurred.
C
describing the conditions that the expedition faced.
D
rejecting the idea that Shirase was poorly prepared.
13
What is the writer’s main point in the final paragraph?
A
Considering the problems Shirase had to deal with, his achievement was incredible.
B
In Japan, the reaction to Shirase’s adventure in Antarctica came as a surprise to him.
C
It was obvious that Amundsen would receive more attention as an explorer than Shirase.
D
Shirase had achieved more on the Antarctic expedition than even he had expected.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc: (1) Antarctica was full of explorers .

(2) + (3) Liệt kê các explorers đã tới Antartica

(4) Shirase arrived 

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2
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

- Câu này khá dễ vì paraphrase đơn giản, có thể nhanh chóng nhận diện được đáp án:

Cả bài đọc và câu hỏi đều đề cập tới việc Shirase tới Antarctica. Tuy nhiên, bài đọc không hề nói gì về việc smaller ships có tới Antartica hay chưa=> Không đủ thông tin trả lời câu hỏi

=> Đáp án: NOT GIVEN 



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3
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



Nhiều học viên skim/scan sơ sơ câu này rất dễ chọn NOT GIVEN vì không locate được cụm “original ambition" nằm đâu trong bài. Lí do là vì cụm này được paraphrase bằng meaning, không phải dùng từ đồng nghĩa.

2. Linearthinking



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc: Shirase had dreamed of becoming a polar explorer

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4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



Thí sinh rất dễ chọn Not Given cho câu này vì skim/scan keywords hoài không thấy đề cập gì tới các keywords như “intention" hay “pointless" trong bài đọc.

2. Linearthinking



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc:

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5
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Đọc cấu trúc thông tin trong bài đọc:

like the British , Shirase presented his expedition as a search for knowledge : [liệt kê cách Shirase nghiên cứu tìm ra kiến thức]

=> Cấu trúc Like + N, S + V cho thấy cả British và Shirase đều có điểm chung là travel để search for knowledge. Tuy nhiên, trong bài không hề nói rằng ai là người làm điều này trước.

Xét câu hỏi: The British team announced their decision to carry out scientific research in Antarctica before Shirase. => Ý “ before” không được tìm thấy

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6
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Khá dễ để so sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc trong câu này: Bài đọc: Shirase struggled to raise funds Câu hỏi: Shirase found it easy to raise the money he needed for his trip to the South Pole. => struggle to (chật vật xoay xở) # found it easy (cảm thấy dễ dàng) => Đáp án: FALSE



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7
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Japan’s former prime minister Shigenobu Kuma came to Shirase’s rescue .

 With Kuma’s backing , Shirase got together just enough money to buy and equip a small ship .

 He eventually acquired a scientis , called Terutaro Takeda 

= Japan’s former prime minister helped Shirase get money. Shirase also had a scientist => Thông tin trong bài chỉ nói prime minister giúp Shirase có tiền, không đề cập tới việc ai là người persuade scientist này làm việc với Shirase - Câu hỏi: A previous prime minister of Japan persuaded a scientist to go with Shirase.

=> Đáp án: Not Given



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8
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning:

Khi Skim/scan, thí sinh rất dễ chọn TRUE vì tất cả keywords trong câu hỏi đều được tìm thấy trong bài đọc => Nếu đọc tìm keywords thôi mà không hiểu câu nói gì thì rất dễ nhầm. 2. Linearthinking
So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Bad weather delayed the expedition and they didn’t reach New Zealand until 8 February => Bài đọc chỉ đề cập việc thời tiết xấu làm trì hoãn hành trình. - Câu hỏi: The weather that slowed down Shirase’s progress to New Zealand was unusually bad for the season . => Câu hỏi nói thêm là thời tiết này “unusually bad for the season" = tệ một cách kì lạ => Thông tin “kì lạ" không được tìm thấy trong bài

=> Đáp án: NOT GIVEN



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9
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Chọn A. So sánh đáp án và bài đọc: Đáp án: When reporters in New Zealand met Shirase, they were concerned about the quality of his equipment. (Reporters lo về chất lượng equipment của Shirase) Bài đọc: Reporters think that Shirase's equipment was bad and the expedition was ill-prepared 

=> A là đáp án đúng



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10
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning:

Câu này nếu học viên Skim/scan là… thua ngay vì đòi hỏi học viên phải thật sự đọc, hiểu và tóm được nội dung đoạn. 2. Linearthinking:
Sau khi hiểu nội dung bài đọc, dễ dàng chọn được B là đáp án đúng nhất.

- Bài đọc: The captain's seamanship steered the ship out of danger (the ice). => The captain's skills allowed him to save the ship and the crew

=> Đáp án B: His skill at sailing saved the boat and crew.

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11
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc, đáp án phù hợp nhất là C. Bài đọc: After reaching Antarctica, Shirase wanted to go to the (South) Pole but he didn't have enough food. Đáp án C: After Shirase finally reached Antarctica he realised that he might not have enough food to get to the South Pole.

Không thể chọn A vì trong bài nói rõ rằng Shirase decided to go to South Pole, trong khi A thể hiện rằng Shirase không chắc (unsure) nên đi hướng nào. Câu B hoàn toàn không được đề cập trong bài. Câu D không chọn vì trong bài không nói gì về other teams.

=> Đáp án: C



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12
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase khá đơn giản, dễ nhận diện:

Trong câu hỏi chỉ nói chung chung việc mô tả tình hình thời tiết của chuyến đi, trong bài đọc lại nói cụ thể hơn việc miêu tả này: có blizzard (bão tuyết), có temperature, có frostbite (bỏng lạnh)...

=> Đáp án: C



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13
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

So sánh với các lựa chọn, chỉ có A thể hiện được thái độ tung hô của mọi người đối với Shirase: A. Considering the problems Shirase had to deal with, his achievement was incredible. => Đáp án: A

Trong câu hỏi này: - Không thể chọn B vì trong bài không nói về cảm xúc của Shirase khi nhận được sự đón nhận của mọi người => Không biết có surprised hay không - Câu C không chọn được vì bài đọc không hề so sánh gì giữa Amundsen và Shirase - Câu D không chọn được vì trong bài không nói tới expectation (kì vọng) của Shirase. 

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

The rise of agribots
The use of robots and automation in the farming industry
The next time you stand at the supermarket checkout, spare a thought for the farmers who helped fill your shopping basket as life is hard for them right now. This, in turn, inevitably means bigger grocery bills for consumers, and greater hardship for the millions in countries where food shortages are a matter of life and death. Worse, studies suggest that the world will need twice as much food by 2050. Yet while farmers must squeeze more out of the land, they must also address the necessity of reducing their impact on the soil, waterways and atmosphere. All this means rethinking how agriculture is practiced, and taking automation to a whole new level. On the new model farms of the future, precision will be key. Why dose a whole field with chemicals if you can spray only where they are needed? Each plant could get exactly the right amount of everything, no more or less, an approach that could slash chemical use and improve yields in one move. But this is easier said than done; the largest farms in Europe and the U.S. can cover thousands of acres. That’s why automation is key to precision farming. Specifically, say agricultural engineers, precision farming needs robot farmers. One day, we might see fields with ‘agribots’ (agricultural robots) that can identify individual seedlings and encourage them along with drops of fertilizer. Other machines would distinguish problem weeds from crops and eliminate them with shots from high-power lasers or a microdot of pesticide. These machines will also be able to identify and harvest all kinds of vegetables. More than a century of mechanization has already turned farming into an industrial-scale activity in much of the world, with farms that grow cereals being the most heavily automated. But a variety of other crops, including oranges and tomatoes destined to become processed foods, are also picked mechanically, albeit to a slightly lesser extent. Yet the next wave of autonomous farm machinery is already at work. You probably haven’t even noticed, for these robots are disguised as tractors. Many are self-steering, use GPS to cross a field, and can even ‘talk’ to their implements – a plough or sprayer, for example. And the implements can talk back, telling the tractor that it’s going too fast or needs to move to the left. This kind of communication is also being developed in other farm vehicles. A new system allows a combine harvester, say, to send a call over to a tractor- trailer so the driver can unload the grain as and when necessary. However, when fully autonomous systems take to the field, they’ll look nothing like tractors. With their enormous size and weight, today’s farm machines have significant downsides: they compact the soil, reducing porosity and killing beneficial life, meaning crops don’t grow so well. Simon Blackmore, who researches agricultural technology at Harper Adams University College in England believes that fleets of lightweight autonomous robots have the potential to solve this problem and that replacing brute force with precision is key. ‘A seed only needs one cubic centimeter of soil to grow. If we cultivate just that we only put tiny amounts of energy in and the plants still grow nicely.’ There is another reason why automation may be the way forward according to Eldert van Henten, a robotics researcher at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. ‘While the population is growing and needs to be fed, a rapidly shrinking number of people are willing to work in agriculture,’ he points out. Other researchers such as Linda Calvin, an economist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Philip Martin at the University of California, Davis, have studied trends in mechanization to predict how US farms might fare. Calvin and Martin have observed how rising employment costs have led to the adoption of labour-saving farm technology in the past, citing the raisin industry as an example. In 2000, a bumper harvest crashed prices and, with profits squeezed, farmers looked for a solution. With labour one of their biggest costs – 42 percent of production expenses on U.S. farms, on average – they started using a mechanical harvester adapted from a machine used by winemakers. By 2007, almost half of California’s raisins were mechanically harvested and a labour force once numbering 50,000 had shrunk to 30,000. As well as having an impact on the job market, the widespread adoption of agribots might bring changes at the supermarket. Lewis Holloway, who studies agriculture at the University of Hull, UK, says that robotic milking is likely to influence the genetics of dairy herds as farmers opt for ‘robot-friendly’ cows, with udder shape, and even attitudes, suited to automated milking. Similarly, he says, it’s conceivable that agribots could influence what fruit or vegetable varieties get to the shops, since farmers may prefer to grow those with, say, leaf shapes that are easier for their robots to discriminate from weeds. Almost inevitably, these machines will eventually alter the landscape, too. The real tipping point for robot agriculture will come when farms are being designed with agribots in mind, says Salah Sukkarieh, a robotics researcher at the Australian Center for Field Robotics, Sydney. This could mean a return to smaller fields, with crops planted in grids rather than rows and fruit trees pruned into two-dimensional shapes to make harvesting easier. This alien terrain tended by robots is still a while away, he says ‘but it will happen.’

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 17
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
14
Governments should do more to ensure that food is generally affordable.
15
Farmers need to reduce the harm they do to the environment.
16
In the future, farmers are likely to increase their dependency on chemicals.
17
Farms in Europe and the US may find it hard to adapt to precision farming.
Question 18 - 21
Complete the sentences below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
18
In the future, agribots will provide
………………………….
to young plants.
19
Some machines will use chemicals or
……………………………..
to get rid of unwanted plants.
20
It is the production of
………………………………
which currently uses most machinery on farms.
21

……………………………….
between machines such as tractors is making farming more efficient.
Question 22 - 26
Look at the following researchers and the list of statements below.
Match each researcher with the correct statement, A-H.
List of Findings
A
The use of automation might impact on the development of particular animal and plant species.
B
We need to consider the effect on employment that increased automation will have.
C
We need machines of the future to be exact, not more powerful.
D
As farming becomes more automated the appearance of farmland will change.
E
New machinery may require more investment than certain farmers can afford.
F
There is a shortage of employees in the farming industry.
G
There are limits to the environmental benefits of automation.
H
Economic factors are often the driving force behind the development of machinery.
22
Simon Blackmore
23
Eldert van Henten
24
Linda Calvin and Philip Martin
25
Lewis Holloway
26
Salah Sukkarieh

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
Not Given
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning:



Nhiều bạn khi skim/scan sẽ dễ chọn TRUE cho câu này vì thấy ý “bigger grocery bills for consumers" (chi phí mua sắm của người tiêu dùng ngày càng cao) => Suy diễn là phải làm cho thức ăn vừa túi tiền hơn (affordable).

Linearthinking:



Cấu trúc located info:

 this means bigger grocery bills for consumers , and hardship for the millions in countries where food shortages are a matter of life and death

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15
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh giữa thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Yet while farmers must squeeze more out of the land , they must also address the necessity of reducing their impact on the soil, waterways and atmosphere 

= While farmers use more out of the land,  they need to reduce their impact on the soil, waterways and atmosphere

- Câu hỏi: Farmers need to reduce the harm they do to the environment.

=> Đáp án: Yes 



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16
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Nhiều học viên skim/scan sơ sơ câu này rất dễ chọn NOT GIVEN vì không locate được cụm “increase their dependency" trong bài nằm đâu.  

2. Linearthinking



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc:

(1) On the new model farms of the future , precision will be key .

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17
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



hí sinh rất dễ chọn Yes cho câu này vì cả 2 cụm keywords quan trọng là “farms in Europe and the US" và “precision farming" đều được tìm thấy trong bài đọc.

2. Linearthinking



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc:   the largest farms in Europe and the U.S can cover thousands of acres .

Xem full giải thích
18
fertilizer
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Dựa vào vị trí chỗ trống (đứng ngay sau Verb provide) => Nghĩ tới pattern provide Noun1 to Noun2  => Cần điền một noun vào chỗ trống Đọc cấu trúc thông tin trong bài đọc: we might see fields with ‘agribots’ that can identify individual seedlings and encourage them along with drops of fertilizer. 

=> Agribots can encourage seedlings along with drops of fertilizer

=> “Encourage" trong ngữ cảnh này không dịch là “khuyến khích" nữa, mà có thể hiểu là thúc đẩy, giúp một cái gì đó phát triển.

=> Câu hiểu là: Agribots dùng fertilizer (phân bón) để giúp seedlings phát triển.

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19
lasers
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Vì chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau từ “or" => loại từ sau “or" giống với từ đứng trước nó (chemicals) => Noun1 OR Noun2 => Cần một Noun điền vào chỗ trống Bài đọc: Other machines would distinguish problem weeds from crops and eliminate them with lasers or pesticide .

=> Other machines eliminate problem weeds with shots from lasers or a microdot of pesticide.

=> Other machines use pesticide or lasers to eliminate problem weeds Câu hỏi: Some machines will use chemicals or ________ to get rid of unwanted plants.

=> Đáp án: lasers



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20
cereals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Bạn nào skim/scan câu này rất khó để chọn từ điền vào chỗ trống vì không locate được cụm “machinery" nằm đâu trong bài đọc. => Phải đọc cấu trúc để thật sự hiểu nghĩa của câu thì mới làm được. 2. Linearthinking
Chỗ trống trong bài nằm ngay sau cấu trúc: the Noun of… => Cần điền một Noun vào đây. So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc: mechanization has already turned farming into an industrial-scale activity , with farms that grow cereals being the most heavily automated.

=> Mechanization turned farming into industrial activity, with farms that grow cereals being the most heavily automated.

=> Có thể hiểu rằng “automated" là tự động hoá => “Be the most heavily automated" là được tự động hoá nhiều nhất => Đồng nghĩa với việc sử dụng nhiều máy móc tự động nhất

=> Farms that grow cereals use the most machines.

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21
communication
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning:



Khi Skim/scan, thí sinh rất dễ chọn “talk" điền vào chỗ trống vì thấy nó xuất hiện trong bài. Tuy nhiên, từ “talk" trong bài được dùng như một Verb, trong khi đó chỗ trống cần điền lại là một Noun => không để điền từ này. 2. Linearthinking

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi đứng trước từ “between" => Cần điền một Noun vào đây. So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc:

 1 these robots are disguised as tractors 

 2 Many (= tractors) are self-steering , use GPS to cross a field, and can even ‘talk’ to their implements

 3 And the implements can talk back 

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22
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Lineathinking:

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Simon Blackmore believes that robots have the potential to solve this problem and that replacing brute force with precision is key . => Simon Blackmore believes that it is important to replace force with precision => Simon Blackmore thinks precision is more important than force. So sánh giữa các lựa chọn, A là đáp án phù hợp nhất: A. We need machines of the future to be exact, not more powerful. => Chọn A

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23
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

 Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: There is another reason why automation may be the way forward according to Eldert van Henten 

While the population is growing and needs to be fed , a rapidly shrinking number of people are willing to work in agriculture ,’ he (= Eldert van Henten) points out . = According to Eldert van Henten, there are fewer people willing to work in agriculture. Sau khi hiểu nội dung bài đọc, dễ dàng chọn được F là đáp án đúng nhất. => Đáp án F: There is a shortage of employees in the farming industry.

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24
H
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Bài đọc: Calvin and Martin have observed how rising employment costs have led to the adoption of labour-saving farm technology

=> Rising employment costs led to labour-saving farm technology Đáp án H:  Economic factors are often the driving force (= the factor) behind the development of machinery.

Cấu trúc [A lead to B] và [A is the driving force behind B] tương đồng về nghĩa, đều nói về mối quan hệ nguyên nhân - kết quả. => Chọn H



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25
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

So sánh cấu trúc bài đọc và đáp án phù hợp - Bài đọc: (1) Lewis Holloway says that robotic milking is likely to influence the genetics of dairy herd giải thích chi tiết lí do (2) Similarly agribots could influence what fruit or vegetable varieties get to the shops giải thích lí do => Lewis Holloway believes robots can influence the genetics of animals and fruit or vegetables. Đáp án A. The use of automation might impact on the development of particular animal and plant species.

=> Chọn A



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26
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



(1) The real tipping point for robot agriculture will come when farms are being designed with agribots in mind , says Salah Sukkarieh => Câu 1 thể hiện xu hướng automation của việc farming (2) This could mean a return to smaller fields , with crops planted in grids rather than rows and fruit trees pruned into two-dimensional shapes to make harvesting easier . => Câu 2 thể hiện hệ quả của xu hướng này: smaller fields, crops trồng theo grids thay vì theo hàng, fruit trees có two-dimensional shapes => Sự thay đổi chủ yếu về hình thức, ngoại hình của farms So sánh với các lựa chọn, chỉ có D thể hiện sự thay đổi về mặt hình thức này. D. As farming becomes more automated the appearance of farmland will change. => Đáp án: D

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Homer’s Literary Legacy
Why was the work of Homer, famous author of ancient Greece, so full of clichés?
A
A. Until the last tick of history’s clock, cultural transmission meant oral transmission and poetry, passed from mouth to ear, was the principal medium of moving information across space and from one generation to the next. Oral poetry was not simply a way of telling lovely or important stories, or of flexing the imagination. It was, argues the classicist Eric Havelock, a “massive repository of useful knowledge, a sort of encyclopedia of ethics, politics, history and technology which the effective citizen was required to learn as the core of his educational equipment”. The great oral works transmitted a shared cultural heritage, held in common not on bookshelves, but in brains. In India, an entire class of priests was charged with memorizing the Vedas with perfect fidelity. In pre-lslamic Arabia, people known as Rawis were often attached to poets as official memorizers. The Buddha’s teachings were passed down in an unbroken chain of oral tradition for four centuries until they were committed to writing in Sri Lanka in the first century B.C.
B
B. The most famous of the Western tradition’s oral works, and the first to have been systematically studied, were Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad. These two poems – possibly the first to have been written down in the Greek alphabet – had long been held up as literary archetypes. However, even as they were celebrated as the models to which all literature should aspire, Homer’s masterworks had also long been the source of scholarly unease. The earliest modern critics sensed that they were somehow qualitatively different from everything that came after – even a little strange. For one thing, both poems were oddly repetitive in the way they referred to characters. Odysseus was always “clever Odysseus”. Dawn was always “rosy-fingered”. Why would someone write that? Sometimes the epithets seemed completely off-key. Why call the murderer of Agamemnon “blameless Aegisthos”? Why refer to “swift-footed Achilles” even when he was sitting down? Or to “laughing Aphrodite” even when she was in tears? In terms of both structure and theme, the Odyssey and Iliad were also oddly formulaic, to the point of predictability. The same narrative units – gathering armies, heroic shields, challenges between rivals – pop up again and again, only with different characters and different circumstances. In the context of such finely spun, deliberate masterpieces, these quirks* seemed hard to explain.
C
C. At the heart of the unease about these earliest works of literature were two fundamental questions: first, how could Greek literature have been born ex nihilo* with two masterpieces? Surely a few less perfect stories must have come before, and yet these two were among the first on record. And second, who exactly was their author? Or was it authors? There were no historical records of Homer, and no trustworthy biography of the man exists beyond a few self-referential hints embedded in the texts themselves.
D
D. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the first modern critics to suggest that Homer might not have been an author in the contemporary sense of a single person who sat down and wrote a story and then published it for others to read. In his 1781 Essay on the Origin of Languages, the Swiss philosopher suggested that the Odyssey and Iliad might have been “written only in men’s memories. Somewhat later they were laboriously collected in writing”- though that was about as far as his enquiry into the matter went.
E
E. In 1795, the German philologist Friedrich August Wolf argued for the first time that not only were Homer’s works not written down by Homer, but they weren’t even by Homer. They were, rather, a loose collection of songs transmitted by generations of Greek bards*, and only redacted* in their present form at some later date. In 1920, an eighteen-year-old scholar named Milman Parry took up the question of Homeric authorship as his Master’s thesis at the University of California, Berkeley. He suggested that the reason Homer’s epics seemed unlike other literature was because they were unlike other literature. Parry had discovered what Wood and Wolf had missed: the evidence that the poems had been transmitted orally was right there in the text itself. All those stylistic quirks, including the formulaic and recurring plot elements and the bizarrely repetitive epithets -“clever Odysseus” and “gray-eyed Athena”- that had always perplexed readers were actually like thumbprints left by a potter: material evidence of how the poems had been crafted. They were mnemonic* aids that helped the bard(s) fit the meter and pattern of the line, and remember the essence of the poems.
F
F. The greatest author of antiquity was actually, Parry argued, just “one of a long tradition of oral poets that… composed wholly without the aid of writing”. Parry realised that if you were setting out to create memorable poems, the Odyssey and the Iliad were exactly the kind of poems you’d create. It’s said that cliches* are the worst sin a writer can commit, but to an oral bard, they were essential. The very reason that cliches so easily seep into our speech and writing – their insidious memorability – is exactly why they played such an important role in oral story telling. The principles that the oral bards discovered as they sharpened their stories through telling and retelling were the same mnemonic principles that psychologists rediscovered when they began conducting their first scientific experiments on memory around the turn of the twentieth century. Words that rhyme are much more memorable than words that don’t, and concrete nouns are easier to remember than abstract ones. Finding patterns and structure in information is how our brains extract meaning from the world, and putting words to music and rhyme is a way of adding extra levels of pattern and structure to language.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
27
the claim that the Odyssey and Iliad were not poems in their original form.
28
a theory involving the reinterpretation of the term ‘author’
29
references to the fact that little is known about Homer’s life
30
a comparison between the construction of Homer’s poems and another art form
31
examples of the kinds of people employed to recall language
32
doubts regarding Homer’s apparently inappropriate descriptions
Question 33 - 34
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Which TWO of these points are made by the writer of the text about the Odyssey and the Iliad?
A
They are sometimes historically inaccurate.
B
It is uncertain which century they were written in.
C
Their content is very similar.
D
Later writers referred to them as ideal examples of writing.
E
There are stylistic differences between them.
Question 35 - 36
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Which TWO of the following theories does the writer of the text refer to?
A
Homer wrote his work during a period of captivity.
B
Neither the Odyssey nor the Iliad were written by Homer.
C
Homer created the Odyssey and Iliad without writing them down.
D
Homer may have suffered from a failing memory in later life.
E
The oral and written versions of Homer’s work may not be identical.
Question 37 - 40
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
The importance of the spoken word and how words are remembered.
Spoken poetry was once the means by which each
37
of a particular culture or community could pass on its knowledge. Indeed, it has been suggested that it was the duty of a
38
to know poetry so they would be informed about subjects such as politics and history.
Psychologists now know that when people are trying to remember information, they may find it difficult to remember words that express
39
ideas. It is easier to remember words which sound similar or go together with
40
.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
E
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



- Thí sinh khi skim/scan câu này sẽ không tìm được đáp án vì không locate được từ khoá “original form" trong bài.*

*Tip: - Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

2. Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: They (Odyssey and Iliad) were a loose collection of songs , and only redacted* in their present form at some later date . => “Present form" (hình thức hiện tại) của tác phẩm này là poems => Câu được hiểu là: Odyssey and Iliad là songs, sau này (at some later date) redacted thành poems => Đoán được từ “redacted” = “changed into", “turned into" => Odyssey and Iliad ban đầu là songs, sau này chuyển thành poems Câu hỏi:  the claim that the Odyssey and Iliad were not poems in their original form. (Hình thức gốc của Odyssey and Iliad không phải là poems) => Chính xác, vì đoạn E nói rõ rằng tác phẩm này ban đầu là songs 

=> Đáp án: E



Xem full giải thích
28
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

*Tip: - Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Linearthinking

So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc: Homer [ might not have been an author in the contemporary sense of a single person who sat down and wrote a story and then published it for others to read .

-> “Contemporary" là đương thời, “contemporary sense" là cách hiểu đương thời, cách hiểu hiện tại

=> Homer không phải là “Author" theo cách hiểu hiện tại (là người sat down and wrote a story and then published it for others to read)

Xem full giải thích
29
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

*Tip: - Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Linearthinking:



So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: There were no historical records of Homer], [and] [no trustworthy biography of the man exists .

=> There was no information about Homer.

- Câu hỏi: references to the fact that little is known about Homer’s life => Trùng khớp với thông tin trong đoạn C. No information about Homer đồng nghĩa với việc không có nhiều điều được biết về Homer (little is known about Homer's life) => Đáp án: C

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30
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

*Tip: - Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: (1) the reason (why) Homer’s epics seemed unlike other literature was because they were unlike other literature . => So sánh giữa tác phẩm của Homer và những tác phẩm khác (2) All those stylistic quirks were actually like thumbprints left by a potter : material evidence of how the poems had been crafted. [không hiểu vế đầu nên đọc vế sau]  =>  Phân tích điểm đặc biệt về cách mà Homer's poems được tạo ra (crafted) => Tóm lại: Homer's poems are different from other literature in the way they had been crafted So với câu hỏi: a comparison between the construction of Homer’s poems and another art form

=> Đáp án: E



Xem full giải thích
31
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

*Tip: - Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: an entire class of priests was charged with memorizing the Vedas with fidelity .

people known as Rawis were often attached to poets as memorizers . = priests was responsible for memorizing the Vedas. Rawis were official memorizers - Câu hỏi: examples of the kinds of people employed to recall language => Note: Dạng Matching Information rất thường áp dụng cách paraphrase cho ví dụ: Câu hỏi sẽ đưa ra thông tin chung chung, trong bài đọc sẽ đưa ra ví dụ cụ thể cho thông tin đó. => Đáp án: A

Xem full giải thích
32
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nhiều bạn thắc mắc là lỡ không biết những từ vựng như “narrative units", “quirks" là gì thì làm sao làm được câu này?

=> Trong trường hợp không biết vocab, hãy áp dụng Linearthinking để đoán nghĩa vocab đó.
Phân tích bài đọc: The same narrative units gathering armies, heroic shields, challenges between rivals pop up again and again 

In the context of such masterpieces , these quirks* seemed hard to explain . => Giả sử không hiểu “narrative units" là gì, học viên có thể đọc phần giải thích sau dấu “-”: armies, shields, challenges => Tác giả đang miêu tả những gì xuất hiện trong tác phẩm Giả sử không hiểu “quirks" là gì, vẫn có thể đoán được nghĩa từ này bằng cách đọc cấu trúc câu: In the context of such masterpieces , these quirks* seemed hard to explain. => Trong những tác phẩm đỉnh cao (masterpieces), these quirks rất khó để giải thích => Từ “quirks" phải mang nghĩa tiêu cực, vì “masterpieces" mang nghĩa tích cực => Có thể hiểu “quirks" là những thứ gì đó không tốt, không phù hợp, kì lạ. => Tóm lại, nội dung bài đọc là: In the masterpieces, the weird descriptions seemed hard to explain. Câu hỏi: 

doubts regarding Homer’s apparently inappropriate descriptions => Chọn B.



Xem full giải thích
33
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Nhìn qua thì có vẻ đọc dài, tuy nhiên nếu áp dụng Linearthinking và nhận diện cấu trúc câu và đoạn thì bạn sẽ đỡ cực hơn nhiều:

(1) both poems were oddly repetitive in the way they referred to characters .

(2), (3): nêu ví dụ cụ thể về cách both poems referred to characters

(4)-(8): nhận xét của người khác về cách làm đó của 2 bài thơ

Xem full giải thích
34
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc:   how could Greek literature have been born ex nihilo* with two masterpieces ? => Hai tác phẩm Odyssey và Iliad được xem là “masterpieces" (kiệt tác) Đáp án D: Later writers referred to them as ideal examples of writing. (Kiệt tác = tác phẩm được xem là mẫu mực nhất) => Đáp án: D


Xem full giải thích
35
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Not only were Homer’s works not written down by Homer , but they weren’t even by Homer . => Cấu trúc “Not only… but also" là cấu trúc đảo ngữ dùng để nhấn mạnh => Tác phẩm của Homer không chỉ không được viết xuống bới Homer mà chúng thậm chí còn không được sáng tác bởi ông. => Homer did not write the works.

- Xem xét đáp án: B. Neither the Odyssey nor the Iliad were written by Homer. (Neither… nor là cấu trúc phủ định, không phải cái này cũng không phải cái kia) = Both Odyssey and Iliad were NOT written by Homer

=> Đáp án: B.



Xem full giải thích
36
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

- Phân tích bài đọc: Parry had discovered what Wood and Wolf had missed : the evidence that the poems had been transmitted orally was right there in the text itself . => “The poems" được nhắc tới ở đây chính là tác phẩm Odyssey and Iliad. Bài đọc nói rõ là The poems had been transmitted orally (tác phẩm được truyền miệng) => Chứng tỏ tác giả không hề write them down => Đáp án: C. Homer created the Odyssey and Iliad without writing them down.


Xem full giải thích
37
generation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan trả lời câu này, thí sinh sẽ cảm thấy rất rối vì có quá nhiều danh từ khác nhau xuất hiện trong bài đọc => không biết chọn từ nào để điền. Trước hết, để làm tốt dạng Gap-fill, cần đọc cấu trúc câu hỏi để xác định loại từ cần điền. Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau từ “each" => Cần điền một Noun (số ít) vào đây.

Linearthinking:

Phân tích thông tin trong bài đọc:

 oral transmission and poetry was the principal medium of moving information across space and from one generation to the next .

=> Oral transmission was the main method of moving information from one generation to the next

Xem full giải thích
38
citizen
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Cấu trúc câu hỏi có dạng a Noun 1 of Noun 2 => Cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống Thông tin trong bài: It was a “massive repository of useful knowledge… which the effective citizen was required to learn

=> The effective citizen was required to learn poetry to have useful knowledge such as politics and history

=> it was the requirement for an effective citizen to learn poetry  to have useful knowledge such as politics and history Câu hỏi: it was the duty of a _______ to know poetry so they would be informed about subjects such as politics and history

=> Đáp án:: citizen



Xem full giải thích
39
abstract
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay trước danh từ (ideas) => cần tìm một Adjective vào đây. Phân tích thông tin trong bài:

 Words that rhyme are much more memorable than words that don’t , and concrete nouns are easier to remember than abstract ones => Vế đầu không có Adjective nào bổ nghĩa cho “words" cả nên có thể bỏ vế đầu, chú ý vế sau: Concrete nouns are easier to remember than abstract ones

=> People find it easier to remember concrete nouns than abstract nouns.

=> People find it more difficult to remember abstract nouns than concrete nouns. Câu hỏi: Psychologists now know that when people are trying to remember information, they may find it difficult to remember words that express ______ ideas.

Xem full giải thích
40
music
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay sau giới từ “with" => Cần một Noun điền vào đây Thông tin trong bài: 1 Words that rhyme are more memorable than words that don’t , and concrete nouns are easier to remember than abstract ones . => Câu 1 nói về những loại từ dễ nhớ: từ có vần điệu (words that rhyme) và concrete nouns 2 Finding patterns and structure in information is how our brains extract meaning from the world , and putting words to music and rhyme is a way of adding extra levels of pattern and structure to language .

=> Câu 2 giải thích lí do dễ nhớ từ có vần điệu và từ có vần hoặc đi kèm với nhạc thì có extra levels of pattern and structure nên dễ nhớ Câu hỏi: It is easier to remember words which sound similar or go together with ______

=> Đáp án: music



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