Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 3 được lấy từ cuốn sách Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Secrets Of The Swarm
Insects, birds and fish tend to be the creatures that humans feel furthest from. Unlike many mammals they do not engage in humanlike behaviour. The way they swarm or flock together does not usually get good press coverage either: marching like worker ants might be a common simile for city commuters, but it’s a damning, not positive, image. Yet a new school of scientific theory suggests that these swarms might have a lot to teach us. American author Peter Miller explains, ‘I used to think that individual ants knew where they were going, and what they were supposed to do when they got there. But Deborah Gordon, a biologist at Stanford University, showed me that nothing an ant does makes any sense except in terms of the whole colony. Which makes you wonder if, as individuals, we don’t serve a similar function for the companies where we work or the communities where we live.’ Ants are not intelligent by themselves. Yet as a colony, they make wise decisions. And as Gordon discovered during her research, there’s no one ant making decisions or giving orders. Take food collecting, for example. No ant decides, ‘There’s lots of food around today; lots of ants should go out to collect it.’ Instead, some forager ants go out, and as soon as they find food, they pick it up and come back to the nest. At the entrance, they brush past reserve foragers, sending a ‘go out’ signal. The faster the foragers come back, the more food there is and the faster other foragers go out, until gradually the amount of food being brought back diminishes. An organic calculation has been made to answer the question, ‘How many foragers does the colony need today?’ And if something goes wrong a hungry lizard prowling around for an ant snack, for instance then a rush of ants returning without food sends waiting reserves a ‘Don’t go out’ signal. But could such decentralised control work in a human organisation? Miller visited a Texas gas company that has successfully applied formulas based on ant colony behaviour to ‘optimise its factories and route its trucks’. He explains, ‘If ant colonies had worked out a reliable way to identify the best routes between their nest and food sources, the company managers figured, why not take advantage of that knowledge?’ So they came up with a computer model, based on the self-organising principles of an ant colony. Data is fed into the model about deliveries needing to be made the next day, as well as things like weather conditions, and it produces a simulation determining the best route for the delivery lorries to take. Miller explains that he first really understood the impact that swarm behaviour could have on humans when he read a study of honeybees by Tom Seeley, a biologist at Cornell University. The honeybees choose as a group which new nest to move to. First, scouts fly off to investigate multiple sites. When they return they do a ‘waggle dance’ for their spot, and other scouts will then fly off and investigate it. Many bees go out, but none tries to compare all sites. Each reports back on just one. The more they liked their nest, the more vigorous and lengthy their waggle dance and the more bees will choose to visit it. Gradually the volume of bees builds up towards one site; it’s a system that ensures that support for the best site snowballs and the decision is made in the most democratic way. Humans, too, can make clever decisions through diversity of knowledge and a little friendly competition. 'The best example of shared decision making that I witnessed during my research was a town meeting I attended in Vermont, where citizens met face-to-face to debate their annual budget,’ explains Miller. ‘For group decision making to work well, you need a way to sort through the various options they propose; and you need a mechanism to narrow down these options.’ Citizens in Vermont control their municipal affairs by putting forward proposals, or backing up others’ suggestions, until a consensus is reached through a vote. As with the bees, the broad sampling of options before a decision is made will usually result in a compromise acceptable to all. The ‘wisdom of the crowd’ makes clever decisions for the good of the group and leaves citizens feeling represented and respected. The Internet is also an area where we are increasingly exhibiting swarm behaviour, without any physical contact. Miller compares a wiki website, for example, to a termite mound. Indirect collaboration is the key principle behind information sharing websites, just as it underlies the complex constructions that termites build. Termites do not have an architect’s blueprint or a grand construction scheme. They simply sense changes in their environment, as for example when the mound’s wall has been damaged, altering the circulation of air. They go to the site of the change and drop a grain of soil. When the next termite finds that grain, they drop theirs too. Slowly, without any kind of direct decision making, a new wall is built. A termite mound, in this way, is rather like a wiki website. Rather than meeting up and talking about what we want to post online, we just add to what someone maybe a stranger on the other side of the world already wrote. This indirect knowledge and skill sharing is now finding its way into the corridors of power.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 6
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Commuters are often compared favourably with worker ants.
2
Some ants within a colony have leadership roles.
3
Forager ants tell each other how far away the food source is.
4
Forager ants are able to react quickly to a dangerous situation.
5
Termite mounds can be damaged by the wind.
6
Termites repair their mounds without directly communicating with each other.
Question 7 - 9
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F below.
Write the correct letter, A-F
List of Endings
A
provide support for each other's ideas in order to reach the best outcome.
B
use detailed comments to create large and complicated systems.
C
use decision-making strategies based on insect communities to improve their service.
D
communicate with each other to decide who the leader will be.
E
contribute independently to the ideas of others they do not know.
F
repair structures they have built without directly communicating with each other.
Managers working for a Texas gas company
7
Citizens in an annual Cermont meeting
8
Some Internet users
9
Question 10 - 13
Complete the flow-chart below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
How honeybees choose a new nest
STEP 01
Honeybee
10
explore possible nest sites
STEP 02
they perform what is known as a
11
on their return
STEP 03
other bees go out and report back
STEP 04
enthusiasm and
12
increase for one particular site
STEP 05
a final choice is reached using a
13
process

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Câu này nếu chỉ skim/scan những từ khoá trên mà không đọc cấu trúc câu hỏi để hiểu nghĩa, thí sinh rất dễ chọn True vì tất cả từ khoá đều giống nhau giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc.  

Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Câu hỏi: Commuters are often compared favourably with worker ants. => Từ “favourably" thường bị rất nhiều thí sinh “bỏ sót" khi đọc câu hỏi nhưng đây lại là từ cực kì quan trọng trong câu này. Thí sinh cần nhớ không được phép đọc skim/scan và bỏ bất kì thông tin nào trong câu hỏi, vì dù 1 thông tin nhỏ nhất cũng tạo nên sự khác biệt giữa True/ False/ Not Given. “Favourably" từ gốc từ “Favour" nghĩa là yêu thích => “Favourably" mang màu nghĩa tích cực. => Câu hỏi có thể hiểu là:  Commuters are often compared in a positive way with worker ants.

- Bài đọc: marching like worker ants might be a common simile for city commuters , but it is a …... not positive image . ( không hiểu Adj1 damning thì đọc Adj2 - not positive)

= Worker ants are compared to city commuters in a not positive way = City commuters are compared in a not positive way with worker ants

So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: in a positive way # in a not positive way

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2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn Not Given khi làm câu này vì câu này không được paraphrase bằng từ đồng nghĩa mà paraphrase về ý => Học viên không skim/scan được “leadership roles" nằm đâu => Chọn Not Given Linearthinking
So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Câu hỏi: Some ants within a colony have leadership roles.

- Bài đọc: there’s no one ant making decisions or giving orders. = There’s no ant having leadership roles

Bài đọc nói rõ không có con kiến nào có leadership roles, trong khi câu hỏi lại bảo vài con có leadership roles

=> Đáp án: FALSE 



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3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking: Simplify located info:

 forager ants go out , and as soon as they find food , they pick it up and come back to the nest 

 At the entrance , they brush past reserve foragers 

 The faster the foragers come back , the more food there is 

Nhiều học viên skim/scan sơ sơ câu này rất dễ chọn TRUE cho câu này vì thấy có “forager ants" và “food” xuất hiện trong bài. Tuy nhiên, dù trong bài có đề cập tới “food" nhưng không nói gì về việc forager ants thông báo lẫn nhau khoảng cách tới food source (how far away the food source is) => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN

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4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Thí sinh rất dễ chọn Not Given cho câu này vì skim/scan keywords hoài không thấy cụm “dangerous situation" trong bài đọc.

2. Linearthinking

So sánh cấu trúc nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Câu hỏi: Forager ants are able to react quickly to a dangerous situation.

- Bài đọc: if something goes wrong a hungry lizard prowling around for an ant snack, for instance then a rush of ants returning without food sends a ‘Don’t go out’ signal . = If ants see a hungry lizard, they rush back without food. = If ants see a hungry lizard, they go back quickly without food (rush = go somewhere quickly) => Ants quay về rất nhanh (= phản ứng rất nhanh) khi thấy “hungry lizard"

=> Đáp án: TRUE



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5
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan thì câu hỏi này rất dễ khiến học viên chọn TRUE vì thấy có mounds và damaged là 2 keywords xuất hiện trong bài, lại thấy “air" khá giống “wind"

2. Linearthinking



Đọc cấu trúc thông tin trong bài đọc:

 They sense changes in their environment , as for example when the mound’s wall has been damaged , altering the circulation of air

= They sense when the mound's wall has been damaged, which changes the circulation of air

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6
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: without any kind of direct decision-making , a new wall is built = Termites built a new wall without any kind of direct decision-making Câu hỏi: Termites repair their mounds without directly communicating with each other. => Đáp án: TRUE



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7
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này có paraphrase đơn giản nên thí sinh có thể nhanh chóng nhận diện được đáp án.

Còn bạn nào muốn nắm chắc ý câu thì vẫn có thể áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc nè



Xem full giải thích
8
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: [Citizens in Vermont] [back up others’ suggestions], [until] [a consensus] [is reached] -> Ngay cả khi không hiểu "consensus is reached" là gì, bạn vẫn có thể dựa vào cụm "back up others’ suggestions until" để đoán hành động có kết quả tốt đẹp.

- Câu hỏi: Citizens in an annual Vermont meeting provide support for each other’s ideas in order to reach the best outcome

=> Đáp án: A 



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9
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Rather than meeting up and talking about what we want to post online , we add to what someone maybe a stranger on the other side of the world already wrote .

= People online add to what stranger already wrote

- Câu hỏi: Some Internet users contribute independently to the ideas of others they do not know. => Đáp án: E.



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10
scouts
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning:

Rất nhiều thí sinh không làm được câu này vì dù xác định được thông tin nằm đâu nhưng vẫn không biết phải chọn từ nào điền vào chỗ trống vì không hiểu cấu trúc câu hỏi. 2. Linearthinking


Phân tích câu hỏi: Vì chỗ trống nằm ngay trước Verb chính của câu (explore) nên phải đóng vai trò là chủ ngữ. Tuy nhiên, câu đã có một danh từ “Honeybee" đứng làm chủ ngữ => Có thể sẽ điền một danh từ nữa để tạo thành danh từ ghép (compound noun)

Honeybee ….. explore possible nest sites.

Phân tích bài đọc:

 1 honeybees choose as a group which new nest to move to

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11
waggle dance
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay Verb “known as", mà pattern của verb này chính là “be known as something” (có tên gọi là) => Cần một Noun (tên riêng) điền vào đây. Bài đọc:  When they return they do a ‘waggle dance’

=> They do a ‘waggle dance' when they return

So với câu hỏi: They perform what is known as …. on their return

=> Đáp án: waggle dance



Xem full giải thích
12
volume
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay trước động từ chính, lại được kết nối với “enthusiasm" bằng chữ “and" => Cấu trúc Noun 1 and Noun 2. Thông tin trong bài:

 1 The more they liked their nest, the more vigorous and lengthy their waggle dance and the more bees will choose to visit it.

 2 Gradually the volume of bees builds up towards one site => The vigor and length of their waggle dance increased and the volume of bees builds up towards one site => The vigor and length and the volume of bees increased towards one site Câu hỏi: Enthusiasm and …. increase for one particular site

=> Đáp án: volume



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13
democratic
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay trước danh từ “process" => Cần điền một tính từ (Adj) vào chỗ trống

Thông tin trong bài: the decision is made in the most democratic way .

Câu hỏi: A final choice is reached during a _____ process.

=> Đáp án: democratic



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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

High Speed, High Rise
A Chinese entrepreneur has figured out a way to manufacture 30-story, earthquake proof skyscrapers that snap together in just 15 days.
A
A. Zhang Yue is founder and chairman of Broad Sustainable Building (otherwise known as 'Broad') who, on 1 January, 2012, released a time lapse video of its 30-story achievement. It shows construction workers buzzing around like gnats while a clock in the corner of the screen marks the time. In just 360 hours, a 100 metre tall tower called the T30 rises from an empty site to overlook Hunan's Xiang River. At the end of the video, the camera spirals around the building overhead as the Broad logo appears on the screen: a lowercase b that wraps around itself in an imitation of the @ symbol. The company is in the process of franchising its technology to partners in India, Brazil, and Russia. What it is selling is the world's first standardized skyscraper and with it, Zhang aims to turn Broad into the McDonald's of the sustainable building industry. When asked why he decided to start a construction company, Zhang replies, 'It's not a construction company. It's a structural revolution.'
B
B. So far, Broad has built 16 structures in China, plus another in Cancun. They are fabricated at two factories in Hunan, roughly an hour's drive from Broad Town, the sprawling headquarters. The floors and ceilings of the skyscrapers are built in sections, each measuring 15.6 by 3.9 meters with a depth of 45 centimeters. Pipes and ducts for electricity, water and waste are threaded through each floor module while it is still in the factory. The client's choice of flooring is also preinstalled on top. Standardized truckloads carry two modules each to the site with the necessary columns, bolts and tools to connect them stacked on top of each other. Once they arrive at the location, each section is lifted by crane directly to the top of the building, which is assembled like toy Lego bricks. Workers use the materials on the module to quickly connect the pipes and wires. The unique column design has diagonal bracing at each end and tabs that bolt into the floors above and below. In the final step, heavily insulated exterior walls and windows are slotted in by crane. The result is far from pretty but the method is surprisingly safe and phenomenally fast.
C
C. Zhang attributes his success to his creativity and to his outsider perspective on technology. He started out as an art student in the 1980s, but in 1988, Zhang left the art world to found Broad. The company started out as a maker of non-pressurized boilers. His senior vice president, Juliet Jiang, says, 'He made his fortune on boilers. He could have kept doing this business, but ... he saw the need for non-electric air conditioning.' Towards the end of the decade, China's economy was expanding past the capacity of the nation's electricity grid, she explains. Power shortages were becoming a serious obstacle to growth. Large air conditioning (AC) units fueled by natural gas could help companies ease their electricity load, reduce overheads, and enjoy more reliable climate control into the bargain. Today, Broad has units operating in more than 70 countries, in some of the largest buildings and airports on the planet.
D
D. For two decades, Zhang's AC business boomed. But a couple of events conspired to change his course. The first was that Zhang became an environmentalist. The second was the earthquake that hit China's Sichuan Province in 2008, causing the collapse of poorly constructed buildings. Initially, he says, he tried to convince developers to refit existing buildings to make them both more stable and more sustainable, but he had little success. So Zhang drafted his own engineers and started researching how to build cheap, environmentally friendly structures that could also withstand an earthquake. Within six months of starting his research, Zhang had given up on traditional methods. He was frustrated by the cost of hiring designers and specialists for each new structure. The best way to cut costs, he decided, was to take building to the factory. But to create a factory built skyscraper, Broad had to abandon the principles by which skyscrapers are typically designed. The whole load bearing structure had to be different. To reduce the overall weight of the building, it used less concrete in the floors; that in turn enabled it to cut down on structural steel.
E
E. Around the world, prefabricated and modular buildings are gaining in popularity. But modular and prefabricated buildings elsewhere are, for the most part, low rise. Broad is alone in applying these methods to skyscrapers. For Zhang, the environmental savings alone justify the effort. According to Broad's numbers, a traditional high rise will produce about 3,000 tons of construction waste, while a Broad building will produce only 25 tons. Traditional buildings also require 5,000 tons of water onsite to build, while Broad buildings use none. The building process is also less dangerous. Elevator systems the base, rails, and machine room can be installed at the factory, eliminating the risk of injury. And instead of shipping an elevator car to the site in pieces, Broad orders a finished car and drops it into the shaft by crane. In the future, elevator manufacturers are hoping to preinstall the doors, completely eliminating any chance that a worker might fall. 'Traditional construction is chaotic,' he says. 'We took construction and moved it into the factory.' According to Zhang, his buildings will help solve the many problems of the construction industry and what's more, they will be quicker and cheaper to build.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
The text on the following pages has five paragraphs, A-E
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-viii.
List of Headings
I
A joint business project
II
Other engineering achievements
III
Examining the overall benefits
IV
A building like no other
V
Some benefits of traditional methods
VI
A change of direction
VII
Examples of similar global brands
VIII
From factory to building site
14
Paragraph A
15
Paragraph B
16
Paragraph C
17
Paragraph D
18
Paragraph E
Question 19 - 22
Label the diagram below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the text for each answer.
i-resizable-alignable
19
20
21
22
pipes and ducts installed while in


chosen by customer
diagonal bracing at top and bottom of

section contains less
conventional buildings
Question 23 - 26
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
23
Zhanf refers to his business as a
10
.
24
The first products Broad manufactured were
11
.
25
In the late eighties,
12
were holding back industrial progress in China.
26
In addition to power and cost benefits, Broad's AC units improve
13
.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
IV
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/ scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ khoá giống nhau giữa đoạn văn và list of headings, thí sinh rất dễ chọn những heading như: i          A joint business project Thí sinh dễ chọn heading này vì thấy cụm “joint business project" (dự án kinh doanh hợp tác) => liên tưởng tới câu (5) có chữ partners => suy diễn là có partners thì chắc chắn là hợp tác rồi. Tuy nhiên, không chọn được heading này vì trong bài chỉ nói công ty này “franchise" (nhượng quyền) cách xây nhà của mình cho đối tác ở Brazil, India…, chứ không phải là các nước này cùng nhau hợp tác để tạo nên toà nhà. vii       Examples of similar global brands Một vài thí sinh hay chọn nhầm câu này vì thấy tên riêng McDonald’s xuất hiện trong bài => Áp dụng kiến thức xã hội, thấy McDonald’s là một global brand (nhãn hàng toàn cầu) => Chọn heading này. => Sai, vì đây không phải main idea của đoạn mà chỉ được nhắc trong 1 câu.

Linearthinking

Để làm đúng Matching Heading, cần áp dụng Linearthinking qua hai bước Simplify + Read Connection Simplify + Read connection (1) - (4) Giới thiệu về Broad Sustainable Building và video công ty đang xây dựng toà nhà (5) - (7) Giới thiệu điểm đặc biệt về toà nhà: first standardised skyscraper, là một revolution (cuộc cách mạng) => Main idea: The impressiveness of Broad Sustainable Building's skyscraper (Sự ấn tượng của toà nhà công ty Broad Sustainable Building)

So với list of heading: Chọn heading iv A building like no other

(Một toà nhà đặc biệt, không giống toà nhà nào khác)

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15
VIII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/ scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ khoá giống nhau giữa đoạn văn và list of headings, thí sinh rất dễ chọn những heading như: iii        Examining the overall benefits Thí sinh dễ chọn heading này vì thấy chữ “overall benefits" (lợi ích tổng quan) rất giống với câu cuối của đoạn “the method is safe and fast”. Tuy nhiên Matching Heading là dạng hỏi main idea cả bài, không thể chỉ dựa vào 1 câu cuối mà chọn được.

2. Linearthinking

Simplify + Read connection (1) - (2) Giới thiệu các toà nhà và cách xây chúng (3) - (5) Xây dựng các bộ phận cùa toà nhà tại factories (6) - (10) Vận chuyển và lắp ráp các bộ phận tại the site (11) Nhận xét chung về chất lượng toà nhà và phương thức xây dựng => Main idea: Có thể thấy, tổng quan cả đoạn xoay quanh quá trình xây dựng toà nhà, từ factories tới lúc lắp ráp ở the site 

So với list of heading: Chọn heading viii      From factory to building site



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16
II
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Simplify + Read connection (1) - (2) Giới thiệu về thành công và khởi đầu của Broad (3) - (4) Nói về thành tựu của Broad khi làm boilers (make fortune) (5) - (7) Giải thích nguyên nhân làm AC (8) Nói về thành tựu của Broad khi làm AC (has units operating in 70 countries) => Main idea: Có thể thấy, tổng quan cả đoạn xoay quanh thành tựu mà công ty Broad đạt được ở những lĩnh vực công nghệ khác nhau (boilers and AC)

So với list of heading: Chọn heading ii. Other engineering achievements



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17
VI
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/ scanning

Nếu đâm đầu vào skim/scan từ khoá giống như giữa đoạn và heading, thí sinh rất dễ chọn nhầm heading v  Some benefits of traditional methods vì trong bài có đề cập tới “traditional methods" ở câu 7. Tuy nhiên, trong bài chỉ nói về điểm bất lợi (cost) chứ không nói gì về lợi ích (benefits) của phương pháp truyền thống => Đáp án này sai 2. Linearthinking
Simplify + Read connection (1) - (2) Broad chuyển hướng làm cái khác ngoài AC (3) - (4) Giải thích lí do Broad chuyển hướng (5) Broad chuyển sang xây dựng (build structures) (7) - (12) Broad không áp dụng traditional methods mà dùng cách khác (had to be different) => Main idea: Có thể thấy, tổng quan cả đoạn xoay quanh việc Broad chuyển hướng từ làm AC sang buildings 

So với list of heading: Chọn heading vi. A change of direction



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18
III
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Simplify + Read connection (1) - (3) Nhấn mạnh lại điểm độc đáo trong cách xây nhà của Broad: Chỉ mình Broad áp dụng cách này cho skyscrapers (ý này lặp lại ý ở đoạn 1) (4) - (6) Environmental benefits of this method (7) - (10) Safety benefits of this method (11) - (13) Other benefits (solve problems, quicker, cheaper) => Main idea: The benefits of this building method 

So với list of heading: Chọn heading iii        Examining the overall benefits



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19
factory
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



Câu này khá đơn giản về cả cấu trúc câu hỏi lẫn thông tin trong bài.

Nhìn vào cấu trúc câu hỏi, có thể thấy chỗ trống nằm ngay sau giới từ “in" => Từ cần điền vào chỗ trống là một Noun (danh từ)

Câu hỏi:  Pipes and ducts are installed while in…. 

Bài đọc: Pipes and ducts are threaded while in the factory

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20
flooring
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase đơn giản nên các bạn có thể nhanh chóng tìm ra được đáp án.



Tuy nhiên, bạn nào muốn nắm chắc ý chính để tìm đáp án thì vẫn có thể áp dụng Linearthinking



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21
column
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Khi áp dụng skimming and scanning, thí sinh rất dễ chọn nhầm danh từ “tabs" điền vào vì thấy nó đứng ngay cạnh từ “each end"

Ngoài ra, nhiều bạn còn chọn “floors" vì đi skim/scan từ đồng nghĩa, cứ tưởng “top and bottom” = “above and below” mà không đọc hiểu cấu trúc câu. 2. Linearthinking



Nhìn vào cấu trúc câu hỏi, có thể thấy chỗ trống nằm ngay sau từ “of" => Cần một Noun điền vào chỗ trống

Câu hỏi: diagonal bracing at top and bottom of….

Bài đọc:  The column has diagonal bracing at each end

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22
concrete
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



Khi áp dụng skimming and scanning, thí sinh rất khó locate được thông tin vì trong câu có chứa đáp án (Câu cuối đoạn D) không hề nhắc tới “conventional buildings" => Skim/scan sẽ không ra, mà phải thực sự hiểu được những câu trong đoạn này liên quan tới nhau như thế nào. 2. Linearthinking



Nhìn vào cấu trúc câu hỏi, có thể thấy chỗ trống nằm sau từ “contain", mà Verb pattern của “Contain" là contain + Noun => Cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống

Đọc mối quan hệ giữa 3 câu để hiểu rõ nội dung tác gỉa đang nói tới:

Trong đoạn đề cập tới “Zhang had given up on traditional methods” và “the structure had to be different"

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23
structural revolution
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

- Khi áp dụng skimming and scanning, thí sinh rất khó locate được thông tin vì trong bài đọc không hề có keywords “refer" hay “business" => Phải hiểu kĩ nội dung và biết business trong bài  cụ thể là business nào. 2. Linearthinking




Nhìn vào cấu trúc câu hỏi: Zhang refers to his business as a ….. (cấu trúc: refer to Noun 1 as  Noun 2 = gọi Noun 1 là Noun 2)

=> Cần điền một danh từ vào chỗ trống So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc

Câu hỏi: Zhang refers to his business as a ….

Bài đọc:

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24
non-pressurized boilers
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc Câu hỏi: The first products (that) Broad manufactured were ….

Bài đọc: The company started out as a maker of nonpressurized boilers

=> The first products that the company made were nonpressurized boilers => Đáp án: nonpressurized boilers



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25
power shortages
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



Nhìn vào cấu trúc câu hỏi: chỗ trống đứng ngay trước động từ chính => Cần điền Noun (số nhiều) So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc

Câu hỏi: In the late eighties, _______ were holding back industrial progress in China

Bài đọc:

 1 China's economy was expanding past the capacity of the nation's electricity grid

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26
climate control
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



Nhìn vào cấu trúc câu hỏi: chỗ trống đứng ngay sau động từ “improve" (Verb pattern: improve something)

=> Cần điền Noun (số nhiều)

So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc

Câu hỏi: In addition to power and cost benefits, Broad's AC units improve ______

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

When Conversations Flow
We spend a large part of our daily life talking with other people and, consequently, we are very accustomed to the art of conversing. But why do we feel comfortable in conversations that have flow, but get nervous and distressed when a conversation is interrupted by unexpected silences? To answer this question we will first look at some of the effects of conversational flow. Then we will explain how flow can serve different social needs. The positive consequences of conversational flow show some similarities with the effects of ‘processing fluency’. Research has shown that processing fluency the ease with which people process information influences people’s judgments across a broad range of social dimensions. For instance, people feel that when something is easily processed, it is more true or accurate. Moreover, they have more confidence in their judgments regarding information that came to them fluently, and they like things that are easy to process more than things that are difficult to process. Research indicates that a speaker is judged to be more knowledgeable when they answer questions instantly; responding with disfluent speech markers such as ‘uh’ or ‘urn or simply remaining silent for a moment too long can destroy that positive image. One of the social needs addressed by conversational flow is the human need for ‘synchrony’ to be ‘in sync’ or in harmony with one another. Many studies have shown how people attempt to synchronize with their partners, by coordinating their behavior. This interpersonal coordination underlies a wide array of human activities, ranging from more complicated ones like ballroom dancing to simply walking or talking with friends. In conversations, interpersonal coordination is found when people adjust the duration of their utterances and their speech rate to one another so that they can enable turn-taking to occur, without talking over each other or experiencing awkward silences. Since people are very well trained in having conversations, they are often able to take turns within milliseconds, resulting in a conversational flow of smoothly meshed behaviors. A lack of flow is characterized by interruptions, simultaneous speech or mutual silences. Avoiding these features is important for defining and maintaining interpersonal relationships. The need to belong has been identified as one of the most basic of human motivations and plays a role in many human behaviors. That conversational flow related to belonging may be most easily illustrated by the consequences of flow disruptions. What happens when the positive experience of flow is disrupted by, for instance, a brief silence? We all know that silences can be pretty awkward, and research shows that even short disruptions in conversational flow can lead to a sharp rise in distress levels. In movies, silences are often used to signal noncompliance or confrontation (Piazza, 2006). Some researchers even argue that ‘silencing someone’ is one of the most serious forms of exclusion. Group membership is of elementary importance to our wellbeing and because humans are very sensitive to signals of exclusion, a silence is generally taken as a sign of rejection. In this way, a lack of flow in a conversation may signal that our relationship is not as solid as we thought it was. Another aspect of synchrony is that people often try to validate their opinions to those of others. That is, people like to see others as having similar ideas or worldviews as they have themselves, because this informs people that they are correct and their worldviews are justified. One way in which people can justify their worldviews is by assuming that, as long as their conversations run smoothly, their interaction partners probably agree with them. This idea was tested by researchers using video observations. Participants imagined being one out of three people in a video clip who had either a fluent conversation or a conversation in which flow was disrupted by a brief silence. Except for the silence, the videos were identical. After watching the video, participants were asked to what extent the people in the video agreed with each other. Participants who watched the fluent conversation rated agreement to be higher than participants watching the conversation that was disrupted by a silence, even though participants were not consciously aware of the disruption. It appears that the subjective feeling of being out of sync informs people of possible disagreements, regardless of the content of the conversation. Because people are generally so well trained in having smooth conversations, any disruption of this flow indicates that something is wrong, either interpersonally or within the group as a whole. Consequently, people who do not talk very easily may be incorrectly understood as being less agreeable than those who have no difficulty keeping up a conversation. On a societal level, one could even imagine that a lack of conversational flow may hamper the integration of immigrants who have not completely mastered the language of their new country yet. In a similar sense, the ever increasing number of online conversations may be disrupted by misinterpretations and anxiety that are produced by insuperable delays in the Internet connection. Keeping in mind the effects of conversational flow for feelings of belonging and validation may help one to be prepared to avoid such misunderstandings in future conversations.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the text?
In boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
27
Conversation occupies much of our time.
28
Peopleassess information according to how readily they can understand it.
29
A quick response to a question is thought to show a lack of knowledge.
30
Video observations have often been used to assess conversational flow.
31
People who talk less often have clearer ideas than those who talk a lot.
32
Delays in online chat fail to have the same negative effect as disruptions that occur in natural conversation.
Question 33 - 40
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
SYNCHRONY
There is a human desire to co-ordinate
33
in an effort to be ‘in harmony’. This co-ordination can be seen in conversations when speakers alter the speed and extent of their speech in order to facilitate
34
. This is often achieved within milliseconds: only tiny pauses take place when a conversation flows; when it doesn’t, there are
35
and silences, or people talk at the same time. Our desire to
36
is also an important element of conversation flow. According to research, our
37
increase even if silences are brief. Humans have a basic need to be part of a group, and they experience a sense of
38
if silences exclude them. People also attempt to co-ordinate their opinions in conversation. In an experiment, participants’ judgement of the overall
39
among speakers was tested using videos of a fluent and a slightly disrupted conversation. The results showed that the
40
of the speakers’ discussion was less important than the perceived synchrony of the speaker.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase đơn giản nên các bạn có thể nhanh chóng xác định đáp án

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28
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn Not Given khi làm câu này vì không skim/scan được keywords trong câu hỏi (assess, readily, understand…) Linearthinking
So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc: when something is easily processed , it is more true or accurate 

= When people understand something easily, they think the information is more true or accurate

=> Nếu mọi người hiểu thông tin easily, họ xem nó chính xác hơn=> Có thể suy ra: Cách mọi người nhìn nhận thông tin (là đúng hay sai) phụ thuộc vào việc họ hiểu nó dễ tới đâu

= People view the information according to how easily they can understand it 

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29
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: a speaker is judged = believed to be more knowledgeable when they answer questions instantly ;

=> When a speaker answers a question quickly, people believe they are more knowledgeable (Trả lời câu hỏi nhanh thì được xem là thông minh)

- Câu hỏi: A quick response to a question is thought to show a lack of knowledge.

=> Đáp án: NO



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30
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



 One way in which people can justify their worldviews is by assuming that , as long as their conversations run smoothly , their interaction partners probably agree with the .

 This idea was tested by researchers using video observations .

Trong bài đúng là có đề cập tới việc “test” idea về conversational flow sử dụng video observations nhưng lại không nói gì về tần suất làm việc này là “often" hay không=> Thông tin trong bài đọc không đủ để trả lời câu hỏi

=> Đáp án: Not Given



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31
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:

- Bài đọc: people who do not talk very easily may be incorrectly understood as being less agreeable than those who have no difficulty keeping up a conversation .

=> Người ít nói thường bị xem là không dễ chịu bằng người nói nhiều

- Câu hỏi: People who talk less often have clearer idea than those who talk a lot .

=> Người ít nói có ideas rõ ràng hơn người nói nhiều

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32
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: (1) Because people are so well- trained in having smooth conversations , any disruption of this flow indicates that something is wrong [...] (2) In a similar sense , the number of online conversations may be disrupted by misinterpretations and anxiety that are produced by delays in the Internet connection

rút gọn thành (1) Any disruption of smooth conversations indicates that something is wrong (2) In a similar sense , online conversations may be disrupted by anxiety that are produced by delays in the Internet connect = In a similar sense, delays in the Internet connection can cause anxiety during online conversations Có thể thấy, từ nối “In a similar sense” thể hiện phép so sánh giống nhau giữa conversation ngoài đời thật ở câu 1 và online conversation: + Disruption of smooth conversation = negative effect (something is wrong) + Disruption/delay of online conversation = negative effect (anxiety) => Cả 2 đều giống nhau, both have the same negative effect Câu hỏi:  Delays in online chat fail to have the same negative effect as disruptions that occur in natural conversation. => “Fail to have the same negative effect" khác với “have the same negative effect" => Đáp án: No

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33
behaviour
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Vị trí chỗ trống nằm ngay sau động từ co-ordinate, mà pattern của động từ này là coordinate something => Cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống. So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc:

 1 One of the social needs is the human need  to be in harmony with one another .

 2 People attempt to synchronize with their partners (= be in harmony with one another) by coordinating their behaviour . => Main idea: People have a human need to coordinate their behaviour to be in harmony with one another. 

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34
turn-taking
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Chỗ trống cần điền nằm ngay sau Verb “facilitate" => Pattern của Verb này là “facilitate something" => cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc:   interpersonal coordination is found when people adjust the duration of their utterances and their speech rate to one another so that they can enable turn-taking to occur

=> so that they can enable turn-taking to occur = in order to enable turn-taking to occur

(so that = in order to (cấu trúc thể hiện mục đích)) Câu hỏi: This co-ordination can be seen in conversations when speakers alter the speed and extent of their speech in order to facilitate _______

=> Đáp án: turn-taking 



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35
interruptions
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau động từ “to be", cấu trúc There are… => cần điền một Noun số nhiều So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Câu hỏi: This is often achieved within milliseconds : only pauses take place when a conversation flows ; when it doesn’t (= when there are many pauses in conversation flows) , there are _____ and silences, or people talk at the same time .

=> When there are many pauses in conversation flows, there are ______ and silences, or people talk at the same time.

Bài đọc: A lack of flow is characterized by interruptions, simultaneous speech or mutual silences . => Đáp án: interruptions



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36
belong
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Phân tích câu hỏi: Vì chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau giới từ “to" => Cần điền một Verb vào đây. Phân tích bài đọc:

 1 The need to belong has been identified as one of the most basic of human motivations

 2 That conversational flow related to belonging may be illustrated by the consequences of flow disruptions .

=> Conversational flow is related to the need to belong (Conversational flow có liên quan tới the need to belong)

=> The need (=desire) to belong is a part (element) of conversational flow.  

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37
distress levels
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay sau tính từ sở hữu “our" => Cần điền một Noun vào đây. Bài đọc: research shows that even short disruptions in conversational flow can lead to a sharp rise in distress levels.

=> Short disruptions dẫn tới gia tăng distress levels  => Distress levels increase due to short disruptions So với câu hỏi: According to research, our _______ increase even if silences are brief

=> Đáp án: distress levels



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38
rejection
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Thông tin trong bài:

 Group membership is of elementary importance to our wellbeing and because humans are very sensitive to signals of exclusion , a silence is generally taken as a sign of rejection.

=> Group membership is very important to humans and silence can be seen as rejection.

  • “group membership is very important to humans” => Trùng với ý trong câu hỏi là Humans có nhu cầu to be a part of a group.

  • “Silence được xem là thể hiện rejection" => Con người cảm thấy rejection nếu có silence

Câu hỏi: Humans have a basic need to be part of a group, and they experience a sense of ________ If silences exclude them

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39
agreement
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

1 Participants imagined being one out of three people in a video clip who had either a fluent conversation or a conversation in which flow was disrupted by a brief silence .

=> Participants xem 2 đoạn video: 1 đoạn fluent, một đoạn hơi bị disrupted

 2 Participants who watched the fluent conversation rated agreement to be higher than participants watching the conversation that was disrupted by a silence , even though participants were not aware of the disruption . => Participants đánh giá agreement giữa participants

Câu hỏi: In an experiment, participants’ judgement of the overall _______ among speakers was tested using videos of a fluent and a slightly disrupted conversation. => Đáp án: agreement

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40
content
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay sau mạo từ “the" => Cần một Noun điền vào đây

Thông tin trong bài:

 the subjective feeling of being out of sync informs people of possible disagreements , regardless of the content of the conversation . => Cấu trúc Regardless of Noun, S + V (mặc cho Noun, S + V) => Mặc cho content of the conversation, the subjective feeling of being out of sync cho mọi người biết về possible disagreements => Content of the conversation không quan trọng bằng the subjective feeling of being out of sync Câu hỏi: the _______ of the speakers’ discussion was less important than the perceived synchrony of the speakers.

=> Đáp án: content



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