Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

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Official Cambridge Guide To IELTS - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

The Dover Bronze Age Boat
A beautifully preserved boat, made around 3,000 years ago and discovered by chance in a muddy hole, has had a profound impact on archaeological research.
It was 1992. In England, workmen were building a new road through the heart of Dover, to connect the ancient port and the Channel Tunnel, which, when it opened just two years later, was to be the first land link between Britain and Europe for over 10,000 years. A small team from the Canterbury Archaeological Trust(CAT) worked alongside the workmen, recording new discoveries bought to light by the machines. At the base of the deep shaft six meters below the modern streets a wooden structure was revealed. Cleaning away the waterlogged site overlying the timbers, archaeologists realized its true nature. They had found a prehistoric boat, reserved by the type of sediment in which it was buried. It was then named by Dover Bronze Age Boat. About nine meters of the boat’s length was recovered; one end lay beyond the excavation and had to be left. What survived consisted essentially of four intricately carved oak planks: two on the bottom, joined along a central seam by a complicated system of wedges and stitched to the others. The seams had been made watertight by pads of moss, fixed by wedges and yew stitches. The timbers that closed the recovered end of the boat had been removed in antiquity when it was abandoned, but much about its original shape could be deduced. There was also evidence for missing upper side planks. The boat was not a wreck, but had been deliberately discarded, dismantled and broken. Perhaps it had been “ritually killed” at the end of its life, like other Bronze Age objects. With hindsight, it was significant that the boat was found and studied by mainstream archaeologists who naturally focused on its cultural context. At the time, ancient boats were often considered only from a narrower technological perspective, but news about the Dover boat reached to broad audience. In 2002, on the tenth anniversary of the discovery, the Dover Bronze Age Boat Trust hosted a conference, where this meeting of different traditions became apparent. Alongside technical papers about the boat, other speakers explored its social and economic contexts, and the religious perceptions of boats in Bronze Age societies. Many speakers came from overseas, and debate about cultural connections was renewed. Within seven years of excavation, the Dover boat had been conserved and displayed, but it was apparent that there were issues that could not be resolved simply by studying the old wood. Experimental archaeology seemed to be the solution: a boat reconstruction, half-scale or full-sized, would permit assessment of the different hypotheses regarding its build and the missing end. The possibility of returning to Dover to search for a boat’s unexcavated northern end was explored, but practical and financial difficulties were insurmountable and there was no guarantee that the timbers had survived the previous decade in the changed environment. Detailed proposals to reconstruct the boat were drawn up in 2004. Archaeological evidence was beginning to suggest a Bronze Age community straddling the Channel, brought together by the sea, rather than separated by it. In a region today divided by languages and borders, archaeologists had a duty to inform the general public about their common cultural heritage. The boat project began in England but it was conceived from the start as a European collaboration. Reconstruction was only part of a scheme that would include a major exhibition and an extensive educational and outreach programme. Discussions began early in 2005 with archaeological bodies, universities and heritage organizations either side of the Channel. There was much enthusiasm and support, and an official launch of the project was held at an international seminar in France in 2007. Financial support was confirmed in 2008 and the project then named BOAT 1550BC got under way in June 2011. A small team began to make the boat at the start of 2012 on the Roman Lawn outside Dover museum. A full-scale reconstruction of a midsection had been made in 1996, primarily to see how Bronze Age replica tools performed. In 2012, however, the hull shape was at the centre of the work, so modern power tools were used to carve the oak planks, before turning to prehistoric tools for finishing. It was decided to make the replica half-scale for reasons of cost and time, any synthetic materials were used for the stitching, owing to doubts about the scaling and tight timetable. Meanwhile, the exhibition was being prepared ready for opening in July 2012 at the Castle Museum in Boulognesurmer. Entitled “Beyond the Horizon: Societies of the Channel & North Sea 3,500 years ago”, it brought together for the first time a remarkable collection of Bronze Age objects, including many new discoveries for commercial archaeology and some of the great treasure of the past. The reconstructed boat, as a symbol of the maritime connections that bound together the communities either side of the Channel, was the centerpiece.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Complete the flowchart below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the text for each answer.
Key events
STEP 01
1992 the boat was discovered during the construction of a
1

STEP 02
2002 an international
2
was held to gather information
STEP 03
2004
3
for the reconstruction were produced
STEP 04
2007 the
4
of BOAT 1550BC took place
STEP 05
2012 the Bronze Age
5
featured the boat and other objects
Question 6 - 9
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information.
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information.
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.
6
Archaeologists realized that the boat had been damaged on purpose
7
Initially, only the technological aspects of the boat were examined
8
Archaeologists went back to the site to try and find the missing northern
9
Evidence found in 2004 suggested that the Bronze Age Boat had been used for trade
Question 10 - 13
Answer the question below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER
10
How far under the ground was the boat found?
11
What natural material had been secured to the boat to prevent water entering?
12
What aspect of the boat was the focus of the 2012 reconstruction?
13
Which two factors influenced in decision not to make a full-scale reconstruction of the boat?

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
road
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ “boat", học viên rất dễ locate sai thông tin ở paragraph 2 -> Đâm đầu vào đi tìm kiếm đáp án trong paragraph 2 và chọn những từ như “sediment"
. Tuy nhiên, học viên không hề biết rằng ngay từ paragraph 1 đã đề cập tới phát hiện mới (new discoveries) rồi, paragraph 2 chỉ là nói rõ hơn new discoveries này chính là the boat (con thuyền) mà thôi. => Kết luận: Đâm đầu vào skim/scan 1 từ khoá rồi chọn đại từ điền vào chỗ trống không hiệu quả
Linearthinking

Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống.

- Câu hỏi: The boat was discovered during the construction of….

Vì cấu trúc câu hỏi này là the construction of … => cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống

- Thông tin trong bài đọc:

Xem full giải thích
2
conference
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ “gather information", học viên rất khó locate được thông tin nằm đâu vì trong bài không paraphrase bằng từ đồng nghĩa mà paraphrase bằng ý => Đòi hỏi học viên phải thật sự đọc hiểu mới tìm được.
Linearthinking

Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống.

Câu hỏi hỏi: international... was held to gather information

Vì chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng sau một adjective (international) nên cần điền một Noun vào đây.

Thông tin trong bài đọc cho biết: The Dover Bronze-Age Boat Trust hosted a conference .

Xem full giải thích
3
proposals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



- Câu hỏi này khá đơn giản. Ngay cả khi thiếu từ vựng, học viên vẫn dễ dàng locate được thông tin vì có năm (2004) và từ reconstruction gần như không bị thay đổi.

- Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì cấu trúc câu hỏi này là “... for the reconstruction were produced" => Chỗ trống đứng ngay trước giới từ for, lại đóng vai trò Subject trong câu => Cần điền một Noun.

- Thông tin trong bài đọc cho biết: proposals to reconstruct the boat were drawn up

=> Đáp án: proposals 



Xem full giải thích
4
launch
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



Nếu chỉ skim/scan thì câu hỏi này rất dễ khiến học viên thấy rối về mặt thông tin, vì có hẳn 3 mốc thời gian 2007, 2008 và 2011 được đề cập.

2. Linearthinking



Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống.

Vì cấu trúc câu hỏi này là “the Noun of BOAT 1550BC"

Xem full giải thích
5
exhibition
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan thì câu hỏi này rất dễ khiến học viên chọn từ “objects" điền vào chỗ trống vì nó đứng ngay sau từ Bronze-Age trong bài đọc. Tuy nhiên xét về nghĩa thì lựa chọn này hoàn toàn không phù hợp. 

2. Linearthinking



 1 The exhibition was being prepared 

 2 It brought together collection of Bronze Age objects including many new discoveries

 3 The boat was the centerpiece => 1 + 2 + 3 : Exhibition gồm nhiều Bronze Age objects, trong đó the boat là cái trung tâm.

Xem full giải thích
6
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking:

Phân tích bài đọc The boat was not a wreck , but had been deliberately discarded, dismantled and broken => Không hiểu discarded, dismantled nhưng hiểu V3 là broken (hư hỏng) => Hiểu được main idea của câu: Con tàu bị hư hỏng. Không hiểu từ “Deliberately" thì có thể quan sát câu 2. It had been killed => Con tàu bị “giết", nghĩa là không phải tự nhiên bị hư hỏng mà có ai đó tàn phá nó (bị cố ý làm hư hỏng) So với câu hỏi: The boat had been damaged on purpose => Đáp án: TRUE


Xem full giải thích
7
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Nếu skim/scan, thí sinh rất dễ chọn câu này là TRUE vì thấy có cụm “often considered only from a technological perspective" ở câu 2, rất giống với cụm “only the technological aspects" ở câu hỏi.

2. Linearthinking

Thông tin trong bài đọc: The boat was found and examined by archeologists who focused on its cultural context

=> the cultural aspect of the boat was studied. Câu hỏi: Only the technical aspects of the boat were examined

=> Đáp án: FALSE 



Xem full giải thích
8
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning



Nếu skim/scan ẩu, chỉ đọc nửa câu đầu, thí sinh rất dễ chọn TRUE cho câu này vì tất cả thông tin trong câu hỏi đều được tìm thấy trong bài đọc. 2. Linearthinking

The possibility of returning to Dover to search for a boat’s unexcavated northern end was explored , but difficulties were insurmountable and there was no guarantee that the timbers had survived

Nếu thiếu từ vựng và đọc vế sau không hiểu, bạn có thể dựa vào cấu trúc: Cấu trúc câu trong bài gồm 2 vế, S - V BUT S - V => hai vế câu tương phản => The possibility of returning to Dover to search for the boat's northern end was explored BUT… => Khả năng returning to Dover để tìm the boat's northern end được explored (= bàn tới, thảo luận tới) NHƯNG [không được thực hiện] Câu hỏi: Archeologists went back to the site to find the boat's northern end

=> Đáp án: FALSE 



Xem full giải thích
9
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:



 Detailed proposals to reconstruct the boat were drawn up in 2004 .

 evidence was beginning to suggest a Bronze Age community straddling the Channel, brought together by the sea, rather than separated by it .

=> From the evidence from the boat, we can tell that the community were less divided then.

=> Trong bài tuy có đề cập tới bằng chứng khảo cổ (Archeological evidence) được tìm thấy về Bronze-Age community nhưng không nói gì tới mục đích sử dụng (use) của Bronze Age boat là để trade (giao dịch) hay gì cả. => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN.



Xem full giải thích
10
6 meters
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking - Câu hỏi: How far under the ground the boat was found => Vì câu hỏi dùng cấu trúc “How far…” (Xa/Sâu bao nhiêu) nên có thể đoán câu trả lời cần một con số.

- Thông tin trong bài: At the base of 6 meters below the streets , a wooden structure = the boat was revealed 

=> Đáp án: 6 meters

Xem full giải thích
11
pads of moss
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Câu hỏi: What natural material prevent water from entering

=> Vì câu hỏi dùng cấu trúc “What natural material…” nên có thể đoán câu trả lời cần tên một vật liệu tự nhiên nào đó.

Thông tin trong bài: The seams had been made watertight by pads of moss = Pads of moss prevent water from entering

=> Đáp án: Pads of moss



Xem full giải thích
12
hull
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking:

- Câu hỏi: What aspect of the boat was the focus of the 2012 reconstruction? => Vì câu hỏi dùng cấu trúc “What aspect of the boat…” nên có thể đoán câu trả lời cần tên một mặt hoặc một bộ phận nào đó của con tàu

- Thông tin trong bài: The hull was the center of the work

=> Đáp án: (The) hull





Xem full giải thích
13
cost and time
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

- Câu hỏi: Which two factors influenced the decision not to make a full-scale reconstruction ? - Thông tin trong bài: It was decided to make the replica half-scale for reasons of cost and time = Cost and time are the factors which influence the decision to make the replica half-scale => Đáp án: cost and time


Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

The Changing Role Of Airports
Airports continue to diversify their role in an effort to generate income. Are business meeting facilities the next step? Nigel Halpern, Anne Graham and Rob Davidson investigate.
A
A. In recent times developing commercial revenues has become more challenging for airports due to a combination of factors, such as increased competition from Internet shopping, restrictions on certain sales, such as tobacco, and new security procedures that have had an impact on the dwell time of passengers. Moreover, the global economic downturn has caused a reduction in passenger numbers while those that are travelling generally have less money to spend. This has meant that the share of revenue from non aeronautical revenues actually peaked at 54% at the turn of the century and has subsequently declined slightly. Meanwhile, the pressures to control the level of aeronautical revenues are as strong as ever due to the poor financial health of many airlines and the rapid rise of the low cost carrier sector.
B
B. Some of the more obvious solutions to growing commercial revenues, such as extending the merchandising space or expanding the variety of shopping opportunities, have already been tried to their limit at many airports. A more radical solution is to find new sources of commercial revenue within the terminal, and this has been explored by many airports over the last decade or so. As a result, many terminals are now much more than just shopping malls and offer an array of entertainment, leisure, and beauty and wellness facilities. At this stage of facilities provision, the airport also has the possibility of taking on the role of the final destination rather than merely a facilitator of access.
C
C. At the same time, airports have been developing and expanding the range of services that they provide specifically for the business traveller in the terminal. This includes offering business centres that supply support services, meeting or conference rooms and other space for special events. Within this context, Jarach (2001) discusses how dedicated meetings facilities located within the terminal and managed directly by the airport operator may be regarded as an expansion of the concept of airline lounges or as a way to reconvert abandoned or underused areas of terminal buildings. Previously it was primarily airport hotels and other facilities offered in the surrounding area of the airport that had the potential to take on this role and become active as a business space (McNeill, 2009).
D
D. When an airport location can be promoted as a business venue, this may increase the overall appeal of the airport and help it become more competitive in both attracting and retaining airlines and their passengers. In particular, the presence of meeting facilities could become one of the determining factors taken into consideration when business people are choosing airlines and where they change their planes. This enhanced attractiveness itself may help to improve the airport operator’s financial position and future prospects, but clearly this will be dependent on the competitive advantage that the airport is able to achieve in comparison with other venues.
E
E. In 2011, an online airport survey was conducted and some of the areas investigated included the provision and use of meeting facilities at airports and the perceived role and importance of these facilities in generating income and raising passenger numbers. In total, there were responses from staff at 154 airports and 68% of these answered 'yes’ to the question: Does your airport own and have meetings facilities available for hire? The existence of meeting facilities therefore seems high at airports. In addition, 28% of respondents that did not have meeting facilities stated that they were likely to invest in them during the next five years. The survey also asked to what extent respondents agreed or disagreed with a number of statements about the meeting facilities at their airport. 49% of respondents agreed that they have put more investment into them during recent years; 41% agreed that they would invest more in the immediate future. These are fairly high proportions considering the recent economic climate.
F
F. The survey also asked airports with meeting facilities to estimate what proportion of users are from the local area, i.e. within a 90minute drive from the airport, or from abroad. Their findings show that meeting facilities provided by the majority of respondents tend to serve local versus nonlocal or foreign needs. 63% of respondents estimated that over 60% of users are from the local area. Only 3% estimated that over 80% of users are from abroad. It is therefore not surprising that the facilities are of limited importance when it comes to increasing use of flights at the airport: 16% of respondents estimated that none of the users of their meeting facilities use flights when travelling to or from them, while 56% estimated that 20% or fewer of the users of their facilities use flights.
G
G. The survey asked respondents with meeting facilities to estimate how much revenue their airport earned from its meeting facilities during the last financial year. Average revenue per airport was just $12,959. Meeting facilities are effectively a non aeronautical source of airport revenue. Only 1% of respondents generated more than 20% non aeronautical revenue from their meetings facilities; none generated more than 40%. Given the focus on local demand, it is not surprising that less than a third of respondents agreed that their meeting facilities support business and tourism development in their home region or country.
H
H. The findings of this study suggest that few airports provide meetings facilities as a serious commercial venture. It may be that, as owners of large property, space is available for meeting facilities at airports and could play an important role in serving the needs of the airport, its partners, and stakeholders such as government and the local community. Thus, while the local orientation means that competition with other airports is likely to be minimal, competition with local providers of meetings facilities is likely to be much greater.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
The text has eight paragraphs, A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-H.
N.B You may use any letter more than once.
14
evidence that a significant number of airports provide meeting facilities.
15
a statement regarding the fact that no further developments are possible in some areas of airport trade.
16
reference to the low level of income that meeting facilities produce for airports.
17
mention of the impact of budget airlines on airport income.
18
examples of airport premises that might be used for business purposes.
Question 19 - 22
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
19
The length of time passengers spend shopping at airports has been affected by updated
..................
.
20
Airports with a wide range of recreational facilities can become a
..................
for people rather than a means to travel.
21
Both passengers and
..................
may feel encouraged to use and develop a sense of loyalty towards airports that market their business services.
22
Airports that supply meeting facilities may need to develop a
..................
over other venues.
Question 23 - 26
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
Survey Findings
Despite financial constraints due to the
23
, a significant percentage of airport provide and wish to further support business meeting facilities. Also, just under 30% of the airports surveyed plan to provide these facilities within
24
however, the main users of the facilities are
25
and as many as 16% of respondents to the survey stated that their users did not take any
26
at the airport.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
E
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan chữ “significant number" thì thí sinh rất khó locate được chính xác thông tin nằm đâu. Dạng Matching Information thường không dựa vào paraphrasing dùng từ đồng nghĩa mà paraphrase theo kiểu chuyển đổi giữa thông tin chung chung - thông tin cụ thể. 

Linearthinking

- Tip khi làm dạng Matching Information để locate thông tin nhanh: Khi đọc câu hỏi, nên tưởng tượng ra thông tin này có thể được diễn đạt trong bài như thế nào. Ví dụ, khi đọc cụm “significant number" trong câu hỏi => Tưởng tượng trong bài sẽ đưa ra số liệu cụ thể. - Nhiều bạn phân vân không biết 68% đã được gọi là “significant number" (tỉ lệ đáng kể) hay chưa thì có thể quan sát câu 2: tỉ lệ này được xem là “high" (cao)

=> Đáp án: E



Xem full giải thích
15
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ “developments” hay “areas", học viên rất khó locate được chính xác thông tin vì dạng câu hỏi Matching Information thường không paraphrase bằng từ đồng nghĩa. Linearthinking
- Cấu trúc thông tin trong bài đọc: Some solutions have been tried to their limits

= No other solutions are possible

- Câu hỏi: No further developments are possible in some areas of airport trade

=> Đáp án: B



Xem full giải thích
16
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking - Nhiều bạn khi làm câu này sẽ bị phân vân là những số liệu đề bài cho là cao hay thấp? => Cần đọc kĩ cấu trúc câu để hiểu thái độ của tác giá với những số liệu này: + Cả 3 câu có rất nhiều từ vựng khó, tuy nhiên có 1 yếu tố được nhắc tới xuyên suốt à revenue (lợi nhuận) -> main idea nói về revenue sân bay + Chú ý những từ “just", “only"... thể hiện rằng những số liệu revenue này được xem là thấp. Đáp án : G

Xem full giải thích
17
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và thông tin trong bài:

- Câu hỏi: the impact of budget airlines on airport income

= budget airlines have an impact on airport income

- Thông tin trong bài đọc:

 the pressures to control the level of aeronautical revenues are strong due to the … and the rise of the lowcost carrier sector

Xem full giải thích
18
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Cùng quan sát thông tin trong bài đọc và dùng Linearthinking để nhìn rõ mối quan hệ giữa hai câu trong located info: Airports develop the range of services that they provide for the business traveller This = The range of services for the business traveller include liệt kê examples các services được cung cấp

Câu hỏi: examples of airport premises that might be used for business purposes => Đáp án : C



Xem full giải thích
19
security procedure
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: The length of time passengers spend shopping at airports has been affected by updated _____

=> Thời gian của passengers ở airport bị ảnh hưởng bởi cái gì đó -> Đáp án là danh từ - một cái gì đó được cập nhật

Phân tích info:

 developing commercial revenues has become more challenging for airports due to a combination of factors , such as increased competition from Internet shopping...and new security procedures that have had an impact on the dwell time of passengers.

Xem full giải thích
20
final destination
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ “travel" hay “means" thì chắc chắn sẽ không tìm ra, vì bài đọc paraphrase hoàn toàn bằng meaning Linearthinking
Chỗ trống cần điền đứng sau mạo từ “A" => cần điền danh từ số ít vào đây.

So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc:

 At this stage of facilities provision , this airport has the possibility of taking on the role of final destination rather than  a facilitator of access 

Câu hỏi: Airports with a wide range of facilities can become ... rather than a means of travel = [With a wide rage of facilities] [airports] [can become] [....] [rather than] [a means of travel]

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21
airlines
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Câu này nếu chỉ skim/scan thì học viên chắc chắn sẽ không locate được thông tin vì thông tin chủ yếu được paraphrase bằng ý, không phải bằng từ đồng nghĩa.

2. Linearthinking

Vì passengers là Noun, lại được kết nối với chỗ trống bằng chữ “and" => chỗ trống cũng phải là một Noun. So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Câu hỏi: Passengers and …. feel encouraged to use and develop a sense of loyalty towards airports that market their business services

=> Passengers và ai đó muốn dùng (dịch vụ) và hình thành sự trung thành đối với airports

Thông tin trong bài đọc:

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22
competitive advantage
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Câu hỏi này không khó để locate thông tin vì cách paraphrase khá đơn giản, tuy nhiên nếu chì skim/scan mà không hiểu nghĩa câu hỏi và bài đọc thì rất khó chọn từ phù hợp điền vào chỗ trống vì có rất nhiều danh từ khác nhau xuất hiện trong bài.

Ví dụ, bạn nào tưởng “develop" = “enhanced" thì sẽ điền attractiveness, bạn nào thấy “Develop" = “improve" thì lại chọn financial position.

2. Linearthinking

Chỗ trống đứng sau mạo từ “a" => Điền Noun số ít. Để có thể tìm đúng từ điền vào chỗ trống, cần phân tích cấu trúc câu để hiểu rõ thông tin trong bài đọc: 1 the presence of meeting facilities could become factors which are taken into consideration when business people are choosing airlines and where they change their planes

=> the presence of meeting facilities can encourage business people to choose the airlines and where they change their planes 2 This enhanced attractiveness may help to improve… , but this will be dependent on the competitive advantage that the airport is able to achieve in comparison with other venues . => 1 + 2 : Meeting facilities can encourage business people to choose the airlines and airports but this will depend on the competitive advantage that the airport has over other venues. (Việc có meeting facilities khuyến khích doanh nhân chọn airlines và airports, nhưng việc này còn tuỳ competitive advantage của airport với venues khác)

=> Ngoài việc có meeting facilities, airports còn cần có competitive advantage với venues khác thì mới hút khách doanh nhân được So sánh câu hỏi: Airports that supply meeting facilities may need to develop a _________ over other venues.

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23
economic downturn
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Thấy “due to" => biết ngay cấu trúc ‘due to + Noun" => cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống

Câu gapfill này khá khó vì thông tin bị phân mảnh, nằm ở cả paragraph A và paragraph E. (Đừng lo, khi ra thi thật thì dạng câu hỏi Gapfill bắt bạn phải locate thông tin ở cả 2 nơi là cực kì hiếm) Phân tích thử thông tin bài đọc:

Paragraph A: economic downturn caused reduction in passengers number while those that are travelling has less money to spend = People travelling has less money to spend because of economic downturn (Cấu trúc A cause B = B because of A]

Paragraph E: 1 The survey asked about meeting facilities at the airport 2 49% have put more investment into them = meeting facilities 3 41% would invest more in the future 4 These = 49% and 41% are high proportions considering the economic climate => Tóm lại: Despite the economic climate, high proportions of airports invest in meeting facilities Ghép nghĩa có được từ paragraph A và E:

People travelling have less money to spend because of the economic downturn/ economic climate. Despite this, high proportions of airports invest in meeting facilities.

So sánh với câu hỏi: Despite financial constraints due to the _________, a significant percentage of airports provide and wish to further support business meeting facilities.

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24
five years
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì trong câu hỏi, chỗ trống đứng ngay sau giới từ “within" => Cần điền một Noun

Cấu trúc câu hỏi và thông tin bài đọc khá dễ so sánh: Bài đọc: 28% of respondents were likely to invest in meeting facilities during the next five years . Câu hỏi: Just under 30% plan to provide these facilities within____ .

Đáp án: five years



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25
local/local people
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



Vì chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay sau động từ “to be" => Có thể điền Noun, Adj, V3/ed hoặc Ving Bài đọc: over 60% of users are from the local area .

Câu hỏi: main users of the facilities are ______ => Đáp án: Local (people)



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26
flights
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì chỗ trống đứng ngay sau “any" => cần điền một Noun vào đây. So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Bài đọc:  None of the users of their meeting facilities use flights

=> The users of their meeting facilities did not use any flights Câu hỏi: Their users did not take any ____

=> Đáp án: flights



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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Is Photography Art?
This may seem a pointless question today. Surrounded as we are by thousands of photographs, most of us take for granted that, in addition to supplying information and seducing customers, camera images also serve as decoration, afford spiritual enrichment, and provide significant insights into the passing scene. But in the decades following the discovery of photography, this question reflected the search for ways to fit the mechanical medium into the traditional schemes of artistic expression. The much-publicized pronouncement by painter Paul Delaroche that the daguerreotype(*) signaled the end of painting is perplexing because this clever artist also forecast the usefulness of the medium for graphic artists in a letter written in 1839. Nevertheless, it is symptomatic of the swing between the outright rejection and qualified acceptance of the medium that was fairly typical of the artistic establishment. Discussion of the role of photography in art was especially spirited in France, where the internal policies of the time had created a large pool of artists, but it was also taken up by important voices in England. In both countries, public interest in this topic was a reflection of the belief that national stature and achievement in the arts were related. From the maze of conflicting statements and heated articles on the subject, three main positions about the potential of camera art emerged. The simplest, entertained by many painters and a section of the public, was that photographs should not be considered ‘art’ because they were made with a mechanical device and by physical and chemical phenomena instead of by human hand and spirit; to some, camera images seemed to have more in common with fabric produced by machinery in a mill than with handmade creations fired by inspiration. The second widely held view, shared by painters, some photographers, and some critics, was that photographs would be useful to art but should not be considered equal in creativeness to drawing and painting. Lastly, by assuming that the process was comparable to other techniques such as etching and lithography, a fair number of individuals realized that camera images were or could be as significant as handmade works of art and that they might have a positive influence on the arts and on culture in general. Artists reacted to photography in various ways. Many portrait painters miniaturists in particular who realized that photography represented the ‘handwriting on the wall’ became involved with daguerreotyping or paper photography in an effort to save their careers; some incorporated it with painting, while others renounced painting altogether. Still other painters, the most prominent among them the French painter, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, began almost immediately to use photography to make a record of their own output and also to provide themselves with source material for poses and backgrounds, vigorously denying at the same time its influence on their vision or its claims as art. The view that photographs might be worthwhile to artists was enunciated in considerable detail by Lacan and Francis Wey. The latter, an art and literary critic, who eventually recognised that camera images could be inspired as well as informative, suggested that they would lead to greater naturalness in the graphic depiction of anatomy, clothing, likeness, expression, and landscape. By studying photographs, true artists, he claimed, would be relieved of menial tasks and become free to devote themselves to the more important spiritual aspects of their work. Wey left unstated what the incompetent artist might do as an alternative, but according to the influential French critic and poet Charles Baudelaire, writing in response to an exhibition of photography in 1859, lazy and untalented painters would become photographers. Fired by a belief in art as an imaginative embodiment of cultivated ideas and dreams, Baudelaire regarded photography as ‘a very humble servant of art and science’; a medium largely unable to transcend ‘external reality’. For this critic, photography was linked with ‘the great industrial madness’ of the time, which in his eyes exercised disastrous consequences on the spiritual qualities of life and art. Eugene Delacroix was the most prominent of the French artists who welcomed photography as helpmate but recognized its limitations. Regretting that ‘such a wonderful invention’ had arrived so late in his lifetime, he still took lessons in daguerreotyping, and both commissioned and collected photographs. Delacroix’s enthusiasm for the medium can be sensed in a journal entry noting that if photographs were used as they should be, an artist might ‘raise himself to heights that we do not yet know’. The question of whether the photograph was document or art aroused interest in England also. The most important statement on this matter was an unsigned article that concluded that while photography had a role to play, it should not be ‘constrained’ into ‘competition’ with art; a more stringent viewpoint led critic Philip Gilbert Hamerton to dismiss camera images as ‘narrow in range, emphatic in assertion, telling one truth for ten falsehoods’. These writers reflected the opposition of a section of the cultural elite in England and France to the ‘cheapening of art’ which the growing acceptance and purchase of camera pictures by the middle class represented. Technology made photographic images a common sight in the shop windows of Regent Street and Piccadilly in London and the commercial boulevards of Paris. In London, for example, there were at the time some 130 commercial establishments where portraits, landscapes, and photographic reproductions of works of art could be bought. This appeal to the middle class convinced the elite that photographs would foster a desire for realism instead of idealism, even though some critics recognized that the work of individual photographers might display an uplifting style and substance that was consistent with the defining characteristics of art. (*) the name given to the first commercially successful photographic images

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 30
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
27
What is the writer’s main point in the first paragraph?
A
photography is used for many different purposes.
B
photographers and artists have the same principal aims.
C
Photography has not always been a readily accepted art form.
D
photographers today are more creative than those of the past.
28
What public view about artists was shared by the French and the English?
A
that only artists could reflect a culture’s true values
B
that only artists were qualified to judge photography
C
that artists could lose work as a result of photography
D
that artist success raised a country’s international profile
29
What does the writer mean by “the handwriting on the wall” in the second line of paragraph 4?
A
an example of poor talent
B
a message that cannot be trusted
C
an advertisement for something new
D
a signal that something bad will happen
30
What was the result of the widespread availability of photographs to the middle classes?
A
The most educated worried about its impact on public taste.
B
It helped artists appreciate the merits of photography.
C
Improvements were made in photographic methods.
D
It led to a reduction in the price of photographs.
Question 31 - 34
Complete the summary of Paragraph using the list of words, A-G, below.
Camera art
In the early days of photography, opinions on its future were
31
, but three clear views emerged. A large number of artists and ordinary people saw photographs as
32
to paintings because of the way they were produced. Another popular view was that photographs could have a role to play in the art world, despite the photographer being less
33
. Finally, a smaller number of people suspected that the impact of photography on art and society could be
34
.




A
inventive
B
similar
C
beneficial
D
next
E
mixed
F
justified
G
inferior
Question 35 - 40
Look at the following statements and the list of people, A-E, below.
Match each statement with the correct person.
Write the correct letter, A-E.
List of Findings
A
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
B
Francis Wey
C
Charles Baudelaire
D
Eugene Delacroix
E
Philip Gilbert Hamerton
35
He claimed that photography would make paintings more realistic.
36
He highlighted the limitations and deceptions of the camera.
37
He documented his production of artwork by photographing his works.
38
He noted the potential for photography to enrich artistic talent.
39
He based some of the scenes in his paintings on photographs.
40
He felt photography was part of the trend towards greater mechanisation.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

-Những câu hỏi Multiple Choice thuộc dạng hỏi Main Idea, đòi hỏi học viên phải hiểu mối liên hệ giữa các câu và tóm được nội dung câu chứ không chỉ skim/scan từ khoá. Ví dụ. Nếu chỉ skim/scan mà không nắm được main idea thì học viên rất dễ chọn các đáp án như:

   A. photography is used for many different purposes.

=> Có học viên sẽ chọn câu này vì thấy trong bài có đề cập nhiều mục đích khác nhau của photography (supply information, seduce customers,...)

   D. photographers today are more creative than those of the past.

=> Vài học viên sẽ chọn câu này vì thấy có từ “today" và từ “decades following…” trong bài =>  có so sánh giữa hiện tại và quá khứ

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28
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ “boat", học viên rất dễ chọn đáp án A vì có xuất hiện từ “reflect" trong đáp án này, rất giống từ “reflection" trong bài đọc. Tuy nhiên, không chọn A được vì trong bài không hề nói về việc “artists reflect culture" (nghệ sĩ phản ánh văn hoá) cả. Linearthinking
- So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: + Bài đọc: national stature and achievement in the arts were related = Danh tiếng quốc gia và thành công nghệ thuật có liên quan. = Nếu nghệ thuật thành công thì danh tiếng quốc gia tăng theo => Đáp án: D. 


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29
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

- Đây là một câu hoàn toàn chống-chỉ-định skimming/scanning vì hoàn toàn không có từ khoá nào có thể tìm được giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc! Câu hỏi này hoàn toàn paraphrase bằng ý, không dùng synonyms.

Linearthinking

 - Để hiểu được nghĩ của cụm “handwriting on the wall” cần đặt nó vào ngữ cảnh cả câu: Many portrait painters who realized that photography represented the ‘handwriting on the wall’ became involved with ... or paper photography in an effort to save their careers; some incorporated it with painting, while others renounced painting altogether

Có thể thấy, câu trên thể hiện thái độ của painters khi họ xem photography là “handwriting on the wall" + Some become involved with paper photography to save their career => Họ muốn tham gia vào photography để cứu vãn sự nghiệp => Họ xem photography là mối đe doạ tới sự nghiệp của mình. => Suy ra: “handwriting on the wall" = “a threat"

=> Chọn D. a signal that something bad will happen



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30
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc:  This appeal to the middle class convinced the elite that photographs would foster a desire for realism instead of idealism = The elite thinks the appeal of photographs to the middle class would make the public desire realism instead of idealism. => Đáp án: A. The most educated worries about its (the widespread availability of photographs) impact on public taste.

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31
mixed
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Linearthinking

 From the maze of conflicting statements and heated articles on the subject , three main positions about the potential of camera art emerged

=> Từ những ý kiến trái chiều, có 3 luồng ý kiến chính về tương lai camera art xuất hiện

=> Statements about the potential of camera art are conflicting but three main positions emerged. So với câu hỏi:  Opinions on its future were _____ , but three clear views emerged .

=> Từ cần điền: conflicting => Từ đồng nghĩa trong list đáp án: B. mixed (mixed opinions là ý kiến trái chiều, đồng nghĩa conflicting)

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32
inferior
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ khoá thì thí sinh sẽ không chọn được đáp án của câu này, vì bài đọc chẳng nhắc gì tới cũng như so sánh gì tới painting cả.

2. Linearthinking

- Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Cấu trúc câu hỏi Noun1 saw N2 as…. => Trong chỗ trống có thể điền một Noun hoặc Adj.

- So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: photographs should not be considered ‘art’ because they were made with a mechanical device => Bài đọc thể hiện rõ quan điểm của painters và public: Không xem photographs là art vì cách nó được tạo ra => Painters và public đánh giá thấp photographs, nghĩ nó không bằng những hình thức nghệ thuật khác Câu hỏi:  A large number of artists and ordinary people saw photographs as  [không bằng] to paintings because of the way they were produced. 

=> Đáp án: G. inferior (không bằng)



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33
inventive
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Khi nhìn vào câu hỏi, trước hết cần phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi để biết cần điền loại từ nào vào chỗ trống. Vì chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay sau từ “less" => đoán được cần điền Adjective vào đây.

Thông tin bài đọc:

 photographs would be useful to art but should not be considered equal in creativeness to drawing and painting .

=> Photographs would be useful to art but are less creative than drawing and painting (not equal (không bằng) = less (ít hơn)) => Photographs would be useful to art despite being less creative than drawing and painting. So với câu hỏi: photographs could have a role to play in the art world, despite the photographer being less _______

=> Từ cần điền: creative => So với list đáp án cho sẵn, từ đồng nghĩa với creative là:

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34
beneficial
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking



So sánh giữa nội dung bài đọc và câu hỏi:

Bài đọc: they  might have a positive influence on the arts and on culture

=> The influence camera images have on the arts and on culture might be positive

Câu hỏi: the impact of photography on art and society could be ________

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35
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

Đây là một câu khá đơn giản, tuy nhiên nếu thí sinh skim/scan thì vẫn dễ locate sai thông tin vì không nhận ra phần paraphrase của từ “paintings" trong bài. So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: Francis Wey suggested that they would lead to greater naturalness in the graphic depiction Câu hỏi: He claimed that photography would make paintings more realistic. => “he" ở đây chính là “Francis Wey" => Đáp án: B


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36
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking So sánh thông tin giữa bài đọc và câu hỏi: Bài đọc: Philip Gilbert Hamerton dismiss camera images as ‘narrow in range, emphatic in assertion, telling one truth for ten falsehoods’ .

Verb pattern: dismiss Noun as Adj =  criticise Noun as Adj =  Philip Gilbert Hamerton criticise camera images as ‘narrow in range, emphatic in assertion, telling one truth for ten falsehoods’. Câu hỏi: He highlighted the limitations and deceptions of the camera. => “He" ở đây là Philip Gilbert Hamerton => Đáp án: E

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37
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres use photography to make a record of their own output

= Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres take photographs of his works. Câu hỏi:  He documented his production of artwork by photographing his works.

=> “He" ở đây là “Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres" => Đáp án: A 



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38
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh cấu trúc giữa bài đọc và câu hỏi: - Bài đọc: Delacroix noted that if photographs were used as they should be , an artist might ‘raise himself to heights that we do not yet know’ .

= Delacroix noted that photography can help artists improve their talents. - Câu hỏi: He noted the potential for photography to enrich artistic talent. => “He" ở đây chính là Delacroix => Đáp án: D



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39
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa bài đọc và câu hỏi:

- Bài đọc: Dominique Ingres use photography to... and also to provide themselves with source material for poses and backgrounds = Dominique Ingres use photography to provide material for backgrounds (in his paintings) Nhiều bạn thường thắc mắc tại sao không tìm thấy từ “paintings" trong bài đọc? Lí do là vì phần trước tác gỉa đã giới thiệu rất rõ Dominique là “painter", vì vậy có thể suy ra backgrounds mà ông dùng là cho paintings. - Câu hỏi: He based some of the scenes in his paintings on photographs. (Verb pattern: base A on B = use B to make A) = he use photographs to make scenes in this paintings => “He" ở đây là “Dominique Ingres" => Đáp án: A



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40
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: - Bài đọc: Baudelaire regarded photography as ‘a very humble servant of art and science’ 

 For this critic (from Baudelaire) , photography was linked with ‘the great industrial madness’ of the time

=  Baudelaire believed photography was linked with ‘the great industrial madness’ of the time - Câu hỏi: He felt photography was part of the trend towards greater mechanisation. => “He" chính là “Baudelaire" => Đáp án: C



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