IELTS Trainer - Reading Test 5 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

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IELTS Trainer - Reading Test 5 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Nature on display in American zoos
by Elizabeth Hanson
The first zoo in the United States opened in Philadelphia in 1874, followed by the Cincinnati Zoo the next year. By 1940 there were zoos In more than one hundred American cities. The Philadelphia Zoo was more thoroughly planned and better financed than most of the hundreds of zoos that would open later but in its landscape and its mission – to both educate and entertain it embodied ideas about how to build a zoo that stayed consistent for decades. The zoos came into existence in the late nineteenth century during the transition of the United States from a rural and agricultural nation to an industrial one. The population more than doubled between 1860 and 190U. As more middle class people lived in cities, they began seeking new relationships with the natural world as a place for recreation, self-improvement, and Spiritual renewal. Cities established systems of public parks, and nature tourism – already popular – became even more fashionable with the establishment of national parks. Nature was thought to be good for people of all ages and classes. Nature study was incorporated into school curricula, and natural history collecting became an increasingly popular pastime. At the same time, the fields of study which were previously thought of as’ natural history’ grew into separate areas such as taxonomy, experimental embryology and genetics, each with its own experts and structures. As laboratory research gained prestige in the zoology departments of American universities, the gap between professional and amateur scientific activities widened. Previously, natural history had been open to amateurs and was easily popularized, but research required access to microscopes and other equipment in laboratories, as well as advanced education. The new zoos set themselves apart from traveling animal shows by stating their mission as education and the advancement of science, In addition to recreation. Zoos presented zoology for the non-specialist, at a time when the intellectual distance between amateur naturalists and laboratory oriented zoologists was increasing. They attracted wide audiences and quickly became a feature of every growing and forward thinking city. They were emblems of civic pride on a level of importance with art museums, natural history museums and botanical gardens. Most American zoos were founded and operated as part of the public parks administration. They were dependent on municipal funds, and they charged no admission fee. They tended to assemble as many different mammal and bird species as possible, along with a few reptiles, exhibiting one or two specimens of each, and they competed with each other to become the first to display a rarity, like a rhinoceros. In the constant effort to attract the public to make return visits, certain types of display came in and out of fashion; for example, dozens of zoos built special islands for their large populations of monkeys. In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration funded millions of dollars of construction at dozens of zoos, for the most part, the collections of animals were organized by species in a combination of enclosures according to a fairly loose classification scheme. Although many histories of individual zoos describe the 1940s through the 1960s as a period of stagnation, and in some cases there was neglect, new zoos continued to be set up all over the country. In the 1940s and 1950s, the first zoos designed specifically for children were built, some with the appeal of farm animals. An increasing number of zoos tried new ways of organizing their displays. In addition to the traditional approach of exhibiting like kinds together, zoo planners had a new approach of putting animals in groups according to their continent of origin and designing exhibits showing animals of particular habitats, for example, polar, desert, or forest. During the 1960s, a few zoos arranged some displays according to animal behavior; the Bronx Zoo. for instance, opened its World of Darkness exhibit of nocturnal animals. Paradoxically, at the same time as zoo displays began incorporating ideas about the ecological relationships between animals, big cats and primates continued to be displayed in bathroom like cages lined with tiles. By the 1970s, a new wave of reform was stirring. Popular movements for environmentalism and animal welfare called attention to endangered species and to zoos that did not provide adequate care for their animals. More projects were undertaken by research scientists and zoos began hiring full-time vets as they stepped up captive breeding programs. Many zoos that had been supported entirely by municipal budgets began recruiting private financial support and charging admission fees. In the prosperous 1980s and 1990s. zoos built realistic ‘landscape immersion’ exhibits, many of them around the theme of the tropical rainforest and. increasingly, conservation moved to the forefront of zoo agendas. Although zoos were popular and proliferating institutions in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century, historians have paid little attention to them. Perhaps zoos have been ignored because they were, and remain still, multi-purpose institutions, and as such they fall between the categories of analysis that historians often use. In addition, their stated goals of recreation, education, the advancement of science, and protection of endangered species have often conflicted. Zoos occupy a difficult middle ground between science and showmanship, high culture and low, remote forests and the cement cityscape, and wild animals and urban people.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
The concepts on which the Philadelphia zoo was based soon became unfashionable.
2
The opening of zoos coincided with a trend for people to live in urban areas.
3
During the period when many zoos were opened, the study of natural history became more popular in universities than other scientific subjects.
4
Cities recognized that the new zoos were as significant an amenity as museums.
5
Between 1940 and 1960 some older zoos had to move to new sites in order to expand.
6
In the 1970s new ways of funding zoos were developed.
7
There has been serious disagreement amongst historians about the role of the first zoos.
Question 8 - 13
Complete the notes below.
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
Up to 1940
More mammals and birds exhibited than
8
9
were very popular animals in many zoos at one time.
1940s and 1950s
Zoos started exhibiting animals according to their
10
and where they came from.
1960s
Some zoos categorized animals by
11
.
1970s

12
were employed following protests about animal care.
1980s onwards
The importance of
13
became greater.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

- Câu này nếu chỉ skim/scan từ khoá, thí sinh rất dễ chọn NOT GIVEN vì không thấy những keywords như “unfashionable" hay “concepts" xuất hiện trong bài đọc. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking
The Philadelphia Zoo
was more planned and better financed than most of the zoos that would open later
but in its landscape and its mission – to both educate and entertain
it
embodied
ideas about how to build a zoo

that stayed consistent for decades
.

=> The Philadelphia Zoo embodied (= represented = đại diện cho) ideas that stayed consistent for decades. => Ideas đằng sau the Philadelphia Zoo tồn tại qua hàng thập niên (decades)

- Câu hỏi: The concepts on which the Philadelphia zoo was based soon became unfashionable. => the Philadelphia zoo was based on the concepts which became unfashionable. => Concepts mà  Philadelphia zoo dựa vào đã sớm trở nên lỗi thời (unfashionable)

- So sánh: Bài đọc nói ideas đằng sau Philadelphia zoo vẫn tồn tại qua decades, câu hỏi lại nói nó đã sớm trở nên lỗi thời

-> Thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc trái ngược nhau

Xem full giải thích
2
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

The zoos
came into existence
in the late nineteenth century
. [...]



As
more middle class people
lived in cities
,
they
began
seeking new relationships with the natural world as a place for recreation
=> The zoos came into existence when more middle class people lived in cities. Câu hỏi: The opening of zoos coincided with a trend for people to live in urban areas. (coincide = trùng hợp = xảy ra cùng thời điểm) => The opening of zoos happened when more people lived in urban areas.

-> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc 

=> Đáp án: TRUE 



Xem full giải thích
3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Skimming/scanning

- Nhiều học viên skim/scan sơ sơ câu này rất dễ chọn TRUE vì cả 2 keywords “natural history" và “popular" đều được tìm thấy trong bài.

2. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

Nature study
was incorporated into school curricula
,
and
natural history collecting
became an increasingly popular pastime
. => Nature study was taught in school and natural history became more popular. - Câu hỏi: During the period when many zoos were opened, the study of natural history became more popular in universities than other scientific subjects. => Câu hỏi có sự so sánh giữa natural history và các môn học khác => Trong bài đọc không có sự so sánh này => Không đủ thông tin trả lời câu hỏi => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN


Xem full giải thích
4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

They (= Zoos)
were emblems of civic pride on a level of importance with art museums
=> Zoos are on a level of importance with museums. => Zoos are as important as museums. Câu hỏi: the new zoos were as significant an amenity as museums.

-> Zoo cũng quan trọng như các dịch vụ tiện ích, ví dụ như museums ( amenity: dịch vụ tiện ích) -> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc  => Đáp án: TRUE



Xem full giải thích
5
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

 Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Although
histories of zoos
describe
the 1940s through the 1960s as a period of stagnation
,
new zoos
continued to be set up all over the country
. => From 1940s to 1960s, new zoos continued to be built (= set up) all over the country. => Bài đọc chỉ đề cập new zoos được dựng lên, không nói gì về older zoos. Câu hỏi: Between 1940 and 1960 some older zoos had to move to new sites in order to expand. => Thông tin về old zoos hoàn toàn không được đề cập trong bài. => Đáp án: NOT GIVEN


Xem full giải thích
6
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking 

By the 1970s
,[...] 
Many zoos
that had been supported entirely by municipal budgets
began recruiting private financial support

= By the 1970s, many zoos that had been supported by city budgets began receiving private financial support. => By the 1970s, many zoos changed from city financial support to private financial support. (chuyển từ hỗ trợ tài chính từ thành phố sang hỗ trợ cá nhân)

Câu hỏi: In the 1970s new ways of funding zoos were developed. Paraphrasing:  “New ways" ở đây chính là việc chuyển từ city financial support sang private financial support.

-> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc  => Đáp án: TRUE



Xem full giải thích
7
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

(1)
Although
zoos
were popular
,
historians
have paid little attention to them
. (2)
zoos
have been ignored
because
they
fall between the categories of analysis that historians often use
. => Bài đọc nói rõ historians không quan tâm nhiều tới zoos (paid little attention, ignored) và họ đa phần đều sử dụng cùng một cách phân loại nghiên cứu (the categories of analysis that historians often use)

- Câu hỏi: There has been serious disagreement amongst historians about the role of the first zoos. => Trong bài nói historians đa số đều agree về vai trò của zoos (zoos fall between the categories that historians often use), không nói họ có disagreement 

-> Thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc trái ngược nhau

=> Đáp án: FALSE



Xem full giải thích
8
reptiles
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Dựa vào cấu trúc câu hỏi: Chỗ trống nằm ngay trước từ “than" => câu mang hàm ý so sánh Noun1 với Noun 2 => cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống

So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

  • Bài đọc:



They
tended to assemble
as many different mammal and bird species as possible
,
along with a few reptiles, exhibiting one or two specimens of each

Xem full giải thích
9
monkeys
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm ngay ở vị trí Subject trong câu, động từ theo sau lại chia ở Verb số nhiều (were) => Cần điền một Noun số nhiều.

So sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:

  • Bài đọc:



In the constant effort to attract the public to make return visits
,
certain types of display
came in and out of fashion
;
for example, dozens of zoos built special islands for their large populations of monkeys

Xem full giải thích
10
habitat/habitats
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Vì chỗ trống nằm ngay sau tính từ sở hữu “their"  => Cần điền một Noun vào đây.

Phân tích bài đọc:



zoo planners
had
a new approach of putting animals in groups according to their continent of origin
and
designing exhibits showing animals of particular habitats

=> Zoo planners group animals and design exhibits according to their continent of origin and their habitats.

Xem full giải thích
11
behavior/behaviour
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Xét cấu trúc câu hỏi, chỗ trống nằm ngay sau giới từ “by" => cần điền một Noun hoặc Ving vào đây.

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc:

  • Bài đọc:

    1960s
    ,
    a few zoos
    arranged displays according to animal behavior

=> A few zoos sắp xếp animals dựa vào animal behavior.

Xem full giải thích
12
vets
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Chỗ trống nằm ngay vị trí Subject, theo sau là Verb chia số nhiều => Cần điền một Noun số nhiều

  • Thông tin trong bài:



1
Popular movements
called attention to endangered species and to zoos
that did not provide adequate care for their animals
.

=> Movements kêu gọi sự chú ý tới zoos không care for their animals.

2
More projects
were undertaken by research scientists
and
zoos
began hiring full-time vets

Xem full giải thích
13
conservation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/ scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ này mà không hiểu cấu trúc, thí sinh sẽ không biết phải chọn từ nào điền vào chỗ trống vì không locate được keywords “importance" hay “greater" trong bài. 

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chỗ trống trong bài nằm trong cấu trúc The Noun 1 of Noun2  => Cần điền một Noun vào đây

  • Thông tin trong bài:



conservation
moved to the forefront of zoo agendas
.

Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Can we prevent the poles from melting?
A growing number of scientists are looking to increasingly ambitious technological fixes to halt the tide of global warming. Mark Rowe reports.
A
Such is our dependence on fossil fuels, and such is the volume of carbon dioxide we have already released into the atmosphere, that most climate scientists agree that significant global warming is now inevitable – the best we can hope to do is keep it at a reasonable level, and even that is going to be an uphill task. At present, the only serious option on the table for doing this is cutting back on our carbon emissions, but while a few countries are making major strides in this regard, the majority are having great difficulty even stemming the rate of increase, let alone reversing it. Consequently, an increasing number of scientists are beginning to explore the alternatives. They oil fall under the banner of geoengineering – generally defined as the intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment.
B
Geoengineering has been shown to work, at least on a small, localized scale, for decades. May Day parades in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies, aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide and cement powder to disperse clouds. Many of the schemes now suggested look to do the opposite, and reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the planet. One scheme focuses on achieving a general cooling of the Earth and involves the concept of releasing aerosol sprays into the stratosphere above the Arctic to create clouds of sulphur dioxide, which would, in turn, lead to a global dimming. The idea is modelled on historical volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, which led to a short term cooling of global temperatures by 0.5“C. The aerosols could be delivered by artillery, highflying aircraft or balloons.
C
Instead of concentrating on global cooling, other schemes look specifically at reversing the melting at the poles. One idea is to bolster an ice cap by spraying it with water. Using pumps to carry water from below the sea ice, the spray would come out as snow or ice particles, producing thicker sea ice with a higher albedo (the ratio of sunlight reflected from a surface) to reflect summer radiation. Scientists have also scrutinized whether it is possible to block ice fjords in Greenland with cables which have been reinforced, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea. Veli Albert Kallio, a Finnish scientist, says that such an idea is impractical, because the force of the ice would ultimately snap the cables and rapidly release a large quantity of frozen ice into the sea. However, Kallio believes that the sort of cables used in suspension bridges could potentially be used to divert, rather than halt, the southward movement of ice from Spitsbergen. ‘It would stop the ice moving south, and local currents would see them float northwards,’ he says.
D
A number of geoengineering ideas are currently being examined in the Russian Arctic. These include planting millions of birch trees: the thinking, according to Kallio, is that their white bark would increase the amount of reflected sunlight. The loss of their leaves in winter would also enable the snow to reflect radiation. In contrast, the native evergreen pines tend to shade the snow and absorb radiation. Using ice-breaking vessels to deliberately break up and scatter coastal sea ice in both Arctic and Antarctic waters in their respective autumns, and diverting Russian rivers to increase cold-water (low to ice-forming areas, could also be used to slow down warming, Kallio says. ‘You would need the wind to blow the right way, but in the right conditions, by letting ice float free and head north, you would enhance ice growth.’
E
But will such ideas ever be implemented? The major counterarguments to geoengineering schemes are, first, that they are a ‘cop-out’ that allow us to continue living the way we do, rather than reducing carbon emissions; and, second, even if they do work, would the side- effects outweigh the advantages? Then there’s the daunting prospect of upkeep and repair of any scheme as well as the consequences of a technical failure. ’I think all of us agree that if we were to end geoengineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly, and probably within 10 to 20 years,’ says Dr Phil Rasch, chief scientist for climate change at the US-based Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. ‘That’s certainly something to worry about. I would consider geoengineering as a strategy to employ only while we manage the conversion to a non-fossil- fuel economy.’ ‘The risk with geoengineering projects is that you can “overshoot”,’ says Dr Dan Lunt, from the University of Bristol. ‘You may bring global temperatures back to pre-industrial levels, but the risk is that the poles will still be warmer than they should be and the tropics will be cooler than before industrialization.’
F
The main reason why geoengineering is countenanced by the mainstream scientific community is that most researchers have little faith in the ability of politicians to agree – and then bring in – the necessary carbon cuts. Even leading conservation organisations believe the subject is worth exploring. As Dr Mortin Sommerkorn, a climate change advisor says. ‘But human-induced climate change has brought humanity to a position where it is important not to exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities despite the potential drawbacks. If, over the coming years, the science tells us about an ever-increased climate sensitivity of the planet – and this isn’t unrealistic – then v/e may be best served by not having to start our thinking from scratch.’

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
The Reading Passage has six paragraphs A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-F
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14
the existence of geoengineering projects distracting from the real task of changing the way we live
15
circumstances in which geoengineering has demonstrated success
16
maintenance problems associated with geoengineering projects
17
support for geoengineering being due to a lack of confidence in governments
18
more success in fighting climate change in some parts of the world than others
Question 19 - 23
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Geoengineering projects
A range of geoengineering ideas has been put forward, which aim either to prevent the melting of the ice caps or to stop the general rise in global temperatures. One scheme to discourage the melting of ice and snow involves introducing
19
to the Arctic because of their colour. The build-up of ice could be encouraged by dispersing ice along the coasts using special ships and changing the direction of some
20
but this scheme is dependent on certain weather conditions. Another way of increasing the amount of ice involves using
21
to bring water to the surface. A scheme to stop ice moving would use
22
but this method is more likely to be successful in preventing the ice from travelling in one direction rather than stopping it altogether. A suggestion for cooling global temperatures is based on what has happened in the past after
23
and it involves creating clouds of gas.
Question 24 - 26
Look at the following people and the list of opinions below.
Match each person with the correct opinion A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E.
List of Findings
A
The problems of geoengineering shouldn’t mean that ideas are not seriously considered.
B
Some geoengineering projects are more likely to succeed than others.
C
Geoengineering only offers a short-term solution.
D
A positive outcome of geoengineering may have a negative consequence elsewhere.
E
Most geoengineering projects aren’t clear in what they are aiming at.
24
Phil Rasch
25
Dan Lunt
26
Martin Sommerkorn

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
E
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Skimming/scanning

- Nếu chỉ skim/scan chữ “distract" hay “task" hay “changing", thí sinh sẽ không locate được thông tin nằm đâu trong bài vì những keywords này hoàn toàn không được tìm thấy.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Xem full giải thích
15
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Skimming/scanning

- Nếu chỉ skim/scan từ “circumstances”, học viên rất khó locate được chính xác thông tin vì dạng câu hỏi Matching Information thường không paraphrase bằng từ đồng nghĩa.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Xem full giải thích
16
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking :



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về những vấn đề bảo trì có liên quan đến geoengineering projects

maintenance -> paraphrase lại của từ này

Xem full giải thích
17
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về những ủng hộ cho geoengineering being vì governments thiếu confidence

support -> tìm từ paraphrase của ủng hộ

Xem full giải thích
18
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về Vài khu vực trên thế giới have more success in fighting climate change hơn khu vực khác

Xem full giải thích
19
birch trees
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chỗ trống cần điền đứng sau Verb “introduce" => Giới thiệu phải là giới thiệu một cái gì đó => “Introduce something" => Cần một Noun điền vào đây



1
geoengineering ideas
are currently being examined in the Russian Arctic
.



2
These (= these ideas)
include planting millions of birch trees
:
their white bark
would increase the amount of reflected sunlight
.

=> 

1
+
2
: Trồng birh tree a geoengineering idea white bark của nó có thể phản chiếu lại ánh mặt trời -> góp phần vào giảm nhiệt độ trái đất -> discourage the melting of ice and snow

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20
russian rivers/rivers
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chỗ trống cần điền đứng sau từ chỉ số lượng “some" => cần điền danh từ vào đây.

1
Using ice-breaking vessels
to deliberately break up and scatter sea ice
in both Arctic and Antarctic waters =
,
and diverting Russian rivers to increase cold-water



2
You
would need the wind to blow the right way
,
but in the right conditions
,
you
would enhance ice growth
.’

=>

1
+
2
Để thúc đẩy ice growth, break the sea ice và rải ở biển Nam và Bắc cực - chuyển hướng Russian rivers để increase cold-water Câu hỏi: The build-up of ice could be encouraged by dispersing ice along the coasts using special ships and changing the direction of some ________ but this scheme is dependent on certain weather conditions.

=> Changing the direction = diverting

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21
pumps
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Chỗ trống đứng ngay sau động từ “using" => Cần điền một Noun vào đây (‘dùng’ thì phải là ‘dùng’ thứ gì đó)

So sánh cấu trúc câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Using pumps to carry water from below the sea ice
,
the spray
would come out as snow or ice particles
,
producing thicker sea ice

=> Using pumps to carry water from below the sea ice can produce thicker sea ice. (Carry water from below the sea ice là đem nước từ dưới mặt biển => Mà đem thì đem đi đâu => Phải đem lên mặt biển = carry water to the surface)

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22
cables
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Chỗ trống đứng sau động từ “use" (sử dụng), mà sử dụng thì phải sử dụng một cái gì đó => cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống

Để có thể tìm đúng từ điền vào chỗ trống, cần phân tích cấu trúc câu để hiểu rõ thông tin trong bài đọc:

the sort of cables used in bridges
could be used to divert
,
rather than halt
,
the southward movement of ice

=> Cables can be used to divert instead of halting (stopping) the movement of ice. So sánh câu hỏi: A scheme to stop ice moving would use ______ but this method is more likely to be successful in preventing the ice from travelling in one direction rather than stopping it altogether.

=> Với preventing the ice from travelling in one direction = divert ; stop = halt

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23
volcanic explosions
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Hiểu câu hỏi: Thấy “after" => dự đoán cần điền một Noun hoặc Ving vào đây.



Vì câu trong bài đọc rất dài và rối nên rất cần áp dụng Linearthinking để đơn giản hoá lại nội dung bài.



1
One scheme
focuses on general cooling of the Earth
and
involves releasing aerosol sprays to create clouds of sulphur dioxide



2
The idea
is modelled on historical volcanic explosions
=> The idea of cooling of the Earth involves creating clouds that is modelled on volcanic explosions in the past.

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24
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước  

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

I
would consider geoengineering
as a strategy to employ
only while we manage the conversion to a non-fossil- fuel economy
. (consider A as B: xem A như là B) => Phil Rasch xem geoengineering là a strategy to use only while we manage the conversion to a non-fossil-fuel economy => Phil Rasch  xem geoengineering chỉ là cách tạm thời để dùng trong lúc (while…) we manage the conversion to a non-fossil-fuel economy. => Từ thông tin này có thể suy ra: Không coi đây là cách lâu dài mà chỉ là cách ngắn hạn, là một short-term solution. -> Dr Phil Rasch đã phát biểu nội dung này => Đáp án: C. Geoengineering only offers a short-term solution.


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25
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

You
may bring global temperatures back to pre-industrial levels
,
but
the risk
is that
the poles
will still be warmer
than
they
should be
and
the tropics
will be cooler than before industrialization
.

=> Từ “but” nối giữa hai vế câu thể hiện mối quan hệ tương phản

-> Vế 1 nói về lợi ích của geoengineering (bring global temperatures back to pre-industrial levels), vế sau nói về ảnh hưởng tiêu cực đến cùng khác (poles và tropics)

-> Có positive outcome và cả negative consequence

-> Dr Dan Lunt đã phát biểu nội dung này

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26
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

It
is important not to exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic
and
its possibilities
despite drawbacks
. => Despite drawbacks, we shouldn't stop thinking thoroughly about this topic (Dù có drawbacks nhưng vẫn phải suy nghĩ cặn kẽ về vấn đề này)

-> drawbacks = problems of geoengineering; shouldn't stop thinking thoroughly about this topic = shouldn’t mean that ideas are not seriously considered -> Dr Mortin Sommerkorn đã phát biểu nội dung này =>  Đáp án: A. The problems of geoengineering shouldn’t mean that ideas are not seriously considered.



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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

America’s oldest art?
Set within treacherously steep cliffs, and hidden away valleys of northeast Brazil, is some of Southeast America’s most significant and spectacular rock-art. Most of the art so far discovered from the ongoing excavations comes from the archaeologically – important National Park o’ the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piaui, and it is causing quite a controversy. The reason for the uproar? The art is being dated to around 25,000 or perhaps. According to some archaeologists, even 36,000 years ago. If correct, this is set to challenge the widely field view that the America were first colonized from the north, via the Bering Straits from eastern Siberia at around 10.000 BC. only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter. Prior to the designation of 130,000 hectares as a National Park, the rock-art sites were difficult to get to and often dangerous to enter. In ancient times, this inaccessibility must have heightened the importance of the sites, and indeed of the people who painted on the rocks. Wild animals and human figures dominate the art and are incorporated into often-complex scenes involving hunting, supernatural beings, fighting and dancing. The artists depicted the animals that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest. The large mammals are usually painted in groups and tend to be shown a running stance, as though trying to escape from hunting parties. Processions – lines of human and animal figures – also appear of great impotence to these ancient artists. Might such lines represent family units or groups of warriors? On a number of panels, rows of stylized figures, some numbering up to 30 individual figures, were painted using the natural undulating contours of the rock surface, so evoking the contours of the seconding landscape Other interesting, but very rare, occurrences are scenes that show small human figures holding on to and dancing around a tree, possibly involved in some tom of a ritual dance. Due to the favourable climatic conditions. the imagery on many panels is in a remarkable state of preservation. Despite this, however, there are serious conservation issues that affect their long term survival. The chemical and mineral quantities of the rock on which the imagery is panted is fragile and on several panels it is unstable. As well as the secretion of sodium carbonate on the rock surface, complete panel sections have, over the ancient and recent past, broken away from the main rock surface. These have then become buried and sealed into sometimes-ancient floor deposits. Perversely, this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition has assisted archaeologists in dating several major rock-art sites. Of course, dating the art is extremely difficult oven the non-existence of plant and animal remains that might be scientifically dated. However, there am a small number of sites in the Serra da Capivara that are giving up their secrets through good systematic excavation. Thus, at Toca do Roqiomo da Pedra Furada. rock-art researcher Niéde Guidon managed to obtain a number of dates. At different levels of excavation, she located fallen painted rock fragments, which she was able to dale to at least 36,000 years ago. Along with toe painted fragments, crude stone tools were found. Also discovered wore a series of scientifically datable sites of fireplaces, or hearths, the earliest dated to 46,000 BC. arguably the oldest dates for human habitation in the America. However, these conclusions are net without controversy. Critics, mainly from North America, have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires. Several North American researchers have gone further and suggested that the rock art from this site dates from no earlier than about 3,730 years age, based on the results of limited radiocarbon dating. Adding further fool to the general debate is the fact that the artists in the area of the National Hark tended not to draw over old motifs (as often occurs with rock-art), which makes it hard to work out the relative chronology of the images or styles. However, the diversity of imagery and tho narrative the paintings create from each of the many sites within the National Park suggests different artists were probably making their art at efferent times, and potentially using each site over many thousands of years. With fierce debates thus raging over the dating, where these artists originate from is also still very much open to speculation. The traditional view ignores the early dating evidence from the South American rock-art sites. In a revised scenario, some palaeo – anthropologists are now suggesting that modern humans may’ have migrated from Africa using the strong currents of the Atlantic Ocean some 63.000 years or more ago, while others suggest a more improbable colonization coming from the Pacific Ocean. Yet, while ether hypothesis is plausible, there is still no supporting archaeological evidence between the South American coastline and the interior. Rather, it seems possible that there were a number of waves of human colonization of the Americas occurring possibly over a 60,000-100,000 year period, probably using the Bering Straits as a land bridge to cross into the Americas. Despite the compelling evidence from South America, it stands alone: the earliest secure human evidence yet found in the state of Oregon in North America only dates to 12,300 years BC. So this is a fierce debate that is likely to go on for many more years. However, the splendid rock art and its allied anthropology of northeast of Brazil, described here, is playing a huge and significant role in the discussion.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 29
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
27
According to the first paragraph, the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionize accepted ideas about
A
the way primitive people lived in North America.
B
the date when the earliest people arrived in South America.
C
the origin of the people who crossed the Bering Straits.
D
the variety of cultures which developed in South America.
28
How did the ancient artists use the form of the rock where they painted?
A
to mimic the shape of the countryside nearby
B
to emphasize the shape of different animals
C
to give added light and shade to their paintings
D
to give the impression of distance in complex works
29
In the fourth paragraph, what does the winter say is unusual about the rock-artists of Serra da Capivara?
A
They had a very wide range of subject-matter.
B
Their work often appears to be illustrating a story.
C
They tended to use a variety of styles in one painting.
D
They rarely made new paintings on top of old ones.
Question 30 - 36
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
30
Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui.
31
The location of the rock-art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society.
32
The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by the ancient humans.
33
Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region.
34
The fact that some paintings wore buried is useful to archaeologists.
35
The tools found near some paintings were probably used for hunting animals.
36
The North American researchers have confirmed Niede Guidons dating of the paintings.
Question 37 - 40
Complete each sentence with the correct ending. A-F below.
Write the correct letter A-F.
List of Endings
A
are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists.
B
do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America.
C
are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara.
D
have not been accepted by academics outside America.
E
centre on whether or not they are actually man-made.
F
reflect the advances in scientific dating methods.
Materials derived from plants or animals
37
The discussions about the ancient hearths
38
Theories about where the first South Americans originated from
39
The finds of archaeologists in Oregon
40

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
B
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

1.
The art
is being dated to around 25,000
or
according to some archaeologists
,
even 36,000 years ago

=> Đưa ra mốc thời gian của các tác phẩm nghệ thuật.

2.

If
this
is correct
,
this
challenge the widely held view
that the America were first colonized from the north at around 10.000 BC, only moving down into Central and South America thereafter
=> Giải thích nếu mốc thời gian này đúng thì nó sẽ challenge the widely held view về thời gian mà con người tới Central và South America (in the millennia after 10,000 BC) -> Vậy đoạn đầu này nói về việc the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionize accepted ideas about khoảng thời gian mà con người tới Central và South America

-> Đáp án: B. the date when the earliest people arrived in South America.



Xem full giải thích
28
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

figures
were painted using the natural undulating contours of the rock surface
,
so evoking the contours of the landscape


=> Figures were painted using the natural contours of the rock surface, reminding of the contours of the landscape. => Figures vẽ trên rock surface có contours (hình dạng) làm gợi nhớ tới contours của landscape. => Figures vẽ trên rock surface có contours (hình dạng) giống với contours của landscape. -> Vậy ancient artists đã bắt chước contours của landscape (= use the form of the rock where they painted) => Vì: mimic = bắt chước, giống nhau; countryside trong bài chính là landscape được nhắc tới

Nên trong các lựa chọn, lựa chọn phù hợp nhất là: A. to mimic the shape of the countryside nearby

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29
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

the artists in the area of the National Hark
tended not to draw over old motifs
-> Artists thường không draw over old motifs (vẽ đè lên bức vẽ cũ) -> Việc artists draw over old motifs là việc hiếm và lạ -> Vậy artists hiếm khi vẽ tranh mới đè lên cái cũ => Vì draw over old motifs = made new paintings on top of old ones(vẽ đè lên bức vẽ cũ)

Nên Lựa chọn phù hợp nhất là: D. They rarely made new paintings on top of old ones

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30
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Most of the art
so far discovered from the ongoing excavations
comes from
the archaeologically – important National Park

=> Main idea: Đa số art được phát hiện từ những excavations vẫn còn đang thực hiện có nguồn gốc từ...

=> Vậy những excavations này vẫn còn đang diễn ra Câu hỏi: Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui.

=> Trong bài đọc nói rõ là excavations vẫn đang diễn ra (ongoing) , trong khi câu hỏi nói là đã hoàn thành (have completed)

-> Thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc trái ngược nhau

Xem full giải thích
31
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

this inaccessibility
must have heightened 
the importance
of the sites
,
and
of the people who painted on the rocks


=> The inaccessibility of the sites increased the importance of the people who painted on the rocks.

-> The inaccessibility of the sites đã nâng tầm quan trọng của những người vẽ lên đá

- Câu hỏi: The location of the rock-art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society.

=> Vị trí rock-art chứng tỏ artists có tầm quan trọng

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32
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Wild animals and human figures
dominate 
the art
 
and
are incorporated into 
complex scenes




The artists
depicted the animals
that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest
.



The large mammals
are usually painted in groups
and tend to be shown a running stance
... => Trong bài chỉ nói animals được vẽ như thế nào: vẽ kết hợp cùng humans (incorporated into complex scenes…), vẽ trong rừng (ancient forest), vẽ thành nhóm (painted in group…) Câu hỏi:  The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by the ancient humans (be regarded as = be perceived as = be considered as = được xem là) => Dù cả 3 keywords “animals", “ancient" và “humans" đều được tìm thấy trong bài đọc nhưng bài chẳng nói gì về việc ancient humans xem animals là thiêng liêng (sacred) cả -> Không tìm được thông tin => Đáp án: Not Given

Xem full giải thích
33
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Due to the favourable climatic conditions
,
the imagery on panels
is in a remarkable state of preservation
.



Despite this
,
there
are serious conservation issues that affect their long term survival
. => Due to good climatic conditions, the paintings (= imagery) are in good preservation. However, there are conservation issues that affect their survival. => Bài nói rất rõ là thời tiết không làm ảnh hưởng tới paintings, chỉ có conservation issues mới ảnh hưởng paintings. Câu hỏi: Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region. => Weather of the region causes damage to paintings. => Trái ngược hẳn với thông tin trong bài. => Đáp án: No


Xem full giải thích
34
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

These
have become buried and sealed into floor deposits
.



Perversely
,
this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition
has assisted archaeologists in dating rock-art sites
. => Cụm “this form of natural erosion and deposition" chính là thay cho việc “buried" paintings đề cập ở câu trước => Thông tin bài đọc có thể hiểu là: Burying paintings has assisted archeologists in dating rock-art sites. => Burying paintings has helped archeologists to identify the age of rock-art sites. (assist = help)

- Câu hỏi: The fact that some paintings were buried is useful to archaeologists.

-> useful là help archeologists xác định the age of rock-art sites

-> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc 

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35
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Along with the painted fragments
,
crude stone tools
were found


=> paintings and tools were found - Trong bài đúng là có đề cập tới tools được tìm thấy, nhưng không hề nói tools này dùng để làm gì => Không đủ thông tin để kết luận liệu tools này có phải dùng để “hunt animals” hay không.

=> Đáp án: Not Given



Xem full giải thích
36
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

rock-art researcher Niéde Guidon
managed to obtain a number of dates

[...] (3 câu sau đó đưa ra dẫn chứng cụ thể cho conclusion của Guidon)



However
,
these conclusions
are not without controversy
.



Critics
,
mainly from North America
,
have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires
. [...] => Từ “However" thể hiện rõ sự tương phản giữa 2 câu: Niede Guidon đưa ra a number of dates tuy nhiên lại vấp phải tranh cãi (controversy) từ critics from North America => Critics from North America không đồng ý với Niede Guidon.

Câu hỏi: The North American researchers have confirmed Niede Guidon’s dating of the paintings. (North American researchers đồng ý với Niede Guidon)

Xem full giải thích
37
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

dating the art
is difficult
since
the non-existence of plant and animal remains
might be scientifically dated
.



However
,
there
are a small number of sites in the Serra da Capivara
that are giving up their secrets
through good systematic excavation
.

=> Câu đầu tiên đọc khó hiểu, tuy nhiên bạn chỉ cần nắm được: “the non-existence of plant and animals remains" có nghĩa là “there are no plant and animal remains” So với các lựa chọn, ta có C là phù hợp nhất: Materials derived from plants or animals are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara.

Vì no plant and animal tức là chúng absent from rock-art sites.

=> Đáp án: C. Materials derived from plants or animals are absent from rock-art sites In the Serra da Capivara.  



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38
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

the hearths
may in fact be a natural phenomenon
=> Từ “in fact" thể hiện ý nhấn mạnh => Thông tin được tác giả nhấn mạnh trong câu là việc hearths là “natural phenomenon" (tự nhiên, không phải nhân tạo) - Xét các lựa chọn, E là phù hợp nhất : The discussions about the ancient hearths centre on whether or not they are actually man-made. (= The discussions about the hearths are mainly about whether they are man-made or a natural phenomenon) => Đáp án: E. The discussions about the ancient hearths centre on whether or not they are actually man-made.


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39
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

some palaeo – anthropologists
are now suggesting that
modern humans
may have migrated from Africa
,
while
others
suggest a more improbable colonization

=> Cả khi không hiểu "improbable colonization", bạn vẫn có thể lựa chọn đáp án dựa vào đọc cấu trúc câu: Cấu trúc S + V while S + V thể hiện sự tương phản giữa 2 vế => Có sự đối lập về ý kiến của palaeo-anthropologist về việc modern humans di cư (migrated) từ đâu.  => Có sự đối lập về ý kiến của palaeo-anthropologist về việc modern humans có nguồn gốc từ đâu

So với list đáp án, ta có A. phù hợp nhất : Theories about where the first South Americans originated from are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists

Vì debate = có sự đối lập của 2 ý kiến; nguồn gốc của modern humans = where the first South Americans originated from

=> Đáp án: A. Theories about where the first South Americans originated from are giving rise to a great deal of debate among palaeo-anthropologists



Xem full giải thích
40
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Despite
the evidence from South America
,
it
stands alone
:
the earliest secure human evidence
yet found in the state of Oregon in North America
only dates to 12,300 years BC
. => “Despite the evidence from SA, it stands alone…” => “stand alone" (đứng một mình) ở đây nghĩa là không còn bằng chứng nào khác ủng hộ cho bằng chứng này. Dấu “:” sau vế đầu tiên giải thích rõ hơn: bằng chứng tìm thấy ở Oregon cho ra một kết quả khác.

-> Vậy những phát hiện của archaeologists in Oregon không ủng hộ chứng cứ về thời gian con người đến America

So với list đáp án, ta có B. phù hợp nhất : The finds of archaeologists in Oregon do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America.

=> Đáp án B là phù hợp nhất 

The finds of archaeologists in Oregon do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America.

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