IELTS Trainer - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

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IELTS Trainer - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Walking with dinosaurs
Peter L. Falkingham and his colleagues at Manchester University are developing techniques which look set to revolutionize our understanding of how dinosaurs and other extinct animals behaved. The media image of palaeontologists who study prehistoric life is often of field workers camped in the desert in the hot sun, carefully picking away at the rock surrounding a large dinosaur bone. But Peter Falkingham has done little of that for a while now. Instead, he devotes himself to his computer. Not because he has become inundated with paperwork, but because he is a new kind of palaeontologist: a computational palaeontologist. What few people may consider is that uncovering a skeleton, or discovering a new species, is where the research begins, not where it ends. What we really want to understand is how the extinct animals and plants behaved in their natural habitats. Drs Bill Sellers and Phil Manning from the University of Manchester use a ‘genetic algorithm’ – a kind of computer code that can change itself and ‘evolve’ – to explore how extinct animals like dinosaurs, and our own early ancestors, walked and stalked. The fossilized bones of a complete dinosaur skeleton can tell scientists a lot about the animal, but they do not make up the complete picture and the computer can try to fill the gap. The computer model is given a digitized skeleton, and the locations of known muscles. The model then randomly activates the muscles. This, perhaps unsurprisingly, results almost without fail in the animal falling on its face. So the computer alters the activation pattern and tries again … usually to similar effect. The modeled dinosaurs quickly ‘evolve’. If there is any improvement, the computer discards the old pattern and adopts the new one as the base for alteration. Eventually, the muscle activation pattern evolves a stable way of moving, the best possible solution is reached, and the dinosaur can walk, run, chase or graze. Assuming natural selection evolves the best possible solution too, the modeled animal should be moving in a manner similar to its now-extinct counterpart. And indeed, using the same method for living animals (humans, emu and ostriches) similar top speeds were achieved on the computer as in reality. By comparing their cyberspace results with real measurements of living species, the Manchester team of palaeontologists can be confident in the results computed showing how extinct prehistoric animals such as dinosaurs moved. The Manchester University team have used the computer simulations to produce a model of a giant meat-eating dinosaur. It is called an acrocanthosaurus which literally means ‘high spined lizard’ because of the spines which run along its backbone. It is not really known why they are there but scientists have speculated they could have supported a hump that stored fat and water reserves. There are also those who believe that the spines acted as a support for a sail. Of these, one half think it was used as a display and could be flushed with blood and the other half think it was used as a temperature-regulating device. It may have been a mixture of the two. The skull seems out of proportion with its thick, heavy body because it is so narrow and the jaws are delicate and fine. The feet are also worthy of note as they look surprisingly small in contrast to the animal as a whole. It has a deep broad tail and powerful leg muscles to aid locomotion. It walked on its back legs and its front legs were much shorter with powerful claws. Falkingham himself is investigating fossilized tracks, or footprints, using computer simulations to help analyze how extinct animals moved. Modern-day trackers who study the habitats of wild animals can tell you what animal made a track, whether that animal was walking or running, sometimes even the sex of the animal. But a fossil track poses a more considerable challenge to interpret in the same way. A crucial consideration is knowing what the environment including the mud, or sediment, upon which the animal walked was like millions of years ago when the track was made. Experiments can answer these questions but the number of variables is staggering. To physically recreate each scenario with a box of mud is extremely time-consuming and difficult to repeat accurately. This is where computer simulation comes in. Falkingham uses computational techniques to model a volume of mud and control the moisture content, consistency, and other conditions to simulate the mud of prehistoric times. A footprint is then made in the digital mud by a virtual foot. This footprint can be chopped up and viewed from any angle and stress values can be extracted and calculated from inside it. By running hundreds of these simulations simultaneously on supercomputers, Falkingham can start to understand what types of footprint would be expected if an animal moved in a certain way over a given kind of ground. Looking at the variation in the virtual tracks, researchers can make sense of fossil tracks with greater confidence. The application of computational techniques in palaeontology is becoming more prevalent every year. As computer power continues to increase, the range of problems that can be tackled and questions that can be answered will only expand.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 6
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
In his study of prehistoric life, Potor Falkinghom rarely spends time on outdoor research those days.
2
Several attempts are usually needed before the computer model of a dinosaur used by Sellers and Manning manages to stay upright.
3
When the Sellers and Manning computer model was used for people, it showed them moving faster than they are physically able to.
4
Some palaeontologists have expressed reservations about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team concerning the movement of dinosaurs.
5
An experienced tracker can analyse fossil footprints as easily as those made by live animals.
6
Research carried out into the composition of prehistoric mud has been found to be inaccurate.
Question 7 - 9
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
i-resizable-alignable
7
8
9
Dinosaur's name comes from spines. One theory: they were necessary to hold up a
which helped control body heat.
Skull is
compared with rest of body.

made easier by wide tail and highly developed muscles in legs.
Question 10 - 13
Complete the flow-chart below
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer
Peter Falkingham's computer model
STEP 01
Mud is simulated with attention to is texture and thickness and how much
10
it contains.
STEP 02
A virtual foot produces a footprint in the mud.
STEP 03
The footprint is dissected and examined from all angles.
STEP 04
Levels of
11
are measured with the footprint.
STEP 05
Multiple simulations relate footprints to different types of
12

STEP 06
More accurate interpretation of
13
is possible

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nếu chỉ skim/scan những từ khoá như “outdoor”, “rarely", thí sinh sẽ rất dễ chọn NOT GIVEN vì dường như không tìm được những keywords trên trong bài đọc.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

So sánh nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc: Bài đọc: 1. The media image of palaeontologists who study prehistoric life is often of field workers .... => People who study prehistoric life usually do it outdoor (field work là công việc thực chiến, làm ở ngoài trời) 2. But Peter Falkingham has done little of that 3. Instead , he devotes himself to his computer . => But Peter rất ít khi làm outdoor, mà làm ở computer

=> Tóm lại:  When studying prehistoric life, Peter has done little field work. He spends time on his computer instead.

Câu hỏi: In his study of prehistoric life, Peter Falkinghom rarely spends time on outdoor research those days. So sánh giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc: done little field work = rarely spend time on outdoor research -> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc  => Đáp án: A. Yes



Xem full giải thích
2
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn Not Given khi làm câu này vì chẳng tìm thấy keywords hay synonyms của “attempts" hay “upright" trong bài! Để làm được câu này, cách duy nhất là phải thật sự hiểu đúng nghĩa của câu hỏi và bài đọc.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:


1.  The model randomly activates the muscles

2. This results in the animal falling on its face => The model of the animal fell on its face. 3. Eventually , the muscle activation pattern evolves a stable way of moving , the best possible solution is reached , and the dinosaur can walk, run,... => Phần đầu câu 3 có thể hơi khó hiểu, tuy nhiên ta chỉ cần tập trung vào kết quả của nó, đó là cuối cùng dinosaur can walk,run... => Tóm lại: Ban đầu khi thử nghiệm, the model of the dinosaur fall on its face but finally it can walk. 

So với câu hỏi: Several attempts are usually needed before the computer model of a dinosaur used by Sellers and Manning manages to stay upright.

-> Cần nhiều nỗ lực hơn nữa trước khi the computer model of a dinosaur của Sellers và Manning có thể stay upright.

Xem full giải thích
3
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking 

using the same method for living animals , similar top speeds were achieved on the computer as in reality => When using the method for humans, the top speeds on the computer = the top speeds in reality (Cấu trúc similar… as thể hiện so sánh bằng)

-> Khi sử dụng mô hình này cho living animals thì tốc độ trên living animals và computer bằng nhau.

So với câu hỏi: When the Sellers and Manning computer model was used for people , it showed them moving faster than they are physically able to . -> When using the model for people, the computer model moved faster than humans can in real life. (Cấu trúc more … than… so sánh hơn kém)

-> Khi sử dụng mô hình này cho con người thì có kết quả là computermodel moved faster than humans.

=> Một bên so sánh bằng, một bên so sánh hơn kém.

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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

the Manchester team of palaeontologists can be confident in the results computed showing how extinct prehistoric animals moved .

-> The Manchester team can be confident in how dinosaurs moved.

-> The Manchester team tự tin về nghiên cứu kết quả how dinosaurs moved.

So với câu hỏi: Some palaeontologists have expressed reservations about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team concerning the movement of dinosaurs . -> Some palaeontologists are not convinced about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team => Một số palaeontologists không tin tưởng Manchester team.

Trong khí đó, bài đọc chỉ nói về thái độ của Manchester team về kết quả này, không nói gì về thái độ của những palaeontologists khác.

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5
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nếu chỉ skim/scan thì câu hỏi này rất dễ khiến học viên chọn NOT GIVEN vì không locate được từ “wild animals" trong đoạn văn.  Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking
Modern-day trackers who study the habitats of wild animals can tell you what animal made a track ....

 But a fossil track poses a more considerable challenge to interpret in the same way

=> Trackers can tell you a lot about modern-day animals from their tracks, but not so much about fossil animal. => It is more difficult to study fossil animals than modern-day wild animals from tracks. (so sánh hơn kém)

Câu hỏi: An experienced tracker can analyse fossil footprints as easily as those made by live animals. (so sánh bằng)

=> An experienced tracker có thể phân tích được fossil footprints dễ dàng như những footprints của living animals.

Xem full giải thích
6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 To physically recreate each scenario with a box of mud is time-consuming and difficult to repeat accurately 

 This is where computer simulation comes in . => Recreating mud is time-consuming, so people use computer simulation. => Bài đọc không nói gì về việc kết quả có accurate (Chính xác) hay không Câu hỏi: Research carried out into the composition of prehistoric mud has been found to be inaccurate. => Thông tin về độ chính xác không được tìm thấy trong bài.

=> Đáp án: NOT GIVEN.



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7
sail
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì vị trí của gap nằm ngay trước mạo từ “a" => Cần điền vào gap một danh từ số ít 1. Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan câu hỏi này, sẽ không khó để thí sinh locate được từ “spines" trong bài đọc.

Tuy nhiên, vấn đề nằm ở chỗ ngay cả khi locate được, thí sinh cũng không biết phải chọn từ nào để điền vào gap vì trong câu có khá nhiều các danh từ khác nhau => rối. Cách duy nhất để chọn được từ là phải thật sự hiểu rõ nội dung câu hỏi và bài đọc. 2. Linearthinking

There are those who believe that the spines acted as a support for a sail .

 Of these , one half think it ... and the other half think it (= the sail) was used as a temperature-regulating device .

-> People think spines support a sail. The sail was used as a device to regulate temperature. -> People think spines support a sail which was used to regulate temperature.

Câu hỏi: Dinosaur’s name comes from spines. One theory: they were necessary to hold up a _____ which helped control body heat. 

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8
narrow
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vị trí của gap nằm sau động từ to be => có thể điền một Adj, Noun hoặc V3/ed vào đây. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Bài đọc: The skull seems out of proportion with its thick heavy body because it is so narrow 

-> Trong trường hợp bạn không biết cụm 'out of proportion with' nghĩa là gì cũng không sao.

Ta thấy body đi với tính từ 'thick, heavy' thì trong cụm 'it is so narrow', với 'narrow' mang ý đối lập với 'thick', đại từ 'it' chỉ có thể đề cập tới 'the skull'

=> The skull is so narrow nên không cân xứng với body.

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9
locomotion
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì vị trí của chỗ trống nằm ngay trước từ “made" => Cần điền một Noun vào chỗ trống

Áp dụng Linearthinking và so sánh thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc:



 It has a deep broad tail and powerful leg muscles to aid locomotion .

=> Ta có cấu trúc: aid something = something is made easier 

So với câu hỏi: _____  made easier by wide tail and highly developed muscles in legs.

Xem full giải thích
10
moisture
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

 Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Bài đọc: Falkingham uses techniques to model a volume of mud and control the moisture content , consistency , and other conditions to simulate the mud

=> To simulate the mud, Falkingham uses techniques to model volume of mud, control the moisture content, consistency, etc

=> When simulating the mud, Falkingham chú ý tới những mặt như: the volume of mud, the moisture content, consistency, etc

Câu hỏi: Mud is simulated with attention to its texture and thickness and how much ____ it contains. 

volume of mud = texture and thickness of mud

Xem full giải thích
11
stress
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking

This footprint can be chopped up and viewed from any angle and stress values can be extracted and calculated from inside it .

=> Stress values can be calculated from inside the footprint. So với câu hỏi: Levels of ____ are measured within the footprint. 

inside = within ; calculate = measure

=> Đáp án: Stress



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12
ground
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Thí sinh nào skim/scan chữ “types" trong câu hỏi, rất dễ xác định thông tin nằm ở cụm “types of footprint" trong bài => Điền ngay “footprint" vào trong gap mà quên mất rằng từ footprint vốn dĩ đã được đề cập trong câu hỏi rồi! Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking


Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi nằm sau cụm “different types of ____” (Noun 1 of Noun2 ) => Cần điền một Noun vào đây Thông tin trong bài:

 By running hundreds of these simulations on supercomputers , Falkingham can start to understand what types of footprint  would be expected if an animal moved in a certain way over a given kind of ground . => Simulations help Falkingham understand what types of footprint would be expected on a kind (= type) of ground.

=> Simulations liên kết footprint với a kind (= type) of ground.

Câu hỏi: Multiple simulations relate footprints to different types of _____. = Simulations help Falkingham understand what types of footprint would be expected on a kind (= type) of ground.

Xem full giải thích
13
fossil tracks
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Chỗ trống trong câu hỏi này đứng ngay sau cụm “interpretation of ____” => Cấu trúc Noun 1 of Noun 2 => Cần điền Noun 2 vào chỗ trống.

 Looking at the variation in the virtual tracks , researchers can make sense of fossil tracks with confidence .

=> Researchers can be more confident when they try to understand fossil tracks.

=> Researchers tự tin hơn khi cố gắng phân tích và hiểu fossil tracks

=> Researchers nghĩ có thể phân tích và hiểu fossil tracks chính xác hơn Câu hỏi: More accurate interpretation of ______ is possible.  = Researchers can be more confident when they try to understand fossil tracks. => Đáp án: fossil tracks 



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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

The robots are coming
What is the current state of play in Artificial Intelligence?
A
A. Can robots advance so far that they become the ultimate threat to our existence? Some scientists say no, and dismiss the very idea of Artificial Intelligence. The human brain, they argue, is the most complicated system ever created, and any machine designed to reproduce human thought is bound to fail. Physicist Roger Penrose of Oxford University and others believe that machines are physically incapable of human thought. Colin McGinn of Rutgers University backs this up when he says that Artificial Intelligence ‘is like sheep trying to do complicated psycho analysis. They just don’t have the conceptual equipment they need in their limited brains’.
B
B. Artificial Intelligence, or Al, is different from most technologies in that scientists still understand very little about how intelligence works. Physicists have a good understanding of Newtonian mechanics and the quantum theory of atoms and molecules, whereas the basic laws of intelligence remain a mystery. But a sizable number of mathematicians and computer scientists, who are specialists in the area, are optimistic about the possibilities. To them it is only a matter of time before a thinking machine walks out of the laboratory. Over the years, various problems have impeded all efforts to create robots. To attack these difficulties, researchers tried to use the ‘top- down approach’, using a computer in an attempt to program all the essential rules onto a single disc. By inserting this into a machine, it would then become self-aware and attain human-like intelligence.
C
C. In the 1950s and 1960s great progress was made, but the shortcomings of these prototype robots soon became clear. They were huge and took hours to navigate across a room. Meanwhile, a fruit fly, with a brain containing only a fraction of the computing power, can effortlessly navigate in three dimensions. Our brains, like the fruit fly’s, unconsciously recognize what we see by performing countless calculations. This unconscious awareness of patterns is exactly what computers are missing. The second problem is robots’ lack of common sense. Humans know that water is wet and that mothers are older than their daughters. But there is no mathematics that can express these truths. Children learn the intuitive laws of biology and physics by interacting with the real world. Robots know only what has been programmed into them.
D
D. Because of the limitations of the top-down approach to Artificial Intelligence, attempts have been made to use a ‘bottom-up’ approach instead – that is, to try to imitate evolution and the way a baby learns. Rodney Brooks was the director of MIT’s Artificial Intelligence laboratory, famous for its lumbering ‘top- down’ walking robots. He changed the course of research when he explored the unorthodox idea of tiny ‘insectoid’ robots that learned to walk by bumping into things instead of computing mathematically the precise position of their feet. Today many of the descendants of Brooks’ insectoid robots are on Mars gathering data for NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration), running across the dusty landscape of the planet. For all their successes in mimicking the behavior of insects, however, robots using neural networks have performed miserably when their programmers have tried to duplicate in them the behavior of higher organisms such as mammals. MIT’s Marvin Minsky summarises the problems of Al: ‘The history of Al is sort of funny because the first real accomplishments were beautiful things, like a machine that could do well in a maths course. But then we started to try to make machines that could answer questions about simple children’s stories. There’s no machine today that can do that.’
E
E. There are people who believe that eventually there will be a combination between the top-down and bottom-up, which may provide the key to Artificial Intelligence. As adults, we blend the two approaches. It has been suggested that our emotions represent the quality that most distinguishes us as human, that it is impossible for machines ever to have emotions. Computer expert Hans Moravec thinks that in the future robots will be programmed with emotions such as fear to protect themselves so that they can signal to humans when their batteries are running low, for example. Emotions are vital in decision-making. People who have suffered a certain kind of brain injury lose the ability to experience emotions and become unable to make decisions. Without emotions to guide them, they debate endlessly over their options. Moravec points out that as robots become more intelligent and are able to make choices, they could likewise become paralysed with indecision. To aid them, robots of the future might need to have emotions hardwired into their brains.
F
F. There is no universal consensus as to whether machines can be conscious, or even, in human terms, what consciousness means. Minsky suggests the thinking process in our brain is not localised but spread out, with different centres competing with one another at any given time. Consciousness may then be viewed as a sequence of thoughts and images issuing from these different, smaller ‘minds’, each one competing for our attention. Robots might eventually attain a ‘silicon consciousness’. Robots, in fact, might one day embody an architecture for thinking and processing information that is different from ours – but also indistinguishable. If that happens, the question of whether they really ‘understand’ becomes largely irrelevant. A robot that has perfect mastery of syntax, for all practical purposes, understands what is being said.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 20
Reading Passage has six paragraphs A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-F
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14
An insect that proves the superiority of natural intelligence over Artificial Intelligence
15
Robots being able to benefit from their mistakes
16
Many researchers not being put off believing that Artificial Intelligence will eventually be developed
17
An innovative approach that is having limited success
18
The possibility of creating Artificial Intelligence being doubted by some academics
19
No generally accepted agreement of what our brains do
20
Robots not being able to extend the* intelligence in the same way as humans
Question 21 - 23
Look at the following people and the list of statements below.
Match each person with the correct statement A-E
Write the correct letter A-E
List of Findings
A
Artificial Intelligence may require something equivalent to feelings in order to succeed.
B
Different kinds of people use different parts of the brain.
C
Tests involving fiction have defeated Artificial Intelligence so far.
D
People have intellectual capacities which do not exist in computers.
E
People have no reason to be frightened of robots.
21
Colin McGinn
22
Marvin Minsky
23
Hans Moravec
Question 24 - 26
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
When will we have a thinking machine?
Despite some advances, the early robots had certain weaknesses. They were given the information they needed on a
24
. This was known as the ‘top-down’ approach and enabled them to do certain tasks but they were unable to recognise
25
nor did they have any intuition or ability to make decisions based on experience. Rodney Brooks tried a different approach. Robots similar to those invented by Brooks are to be found on
26
where they are collecting information.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về một loài côn trùng chứng minh sự vượt trội của trí tuệ tự nhiên so với trí tuệ nhân tạo

Xem full giải thích
15
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về khả năng của Robots

Xem full giải thích
16
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về việc nhiều nhà nghiên cứu vẫn tin tưởng rằng Trí tuệ nhân tạo cuối cùng sẽ được phát triển

Xem full giải thích
17
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về một cách tiếp cận sáng tạo nhưng thành công còn hạn chế

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18
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm thông tin về việc một số học giả nghi ngờ khả năng tạo ra Trí tuệ nhân tạo

creating Artificial Intelligence -> cụ thể thành tựu của họ trong việc chế tạo AI là gì

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19
F
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Câu này khó ở chỗ đòi hỏi bạn phải biết vocab khó để nhận diện paraphrase

- "consensus" = an opinion that all members of a group agree with -> universal consensus = universal agreement (tán thành chung/ được nhiều người đồng ý)

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

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20
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

1 + 2 : Thứ não người làm được còn robot thì không 3 -> 5 Thêm một thiếu sót nữa của robot so với con người: lack of common sense 6 + 7 Giải thích lý do tại sao robot có những thiếu sót như thế

=> Những khả năng vận dụng trí tuệ mà robot không có so với con người

So với câu hỏi: Robots not being able to extend the* intelligence in the same way as humans

-> Robot không thể phát triển được trí thông minh * theo cách giống như con người

=> Đáp án: Paragraph C



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21
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



Simplify + Read connection:

(1): Máy móc không thể nào có khả năng produce human thought như não người (2) - (3): liệt kê những nhà nghiên cứu bày tỏ ý kiến ủng hộ điều này (trong đó có Colin McGinn)

=> Colin McGin tin rằng máy móc không thể produce human thought

-> Con người có những năng lực trí tuệ mà máy tính ko có

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22
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



(1) Marvin Minsky summarises the problems of Al : ‘ The history of Al is funny because the first real accomplishments were beautiful things , like a machine that could do well in a maths course .

(2) But then we started to try to make machines that could answer questions about simple children’s stories .

(3) There ’s no machine today that can do that .’

=> machines can do math but they cannot answer questions about simple children’s stories

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23
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



 as robots become more intelligent and are able to make choices , they could become  paralysed with indecision 

 To aid them , robots of the future might need to have emotions hardwired into their brains .

=> Robots may have trouble with indecision, so they might need to have emotions

=> Robot có thể gặp rắc rối khi thiếu quyết đoán, vì vậy chúng có thể cần phải có cảm xúc

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24
disc
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



Bài đọc:

 1 problems have impeded all efforts to create robots .

 2 To attack these difficulties , researchers tried to use the ‘top- down approach’ , using a computer in an attempt to program all the essential rules onto a single disc

 3 By inserting this into a machine , it would then become self-aware and attain human-like intelligence 

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25
patterns
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:



Bài đọc: This awareness of patterns is what computers are missing .

=> Computers are missing the awareness of patterns

So với câu hỏi: ... they were unable to recognise _________ = Computers are missing the awareness of patterns

=> Đáp án: patterns

( Không chọn awareness vì nó thật ra là paraphrase của recognise)

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26
Mars
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Today many of the descendants of Brooks’ robots are on Mars gathering data for NASA

=> Ngày nay, nhiều hậu duệ của Brooks' robots (= các robots tương tự) đang ở Mars thu thập thông tin cho NASA

=> Similar robots are to be found on Mars

Câu hỏi: Robots similar to those invented by Brooks are to be found on ________ where they are collecting information. = Similar robots are to be found on Mars

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Endangered languages
‘Nevermind whales, save the languages’, says Peter Monaghan, graduate of the Australian National University
Worried about the loss of rain forests and the ozone layer? Well, neither of those is doing any worse than a large majority of the 6,000 to 7,000 languages that remain in use on Earth. One half of the survivors will growing evidence that not all approaches to the almost certainly be gone by 2050, while 40% more preservation of languages will be particularly will probably be well on their way out. In their place, almost all humans will speak one of a handful of megalanguages – Mandarin, English, Spanish. Linguists know what causes languages to disappear, but less often remarked is what happens on the way to disappearance: languages’ vocabularies, grammars and expressive potential all diminish as one language is replaced by another. ‘Say a community goes over from speaking a traditional Aboriginal language to speaking a creole*,’ says Australian Nick Evans, a leading authority on Aboriginal languages, ‘you leave behind a language where there’s very fine vocabulary for the landscape. All that is gone in a creole. You’ve just got a few words like ‘gum tree’ or whatever. As speakers become less able to express the wealth of knowledge that has filled ancestors’ lives with meaning over millennia, it’s no wonder that communities tend to become demoralised.’ If the losses are so huge, why are relatively few linguists combating the situation? Australian linguists, at least, have achieved a great deal in terms of preserving traditional languages. Australian governments began in the 1970s to support an initiative that has resulted in good documentation of most of the 130 remaining Aboriginal languages. In England, another Australian, Peter Austin, has directed one of the world’s most active efforts to limit language loss, at the University of London. Austin heads a programme that has trained many documentary linguists in England as well as in language-loss hotspots such as West Africa and South America. At linguistics meetings in the US, where the endangered-language issue has of late been something of a flavour of the month, there is growing evidence that not all approaches to the preservation of languages will be particularly helpful. Some linguists are boasting, for example, of more and more sophisticated means of capturing languages: digital recording and storage, and internet and mobile phone technologies. But these are encouraging the ‘quick dash’ style of recording trip: fly in, switch on digital recorder, fly home, download to hard drive, and store gathered material for future research. That’s not quite what some endangered-language specialists have been seeking for more than 30 years. Most loud and untiring has been Michael Krauss, of the University of Alaska. He has often complained that linguists are playing with non-essentials while most of their raw data is disappearing. Who is to blame? That prominent linguist Noam Chomsky, say Krauss and many others. Or, more precisely, they blame those linguists who have been obsessed with his approaches. Linguists who go out into communities to study, document and describe languages, argue that theoretical linguists, who draw conclusions about how languages work, have had so much influence that linguistics has largely ignored the continuing disappearance of languages. Chomsky, from his post at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has been the great man of theoretical linguistics for far longer than he has been known as a political commentator. His landmark work of 1957 argues that all languages exhibit certain universal grammatical features, encoded in the human mind. American linguists, in particular, have focused largely on theoretical concerns ever since, even while doubts have mounted about Chomsky’s universals. Austin and Co. are in no doubt that because languages are unique, even if they do tend to have common underlying features, creating dictionaries and grammars requires prolonged and dedicated work. This requires that documentary linguists observe not only languages’ structural subtleties, but also related social, historical and political factors. Such work calls for persistent funding of field scientists who may sometimes have to venture into harsh and even hazardous places. Once there, they may face difficulties such as community suspicion. As Nick Evans says, a community who speak an endangered language may have reasons to doubt or even oppose efforts to preserve it. They may have seen support and funding for such work come and go. They may have given up using the language with their children, believing they will benefit from speaking a more widely understood one. Plenty of students continue to be drawn to the intellectual thrill of linguistics field work. That’s all the more reason to clear away barriers, contend Evans, Austin and others. The highest barrier, they agree, is that the linguistics profession’s emphasis on theory gradually wears down the enthusiasm of linguists who work in communities. Chomsky disagrees. He has recently begun to speak in support of language preservation. But his linguistic, as opposed to humanitarian, argument is, let’s say, unsentimental: the loss of a language, he states, ‘is much more of a tragedy for linguists whose interests are mostly theoretical, like me, than for linguists who focus on describing specific languages, since it means the permanent loss of the most relevant data for general theoretical work’. At the moment, few institutions award doctorates for such work, and that’s the way it should be, he reasons. In linguistics, as in every other discipline, he believes that good descriptive work requires thorough theoretical understanding and should also contribute to building new theory. But that’s precisely what documentation does, objects Evans. The process of immersion in a language, to extract, analyse and sum it up, deserves a PhD because it is ‘the most demanding intellectual task a linguist can engage in’.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
27
By 2050 only a small number of languages will be flourishing.
28
Australian academics’ efforts to record existing Aboriginal languages have been too limited.
29
The use of technology In language research is proving unsatisfactory in some respects.
30
Chomsky’s political views have overshadowed his academic work.
31
Documentary linguistics studies require long-term financial support.
32
Chomsky’s attitude to disappearing languages is too emotional.
Question 33 - 36
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
33
The writer mentions rainforests and the ozone layer.
A
because he believes anxiety about environmental issues is unfounded.
B
to demonstrate that academics in different disciplines share the same problems.
C
because they exemplify what is wrong with the attitudes of some academics.
D
to make the point that the public should be equally concerned about languages.
34
What does Nick Evans say about speakers of a creole?
A
They lose the ability to express ideas which are part of their culture.
B
Older and younger members of the community have difficulty communicating.
C
They express their ideas more clearly and concisely than most people.
D
Accessing practical information causes problems for them.
35
What is similar about West Africa and South America, from the linguist’s point of view?
A
The English language is widely used by academics and teachers.
B
The documentary linguists who work there were trained by Australians.
C
Local languages are disappearing rapidly in both places.
D
There are now only a few undocumented languages there.
36
Michael Krauss has frequently pointed out that
A
linguists are failing to record languages before they die out.
B
linguists have made poor use of improvements in technology.
C
linguistics has declined in popularity as an academic subject.
D
linguistics departments are underfunded in most universities.
Question 37 - 40
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-G below.
Write the correct letter A-G.
List of Endings
A
even though it is in danger of disappearing.
B
provided that it has a strong basis in theory.
C
although it may share certain universal characteristics
D
because there is a practical advantage to it
E
so long as the drawbacks are clearly understood.
F
in spite of the prevalence of theoretical linguistics.
G
until they realize what is involved
Linguists like Peter Austin believe that every language is unique
37
Nick Evans suggests a community may resist attempts to save its language
38
Many young researchers are interested in doing practical research
39
Chomsky supports work in descriptive linguistics
40

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nếu skim/scan câu này mà không hiểu, học viên rất dễ chọn nhầm đáp án thành NOT GIVEN vì không tìm thấy từ nào paraphrase cho từ “flourishing” trong câu hỏi. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking
By 2050 , [...] Almost all humans will speak one of a handful of mega-languages Mandarin, English, Spanish. => “Mega-languages" là các “siêu ngôn ngữ", những ngôn ngữ cực kì phổ biến => Có một vài ngôn ngữ sẽ trở thành mega-languages, trở nên cực kì phổ biến => By 2050,  A handful of languages will be very popular. Câu hỏi:  By 2050 only a small number of languages will be flourishing. =  By 2050 only a small number of languages will be successful/ popular.

-> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc

=> Đáp án: YES



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28
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Khi skim/scan, học viên rất dễ chọn 1 trong 2 đáp án:+ YES: vì thấy 3 keywords quan trọng trong câu hỏi “Australian linguists", “documentation" và “remaining Aboriginal languages" đều được tìm thấy trong bài.+ NOT GIVEN: vì không tìm được từ “limited" trong bài.  Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking
(1) Australian linguists have achieved a great deal in terms of preserving traditional languages . => Australian linguists achieved a lot in preserving (= maintaining traditional languages)

(2) Australian governments began to support an initiative that has resulted in good documentation of most of the remaining Aboriginal languages => Câu 2 đưa ra dẫn chứng cho câu 1 (Australian linguists đạt thành tựu trong preserving language như thế nào): Good documentation of remaining Aboriginal languages => Tổng kết 2 câu: Australian linguists documented remaining Aboriginal languages well.

Câu hỏi: Australian academics’ efforts to record existing Aboriginal languages have been too limited (= little)

-> Những nỗ lực của các học giả Úc để ghi lại các ngôn ngữ thổ dân hiện có còn quá hạn chế (= ít) => Bài đọc khen Australian academics làm tốt (good), câu hỏi lại chê là làm chưa đủ (limited)

-> Thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc trái ngược nhau

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29
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Gần như 90% các thí sinh khi skim/scan câu này đều sẽ chọn NOT GIVEN, vì trong bài đọc chẳng thấy đề cập gì tới việc sử dụng technology là thành công hay không thành công (unsatisfactory) cả.  Tuy nhiên, thực tế là trong bài có đề cập tới ý này, chỉ là không paraphrase bằng từ đồng nghĩa nên khiến học viên gặp nhiều khó khăn mà thôi. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking 
1. Some linguists are boasting of more sophisticated means of capturing languages: digital recording ... 2. But these are encouraging the ‘quick dash’ style of recording trip 3. That is not quite what some endangered-language specialists have been seeking => Linguists dùng technology để capture languages nhưng đó không phải điều mà specialists muốn => Từ “but" nối giữa câu (1) và (2) thể hiện rõ mối quan hệ giữa 2 câu này là mối quan hệ tương phản: Linguists sử dụng technology nhưng điều này không tốt.

-> Nên Linguists không hài lòng với việc dùng công nghệ Câu hỏi: The use of technology In language research is proving unsatisfactory in some respects. -> Ý “unsatisfactory" trong câu hỏi được paraphrase trong bài ở chỗ “that is not what specialists have been seeking” (việc dùng công nghệ không phải là điều specialists tìm kiếm => specialists không hài lòng với điều này

-> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc

=> Đáp án: Yes



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30
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Nhiều bạn khi Skim/scan câu này sẽ dễ chọn YES vì 3 keywords: Chomsky, academic work và political đều được tìm thấy dễ dàng trong bài đọc. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

(1) Chomsky has been theoretical linguistics for far longer than he has been known as a political commentator -> Chomsky is more famous as a linguistic (2) His landmark work argues that all languages exhibit universal grammatical features -> a famous work of Chomsky about languages -> Trong bài đúng là có đề cập tới Chomsky và academic work của ông, cũng có nói rằng ông là một “political commentator", tuy nhiên lại không nói gì về việc quan điểm chính trị ảnh hưởng tới academic work của ông như thế nào.

-> Không tìm thấy thông tin

=> Đáp án: Not Given



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31
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

This requires that documentary linguists observe  not only languages’ subtleties, but also related factors 

 Such work calls for persistent funding => The work of documentary linguists calls for persistent funding. Câu hỏi: Documentary linguistics studies require long-term financial support. Mà long-term financial support = persistent funding

-> Thông tin câu hỏi trùng khớp với bài đọc =>  Đáp án: YES



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32
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 Chomsky disagrees .

 He has begun to speak in support of language preservation .

 But his linguistic argument is unsentimental => Chomsky's view about the loss of a language is unsentimental (= unemotional)  Câu hỏi:  Chomsky’s attitude to disappearing languages is too emotional. => “Unsentimental" # “Too emotional" -> Thông tin câu hỏi và bài đọc trái ngược nhau => Đáp án: No



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33
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Skimming/scanning

Dạng câu hỏi Multiple Choice thường đòi hỏi thí sinh phải thật sự hiểu được connection giữa các thông tin, chứ không chỉ đơn thuần là skim/scan từ khoá giống nhau. Với câu hỏi này, nếu skim/scan, thí sinh rất dễ thấy không có lựa chọn nào hoàn toàn trùng khớp với thông tin trong bài. Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking
(1) Worried about the loss of rain forests and the ozone layer? (2) neither of those is doing any worse than   a large majority of the 6,000 to 7,000 languages that remain in use on Earth . => 2 câu có thể hiểu là: Both forests and the ozone layer are not doing worse than the majority of languages that remain in use of Earth => Most languages are doing worse than forests and the ozone layer => If we care about forests and the ozone layer, we should care about most languages too.

=> So sánh với các lựa chọn, D. to make the point that the public should be equally concerned about languages là đáp án phù hợp nhất (be concerned about something = care about something)

=> Đáp án: D



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34
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

(1) A community goes from speaking a traditional language to speaking a creole

(2) You leave behind a language where there is very fine vocabulary

(3) All that is gone in a creole

(4) You have got a few words

(5) As speakers become less able to express the wealth of knowledge , communities become demoralised -> Main idea: A community goes from speaking a language with a fine vocabulary to speaking a creole and becomes less able to express the wealth of knowledge of their ancestors.

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35
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Austin heads a programme that has trained many documentary linguists in England as well as in language-loss hotspots => West Africa and South America are language-loss hotspots (điểm nóng của việc ngôn ngữ bị mai một) => Language loss is happening a lot in West Africa and South America.

So với list đáp án, C. Local languages are disappearing rapidly in both places là đáp án phù hợp nhất

Local languages are disappearing = language loss

in both places = West Africa and South America. => Đáp án: C



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36
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

(1) Most loud has been Michael Krauss (2) He complained that linguists are playing with non-essentials while their data is disappearing . => Michael Krauss complained that linguists could not record data and the data is disappearing. 

-> Michael Krauss phàn nàn rằng các nhà ngôn ngữ học không thể ghi lại tư liệu và tư liệu dần biến mất.

So với các lựa chọn, A. linguists are failing to record languages before they die out. là lựa chọn phù hợp nhất Vì fail to record languages = could not record data disappear = die out => Đáp án: A


Lưu ý Nhiều thí sinh sẽ chọn nhầm đáp án B vì thấy có từ “technology" xuất hiện trong bài. Tuy nhiên, Michael Krauss không hề chỉ trích cách sử dụng technology là sai (poor use of technology) mà nói luôn là technology là không cần thiết (non-essentials)

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37
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking:

Austin and Co. are in no doubt that because languages are unique , even if they do tend to have common underlying features => Although languages have some common features between them, every single one is unique. -> Mặc dù các ngôn ngữ có một số đặc điểm chung, nhưng mỗi ngôn ngữ đều là duy nhất. So với lựa chọn C. Linguists like Peter Austin believe that every language is unique although it may share certain universal characteristics

-> Các nhà ngôn ngữ học như Peter Austin tin rằng mọi ngôn ngữ là duy nhất mặc dù nó có thể có chung một số đặc điểm chung nhất định => Đáp án: C



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38
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

As Nick Evans says , a community who speak an endangered language may oppose efforts to preserve it => a community may oppose efforts to preserve an endangered language.

So với các lựa chọn, A là lựa chọn chính xác nhất: Nick Evans suggests a community may resist attempts to save its language even though it is in danger of disappearing.

Nick Evans cho rằng một cộng đồng có thể chống lại những nỗ lực khôi phục ngôn ngữ của mình mặc dù nó có nguy cơ biến mất. Vì endangered (bị đe doạ) = in danger of disappearing.

=> Đáp án: A



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39
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

(1) Plenty of students continue to be drawn to linguistics field work . (2) [...] (3) the linguistics profession’s emphasis on theory wears down the enthusiasm of linguists => Many students are drawn to linguistic field work even though there is an emphasis on theory. (Nghiên cứu sinh bị cuốn hút bởi việc nghiên cứu thực tế mặc dù ngành này thường thiên về lý thuyêt) =>  So với list các lựa chọn, F là lựa chọn phù hợp nhất: Many young researchers are interested in doing practical research in spite of the prevalence (= popularity) of theoretical linguistics. Vì prevalence of theoretical linguistics = emphasis on theory -> Nhiều nhà nghiên cứu trẻ quan tâm đến việc nghiên cứu thực tế bất chấp sự phổ biến của ngôn ngữ học lý thuyết. => Đáp án: F


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B
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

good descriptive work requires  thorough theoretical understanding => Good descriptive work requires a strong understanding in theory. -> Good descriptive work yêu cầu hiểu biết rõ về lý thuyết So với list đáp án để chọn cái phù hợp nhất: B. Chomsky supports work in descriptive linguistics provided that it has a strong basis in theory (Chomsky support work in descriptive linguistics miễn là nó có nền tảng lý thuyết vững chắc)

=> Đáp án: B



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