Đề thi IELTS Online Test IELTS Actual Test 6 - Listening Test 4 - Download PDF, Audio Transcript và Đáp án

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test IELTS Actual Test 6 - Listening Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 6 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Đề thi IELTS Online Test IELTS Actual Test 6 - Listening Test 4 - Download PDF, Audio Transcript và Đáp án

Section 1

👂️ Bài nghe section 1

00:00
Question 1 - 5
Complete the summary.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR NUMBERS for each answer.
Survey Form

Example

Dealing with: exercise
Time contacted:
1

Suburb: 
2

Age Group:
3

Occupation:
4
Family:
5

Question 6 - 10
Complete the summary.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
The subject undertakes exercise by regularly
6
. She does yoga in order to relax and
7
her muscles. When she was younger, she would
8
, and in the future, she may go
9
although that will depend on whether she has enough
10


❓ Tapescript section 1

Survey Form
00:00
Rep.:
Hello?
Person:
Hello? Who is this?
Rep.:
Hello. I’m a representative of the Tallyho Survey Company, and I’d like to ask you a few questions regarding exercise.
Person:
Oh, that’s an interesting subject.
Rep.:
Yes, we think so, too.
Person:
But I’m afraid I’m a bit busy at the moment.
Rep.:
Don’t worry. This will only take about four minutes at the most. It’s 10:25 now, so it will all be over by 10:30.
Person:
Well ... alright, if it’s that short.
Rep.:
It will be. So, one of the first things I need to know is where you are — that is, which suburb or area of the city? The last client was in Blackburn, for example.
Person:
Blackburn. That’s close to me. I’m in Box Hill.
Rep.:
Another eastern suburb then. I have a friend in Box Hill, too. Interesting place. Now, I need your approximate age for this survey. Are you younger than 20, between 20 and 29, 30 and 39, and so on?
Person:
I’ll turn 40 in a few months, so that puts me in the 40 to 49 age group.
Rep.:
Well, that’s in a few months, so right now you’re in the 30 to 39.
Person:
Oh, right. So put that then.
Rep.:
Okay. Now, I need to know your occupation. The last caller was a housewife, for example; the one before that a teacher.
Person:
I used to be a teacher, too, teaching cookery.
Rep.:
And now?
Person:
Now you can just put ‘ domestic duties’. Actually, I hope to begin a new job soon, as a cook, but that won’t be for some time yet. I have to wait for my husband’s restaurant to open.
Rep.:
Cook? That sounds interesting, but it’s ‘domestic duties’ for now. Okay, that just leaves some information about your family. This is not obligatory at all, so if you don’t want to answer, that’s fine.
Person:
What sort of information, exactly?
Rep.:
Oh, it’s very broad. Married, with children; single mother, that sort of thing. The last customer said she was a single mother.
Person:
I’m married, and not a mother. Put ‘ married, no children’.
Rep.:
I’m married with children, myself. But I’ll put in your details, and that finishes the profile, and just l eaves the actual survey itself, if you’re ready to proceed.
Rep.:
Alright, let’s begin the survey now, about your exercise habits.
Person:
I’m afraid I don’t exercise much at all.
Rep.:
Well, the main question is in what form you take your exercise, however little that may be — for example, in just cleaning. Do you clean the house?
Person:
My husband does the cleaning, actually, but I walk to the supermarket and shops very often, up to four times a week.
Rep.:
I’ll put that then, unless there’s something else.
Person:
Nothing else, really. But I diet. I’m very strict about what I eat. Oh, and I do yoga, although that’s not very energetic—more a form of relaxation, and to tighten my muscles.
Rep.:
They’re both important, of course, but what about sport? Do you undertake any sporting activities? This could be very infrequent. In the past, for example.
Person:
My husband plays basketball at the local school, and I sometimes watch. When he was younger he was in a basketball team, but I never participated.
Rep.:
Have you done anything at all?
Person:
I used to hike in a nearby national park.
Rep.:
Well that’s a definite physical activity, so I’ll put that—but not basketball. Alright, that just leaves future exercise intentions. Do you plan, or expect to do, at some stage, any form of exercise?
Person:
I once dreamt of doing modern dance, but that’s never going to happen. Realistically, I’m thinking about going swimming, at the local aquatic centre, although my husband thinks we should just jog. I can’t see myself doing that, though—too tiring.
Rep.:
I can understand. I used to jog, too, and it really makes you sweat. I’d say swimming’s a much better option.
Person:
But I’ll be starting this job as a cook in my husband’s restaurant. I imagine I’ll be very tired doing all those late shifts. But if I have any energy left over, I might go to the aquatic centre to release some stress.
Rep.:
Alright. Well, that’s the end of the survey. Thank you very much for your time.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 1

1
10:25 (am)
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về thời gian liên hệ



Nghe thấy "it's 10:25 now, so it will all be over by 10:30 "

=> Khách hàng được liên hệ vào lúc 10:25 => Đáp án: 10:25 (am)





Tránh nhầm với 10:30 vì đó là thời gian cuộc gọi kết thúc

Xem full giải thích
2
Box Hill
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đáp án cần điền là tên riêng của một khu vực (suburb: ___ )

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "which suburb or area of the city"





Nghe thấy "Blackburn. That's close to me. I'm in Box Hill"

=> Cô này sống ở Box Hill, gần Blackburn. => Đáp án: Box Hill



Xem full giải thích
3
30 to 39
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đáp án cần điền nhóm tuổi

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Now, I need your approximate age for this survey"





Nghe thấy "I'll turn 40 in a few months và that puts me in the 40 to 49"

=> Vài tháng nữa là 40 tuổi nên có thể rơi vào nhóm 40-49 tuổi

Xem full giải thích
4
domestic duties
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đáp án cần điền là nghề nghiệp

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Now, I need to know your occupation"





Nghe thấy "I used to be a teacher"

=> Trước đây là teacher, bây giờ không phải => Đáp án không phải là teacher



Xem full giải thích
5
married, no children
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về gia đình của cô ấy

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Okay, that just leaves some information about your family"





Nghe thấy người phụ nữ trả lời là "I'm married, and not a mother"

Nghe thêm thấy nói "put 'married, no children' "

Xem full giải thích
6
walking
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem đối tượng tập thể dục bằng cách nào

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "...about your exercise habits"

Người đàn ông hỏi "Do you clean the house?"

Nhưng cô ấy trả lời là "My husband does the cleaning"

=> Đáp án không phải là cleaning



Xem full giải thích
7
tighten
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem cô ấy tập yoga để relax và làm gì với muscle

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Oh, and I do yoga"

Nghe tiếp thấy "more a form of relaxation and to tighten my muscles"

=> Tập yoga để thư giãn và làm săn chắc cơ bắp => Đáp án: tighten



Xem full giải thích
8
hike
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về việc cô ấy làm khi còn trẻ

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "In the past, for example"



Nghe tiếp thấy "I used to hike"

=> Khi còn trẻ cô ấy từng leo núi => Đáp án: hike



Xem full giải thích
9
swimming
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem trong tương lai có thể cô ấy sẽ làm gì

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Alright, that just leaves future exercise intention."

Nghe tiếp thấy "I once dreamt of doing modern dance, but that's never going to happen"

=> Muốn được tập nhảy hiện đại nhưng không thể => Không phải đáp án



Nghe thêm thấy "I'm thinking of going swimming"

Xem full giải thích
10
energy
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì câu này link với câu trước nên mình cần biết cô ấy sẽ đi bơi chỉ khi cô ấy có đủ cái gì

Nghe thấy "I'll be very tired doing all those late shifts. But if I have any energy left over, I might go to the aquatic centre.."

=> Đi làm sẽ rất bận rộn, nhưng nếu có đủ sức thì sẽ đi bơi => Đáp án: energy



Xem full giải thích

Section 2

👂️ Bài nghe section 2

00:00
Question 11 - 16
Label the floor plan.
Write the correct letter, A-F, for each answer.
AT6_L4_P2_Independent Learning Centre_NoOpt.jpg
A
B
C
D
E
F
Quiet reading
11
Computers
12
Newspapers & magazines
13
Reference books
14
Audio section
15
Main library
16
Question 17 - 20
Complete the timetable.
Write the correct letter, A-J, for each answer.
AT6_L4_P2_Independent Learning Centre_NoOpt (1).jpg
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
Teacher-led discussion
17
Writing skills
18
On-call teacher
19
Language exchange
20

❓ Tapescript section 2

Independent Learning Centre
00:00
Welcome to the library, or the I.L.C.. which means Independent Learning Centre, and let me explain about some of its facilities. We're standing here at the entry gales, next to the borrowing desk. That's where you check out any books, but you are also advised to study in the library here, since most of our material cannot be borrowed.
Thus, we have Seating along the middle of the library, and in that far corner in front of us. on the left, we have the Quiet Reading Section, for some serious reading activity. We used to have the computers there but then realised that that corner was very quiet, and thus better suited for the purpose it now has.
The computers were instead shifled to a more central location, right beside us here, on the left. Again, somewhat confusingly, this area once housed the Newspaper and Magazine Section, but the people in the Quiet Reading Area had to walk loo far to collect this literature, so it was moved to right beside them, in the adjacent corner.
So, feel free to read the newspapers there. But the reference books, those huge weighty dictionaries, atlases, and encyclopedias, were all situated at the opposite end of the building, against the wall. This was because they weren't generally that popular, and we wanted more space for the magazine racks, always a favourite with readers.
Okay, as well as reading, you need to work on your listening skills, and for that you need the Audio Section. Again, such an activity needs a quiet area, so we put this in the last remaining corner, up there on your right, as you can see. There are CD players and headphones, so just borrow the listening packs, sit down there, and listen away.
Right, that just leaves the main library. In other libraries, that's often right beside the Newspaper and Magazine Section, allowing freedom to choose from all genres of literature, but here, we've got them further apart.
For the main library, just follow your nose, past the central settling there, and it’s there among all that shelving, upon which you’ll find an abundance of interesting hooks and listening packs to use.
Now, I’d like to tell you a bit more about an excellent service offered in the I.L.C. here that we call the 'Special Sessions'. What can you do in them? For a start, many of you need practice in speaking English. and for that we hold a special Discussion Session, led by a teacher.
That can be noisy, in fact, we hope that it is noisy, since that would mean many people are talking. It's in the Central Seating area, and it used to be from 10.30 to 1.30. but we found that the noise was disturbing the regular I.L.C patrons, so we shortened and moved this discussion to the morning, 9.00 am time slot, when fewer people tire in the centre. It goes for one and a half hours.
Alright, what about Writing Skills? Well, we can help you there with another teacher. Now, writing is a fairly quiet activity, so that teacher stations him or herself in the Quiet Reading area from 1.30 until three. The 10.30-to-midday time slot cannot have a teacher for such writing skills, as they are all teaching in the morning.
For this reason, of course, there cannot be an on-call teacher in the morning either, although many people would like one, particularly the 10.30-to- noon crowd, having just finished their early morning class. These students all have to wait until midday onwards, when, for three hours, a teacher will be stationed in the Audio Section, ready to deal with all those questions.
Until recently, we had another teacher doing the 3-pm-to-6-pm time slot, in the Central Settling, but all the noise interfered with the late users of the I.L.C., so we had to cancel that. Also noisy can be the Language Exchange, where local students who want to learn your language will help you practise English.
This is generally done in pairs, so the noise level is low enough not to need this exchange to run at 9 am, but at a more congenial time of 10.30, among the Central Seating. That must finish by 1.30 though, after which quieter and more individual activities take place.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 2

11
A
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới "Seating along the middle of the library" (đang bắt đầu miêu tả sơ đồ library)

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe thấy "that far corner in front of us, on the left, we have the Quiet Reading Section"

=> Góc xa ở bên trái là vị trí A => Đáp án là A



Xem full giải thích
12
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe về khu máy tính



Nghe thấy "the computers were instead shifted to a more central location, right beside us here, on the left"

=> Ngay bên trái nơi speaker đang đứng (entry gate) => Đáp án là E



Xem full giải thích
13
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới "this area once housed newspaper and magazines section"

=> Đáp án sắp tới





Nghe thấy "...but the people in the Quiet Reading Area had to walk too far to collect this literature, so it was moved to right beside them, in the adjacent corner"

=> Newspaper & magazines được chuyển lại gần Quiet Reading Area, ở ngay góc bên cạnh (adjacent corner) => Đáp án là D



Xem full giải thích
14
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "reference books, those huge weighty dictionaries..."

Nghe thấy "reference books [...] were all situated at the opposite end of the building"

=> Sách tham khảo được đặt ở góc đối diện bên kia phòng => Chiếu từ vị trí ở câu trước (D), thì đối diện là vị trí F => Đáp án là F



Xem full giải thích
15
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "...and for that you need the Audio Section"

Nghe thấy "we put this in the last remaining corner, up there on your right"

=> Đặt ở góc phòng cuối cùng, ở trên bên phải => Đáp án là C



Xem full giải thích
16
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



BIết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "For the main library..."

Nghe thấy "...just follow your nose, past the central Seating there"

=> Đi thẳng từ entry gate, qua phần Seating ở giữa => Đáp án là B





Xem full giải thích
17
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng của mình là Teacher-led discussion

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "and for that we hold a special Discussion Session, led by a teacher"

Nghe thấy "it's in the Central Seating area"

=> Đáp án có thể là E, F, hoặc G

Nghe tiếp thấy "it used to be from 10.30 to 1.30"

Xem full giải thích
18
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng của mình là Writing Skills

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Alright, what about Writing SKills?"

Nghe thấy "teacher stations him or herself in the Quiet Reading area from 1.30 until three"

=> Writing diễn ra ở khu vực Quiet Reading từ 1.30 tới 3.00 => Chọn đáp án C



Nghe tiếp thấy có nhắc tới 10.30 to midday

Xem full giải thích
19
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đối tượng tiếp theo là On-call teacher



Nghe thấy "there cannot be an on-call teacher in the morning"

=> On-call teacher không có vào buổi sáng => Loại được các khung giờ còn lại vào buổi sáng



Nghe tiếp thấy "students have to wait until midday onwards, when, for three hours, a teacher will be stationed in the Audio Section"

=> Có thể gặp on-call teacher từ 12.00 trưa trở đi, kéo dài 3 tiếng (tới 3.00) tại Audio Section => Chọn đáp án I



Xem full giải thích
20
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng cuối cùng là Language exchange

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Also noisy can be the Language Exchange,.."





Nghe thấy "the noise level is low enough not to need this exchange to run at 9 am"

=> Không cần phải bắt đầu lúc 9 am => Loại đáp án A



Xem full giải thích

Section 3

👂️ Bài nghe section 3

00:00
Question 21 - 24
Complete the summary.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
One of the basic strategies when listening to lectures is to use
21
. This saves times, but it is only effective if they can be
22
later. More generally, it is necessary to format the page in anticipation of the
23
of the lecture. As an example, one can draw
24
, tables, and flowcharts, consistent with the way the subject matter is presented.
Question 25 - 30
Complete the table.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

❓ Tapescript section 3

Lecture-Listening Note-Taking Strategies
00:00
Dylan:
Hi, Emily. What did you think of that lecture?
Emily:
A bit hard to follow, but I have some good lecture-listening note-taking strategies which really help, so I can review the lecturer’s message later.
Dylan:
Lecture-listening note-taking strategies? Review it later? That sounds interesting. I must admit, I struggle a bit to take down the gist of what I hear. Look at my notes.
Emily:
Well, I can see a basic problem immediately. You’re writing full words, such as ‘century’ when all you need is a ‘C’, And don’t write ‘increase’; just draw an ‘up’ arrow. And why write ‘thousand’ when a ‘th’ will do?
Dylan:
I see. Just use symbols. That’s not a bad idea at all.
Emily:
It’s the most basic strategy, allowing you to record information at a faster pace. These lecturers can talk faster than others, too, so you don’t want to waste any time. But you need to be very familiar with your set of symbols.
Dylan:
Why?
Emily:
Because you’ll have to look at these notes days, weeks, or even months afterwards, when you begin writing your essay, so you’ll need to be able to interpret them at a later stage.
Dylan:
I think I can do this, even by looking at your notes. ‘Immed’ must mean immediately.
Emily:
But regarding the lecture as a whole, I knew the professor would be giving a set of specific recommendations, and comparing two alternative approaches, so I formatted my page in advance, adding the features consistent with the nature of what I was going to hear.
Dylan:
Ah ... I think I need an example of what you mean.
Emily:
Well, look at my page. Before the lecture, I drew large headings saying ‘recommendations’. You should always draw these, and I drew a table saying, ‘Approach 1’ and ‘Approach 2’. At the end I drew a flowchart, as obviously the final recommendation would be a step-by-step approach. Then I was prepared in advance to simply fill in the spaces.
Dylan:
Wow! Now that’s clever.
Dylan:
Your advice about note taking sounds great, but I still have one question, Emily. How are you able to design your page in advance? I mean, how can you predict the nature of the talk, and know which design is likely to work best?
Emily:
It’s rather obvious when you think about it. What’s your next lecture about?
Dylan:
Legal Studies.
Emily:
Well, that suggests to me that you’ll need a flowchart, since the judicial system has a very logical ‘do this first, do that second’ approach, which must be followed in that order—y’know, all the processes that happen in the courtroom, and the procedures that must take place to ensure complete legality.
Dylan:
Sure. That’s the way law is, very linear and orderly, but what about Culture Studies? That’s just a mass of comparisons of different cultures.
Emily:
Which tells you that you will need a table, where, in tabular form, you can efficiently write down information.
Dylan:
But often the lecture’s not that simple. The professor throws in a really complex mix of ideas.
Emily:
Then use a spider graph—like the web a spider makes, where there’s a central idea around which you attach all the associated thoughts, and ideas, and impressions.
Dylan:
I see. I think I understand. And that would be very quick, too; very efficient. I like that. But what about Management Theory? How would you approach that?
Emily:
The same as with Culture Studies. I’d use a network, which is basically the same as a spider graph, linking thoughts, although this time there are directions involved. It is this element that makes it different—the fact that the thoughts go one way and not the other.
Dylan:
Okay ... has directions. It sounds logical. And what about the other subjects, such as Political Science? There’s no predictable order to that.
Emily:
Well, for that I’d just put my notes in a line, that is, in linear, or straight- line fashion, and these notes would use symbols, of course, to save time.
Dylan:
Okay, that just leaves Mass Media.
Emily:
For that, I wouldn’t have any special design at all. As you say, sometimes it’s impossible to predict in what way lecturers will present their information, in which case the best you can do is pre-write headings, but not specific, just general, as in Main One, Main Two, Sub One, Two, and Three, and so on.
Dylan:
Okay.
Emily:
But always be prepared to adapt to the nature of the talk, using any one of the other methods if it becomes appropriate at the time.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 3

21
symbols
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem nên dùng cái gì khi nghe giảng

=> Biết đáp án sấp tới khi nghe "Lecture-listening note-taking strategies?"





Nghe thấy Dylan nói "Just use symbols"

=> Dùng kí hiệu (thay cho từ) =>Đáp án: symbols



Xem full giải thích
22
interpreted
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem sau đó phải làm gì thì việc dùng symbol mới hiệu quả



Nghe tới "you don't want to waste any time"

=> Bằng nghĩa với saves time trong đề => Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe tiếp thấy "you'll need to be able to interpret them at a later stage"

=> Cân phải hiểu và giải nghĩa được khi xem lại => Vì đáp án theo sau 'can be' nên mình phải dùng thể bị động [be +V3] của interpret => Đáp án: interpreted



Xem full giải thích
23
nature
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem nên format the page theo cái gì của lecture

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "formatted my page in advance" (= format the page in anticipation)

Nghe thấy "adding the features consistent with the nature of what I was going to hear"

=> "what I was going to hear" ở đây ý nói về lecture => Đáp án: nature



Bạn có thể nghe thấy features và nghĩ đó là đáp án, tuy nhiên theo câu Emily nói thì mình hiểu là features này là do Emily tự thêm vô để hợp với bản chất (nature) của bài

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24
headings
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Giải thích chi tiết



Đáp án cần điền là thứ được vẽ, bên cạnh tables, flowcharts

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "I need an example" (ví dụ về cách format)





Nghe thấy "I drew large headings"

=> Nghe được keyword "draw" => Đáp án: headings

(do chỉ được điền một từ)

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25
Legal
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Đáp án cần điền là tên môn học ( ____ Studies)

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "what's your next lecture?"





Nghe thấy "Legal Studies"

=> Đáp án: Legal



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26
procedures
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Mình cần nghe về các cách design page

Loại từ cần điền là danh từ

Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "all the processes that happen in the courtroom" (ứng với item đến trước đáp án)





Nghe tiếp thấy "the procedures that must take place"

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27
associated
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Loại từ cần điền là tính từ (linking ___ thoughts)



Nghe tới "Then use a spider graph..." (ứng với item tới trước đáp án)

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe tiếp thấy "where there's a central idea around which you attach all the associated thoughts"

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28
directions
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Mình cần nghe về điểm khác biệt giữa network và spider graph (like spider graph but has ___ )



Nghe thấy "But what about Management Theory?" (nói về khóa học tiếp theo)

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe thấy "network, which is basically the same as a spider graph [...] although this time there are directions involved"

=> Network có directions, còn spider graph thì không có => Đáp án: directions



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29
notes
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Nghe tới "such as Political Science?"

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới





Nghe thấy "I'd just put my notes in a line" (in a line = linear)

=> Viết notes liền nhau theo hàng => Đáp án: notes



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30
headings
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Mình cần nghe xem với Mass Media thì dùng cái gì

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "that just leaves Mass Media"

Nghe tiếp thấy "the best you can do is pre-write headings"

=> Cách tốt nhất có thể làm là viết trước headings => Đáp án: headings



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Section 4

👂️ Bài nghe section 4

00:00
Question 31 - 35
Complete each sentences with correct ending.
i-resizable-alignable
31
32
33
34
35






Question 36 - 40
Complete each sentences with correct ending.
i-resizable-alignable
36
37
38
39
40
sphere, containing

sensitive
detector
weight of water

Molecule splits, producing
for analysis.
Such knowledge can allow us to
neutrinos, useful for further investigation.

❓ Tapescript section 4

Neutrinos
00:00
When considering the smallest unit of matter—the atom — most people know of electrons, protons, and neutrons, but almost none know of another particle, even though they are constantly emitted from the sun in the trillions, with 100 to 200 billion of them regularly passing through your body every second.
To repeat, that’s not thousands, not millions, but billions, every second. You don’t feel them because they are small, in fact, so tiny that we can barely detect their presence at all. These mysterious particles are called neutrinos.
Despite such an abundance, detecting them is a huge undertaking, and there are many reasons for this. Firstly, the neutrino itself is so small that you need to eliminate absolutely all other particles around.
To do this, you need what is called a clean room, one that has an extremely low level of dust, microbes, floating particles, or chemical vapours. You probably don’t know it, but the air around you right now has almost 40 million particles per cubic meter. In contrast, the cleanest of clean rooms has less than 10.
The second problem is that you also need an environment with absolutely no background radiation. At the surface of the Earth, such radiation is all around, from the sun and sky, and from TVs and communication devices. The only way to screen out all that is to go underground, and I mean deep underground.
For example, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada uses an old nickel mine, one of the deepest in the world, and puts the Observatory in its lowest tunnel, more than two kilometers below the surface. At such depths, stray radiation is sufficiently screened out to allow neutrinos only to pass by.
The final problem is that you need an elaborate detection system, and this apparatus is huge, and its installation in this deep underground cavity presents quite a headache. Holding such a weighty construction safe and secure requires complex engineering work, such as rock-bolting and support structuring. This obviously requires great care, and takes a lot of effort.
So, I've told you about the difficulty in detecting neutrinos. They are tiny, virtually weightless, have no electric charge, and hardly interact with anything at all. Yet we can detect them, and to see how, let’s consider the Sudbury installation once again.
The detector there consists of a spherical container filled with heavy water. This rests inside another vessel tilled with normal water, which helps support the weight of the inner sphere, as well as providing further shielding from any stray radiation. At the edge of this inner sphere are about 10,000 electronic detectors.
These tire extremely sensitive, able to multiply a hundred million limes any electric current which occurs. So, as the neutrinos pass through this sphere of water, there is a very very very small chance that one of them may hit a water molecule. To increase the likelihood of this, two strategies are used.
One. the larger the sphere of water, the belter, and the Sudbury lank holds not 10 tons, not 100 tons, but 1000 tons. Two, the water is special, consisting as it does of heavier molecules. So, what happens is this.
If the neutrino hits the water molecule, the neutrino is absorbed, but the molecule itself splits apart, producing a tiny electric current. It is this which is delected, and analysed, giving key information about the neutrino.
The final question is why do we care about these elusive particles? Well, just think - they can pass right through the core of our sun at the speed of light without being affected or losing strength.
No other form of radiation can do that, meaning that the knowledge we get about neutrinos can help us to control them. With this ability, we can probe the centre of our Earth, the inner layers of our sun, and the outer limits of our solar system, and that makes it all worth the effort.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 4

31
billion
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Loại từ cần điền có thể là danh từ hoặc các từ chỉ số lượng như million, billion

Nghe thấy "even though they are constantly emitted from the sun in the trillions"

=> Được phát tán liên tục từ mặt trời => Có ở khắp mọi nơi => Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe tiếp thấy "100 to 200 billion of them passing through your body every second"

=> Đáp án: billion



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32
clean room
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Giải thích chi tiết

Loại từ cần điền là danh từ



Nghe tới "detecting them is a huge undertaking"

=> Khó có thể nhận biết chúng => Đáp án sắp tới

Nghe thấy "you need to eliminate absolutely all other particles around"

=> Cần loại bỏ các particles khác => Đáp án sẽ được nhắc tới khi speaker nói về phương pháp cho việc này

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33
radiation
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Giải thích chi tiết

Loại từ cần điền là danh từ (the surrounding ___)



Nghe tới "the second problem" (chuyển ý)

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe thấy "you also need an environment with absolutely no background radiation"

=> Cần môi trường không có radiation => Đáp án: radiation



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34
deep underground/underground
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Nghe tới "the only way to screen out all that"

=> Đang chuẩn bị nói về phương pháp để loại bỏ radiation ở câu trên => Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe tiếp thấy "go underground, and I mean deep underground"

=> Đáp án: (deep) underground



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35
complex
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Giải thích chi tiết

Loại từ cần điền là tính từ, nói về engineering



Nghe tới "the final problem.."

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới





Nghe tiếp thấy "holding such a weighty construction safe and secure requires complex engineering work"

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36
heavy water
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Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem trong sphere chứa gì

Nghe thấy "a spherical container filled with heavy water"

=> Một khối cầu chứa heavy water (spherical container = sphere, filled with = containing) => Đáp án: heavy water



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37
electronic
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Nghe tới "at the edge of this inner sphere"

=> Tại viền của khối cầu, vị trí đang được chỉ tới => Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe tiếp thấy "about 10000 electronic detectors. These are extremely sensitive.."

=> Có khoảng 1000 sensitive electronic detectors => Đáp án: electronic



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38
1000 tons
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Giải thích chi tiết

Đáp án cần điền là khối lượng của nước trong khối cầu



Nghe tới "the larger the sphere of water, the better"

=> Đang nói về kích cỡ của khối cầu (có thể đề cập tới sức chứa) => Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe tiếp thấy "the Sudbury tank holds not 10 tons, not 100 tons, but 1000 tons"

=> Chứa 1000 tấn nước => Đáp án:1000 tons



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39
electric current
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Giải thích chi tiết



Đáp án cần điền là cái gì đó được produced khi molecule splits

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "neutrino hits the water molecule"

Nghe tiếp thấy "the molecule itself splits apart, producing a tiny electric current"

=> Đáp án chỉ được điền 2 từ nên mình chỉ cần điền 2 từ quan trọng nhất => Đáp án: electric current



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40
control
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Giải thích chi tiết

Loại từ cần điền là động từ



Nghe tiếp thấy "the knowledge we get about neutrinos can help us to control them"

=> Knowledge về neutrino có thể giúp chúng ta control chúng (help us to = allow us to) => Đáp án: control



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