Đề thi IELTS Online Test Actual Test 4 - Listening Test 4 - Download PDF Câu hỏi, Transcript và Đáp án

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Đề thi IELTS Online Test Actual Test 4 - Listening Test 4 - Download PDF Câu hỏi, Transcript và Đáp án

Section 1

👂️ Bài nghe section 1

00:00
Question 1 - 10
Complete the notes below.
Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Car Rental Inquiry
Example
Nationality: American
Contact number:
1

Send written quote by:
2

Price for renting: $
3
daily
Special requirements for the room:
  • an extra

    4
    

  • most important facility:

    5
    

Extra equipment:
  • they should have a

    6
    

  • as well as a

    7
    

Pick them up from the
8

The caravan driver’s age:
9

The registered licence issued in:
10


❓ Tapescript section 1

Car Rental Inquiry
00:00
Man:
Hello, First Choice Car Rental! How may I help you?
Woman:
Oh, good morning. Um, I’m calling for some information about your car renting services.
Woman:
I’m an Example American, and I will be going on a family holiday to your city from Ohio next month.
Man:
OK. no problem. It’s our pleasure to serve you.
Man:
Could you please tell me your name and contact information first?
Woman:
I'm Carroline. C-A -R-O-L-I-N-E, and my telephone number is 0419 6570 156
Man:
OK. I’ve got that. And how can I send you our quotation, if you are satisfied with our arrangement?
Man:
Is email all right, or should I send it by post?
Woman:
The latter, please! I’m afraid I’d prefer to read it on paper.
Man:
That’s no problem.
Woman:
I’m considering renting a caravan for a week, but I don’t really know the price range for it, since I haven’t rented any car through that method before.
Woman:
I think it should be within my budget of $50.
Man:
You know, we have various caravans at different renting prices, according to the class of vehicle, facilities inside, mileage, etc.
Man:
I’d recommend the ‘Explorer’, taking your budget into consideration, which is of good value and will cost you $39 per day. Is that OK?
Woman:
Of course, that’s fine for me! I know the ‘Explorer’.
Woman:
That could save me $11 each day! You know a family holiday will be costly. That van is perfect!
Man:
I’m glad that you like it. So do you have any particular requirements about your room in the van?
Woman:
Um, how many beds are there?
Man:
One twin bed.
Woman:
But there are three of us, my mum, my daughter and me. So can we add another bed?
Man:
No problem.
Woman:
For the facilities, I think a kitchen is the most important, and of course the stove.
Man:
In our vans, such as ‘Explorer’, there are all the basic bedding materials you need, like pillows and blankets, as well as some equipment for daily life.
Man:
And many things can be added into your room according to your needs, such as a coffee maker.
Woman:
Well,I need to have a heater, in case it’ll be cold at night, and a microwave of course.
Man:
All right, I’ve taken notes of all these things.
Man:
Actually, all our vans should be taken from our company, which is not too far from the city centre, so we can pick you up from the centre for free. Is that OK?
Woman:
Oh, I’m afraid we’d better be picked up from the airport, as we are foreigners in your country and not familiar with the transport system. Is that alright?
Man:
Yes, it is no problem. With that comes the information for the insurance. I need the driver’s name and age.
Woman:
That is my daughter Chris, who is 19, the youngest driver amongst us three.
Man:
Man: I’m sorry, but our company only accepts caravan drivers aged 25 or over, according to our regulations. So...
Woman:
Well, that would be me, Caroline,and I’m 49 years old.
Man:
And where was your driving licence issued? I mean the country.
Woman:
I’ve got a licence in America, but I’ve also got one in Australia which is still valid.
Woman:
Is it better for me to register the local one from your country?
Man:
Yes, that might be better. So your registration number is...

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 1

1
Australia
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng của câu là số điện thoại liên lạc của người phụ nữ (contact number)

=> Đáp án sẽ đến sau "Could you please tell me your name and contact information first?"





Người phụ nữ xác nhận rằng số điện thoại của cô ấy là “04196570156”.

=> Đáp án: 04196570156



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2
Post
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Minh cần nghe về phương thức để gửi written quote

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''And how can I send you our quotation?''

Người đàn ông đưa ra 2 lựa chọn "Is email all right, or should I send it by post?"

Người phụ nữ trả lời "The latter, please! I'm afraid I'd prefer to read it on paper"

=> Người phụ nữ chọn cái thứ 2 (the latter), chính là cách gửi bằng thư => Đáp án: post



Xem full giải thích
3
39
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về giá thuê hàng ngày (daily price for renting)

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau "I’m considering renting a caravan for a week"





Người phụ nữ nói "I think it should be within my budget of $50"

=>Giá thuê nên ở trong ngân sách $50.

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4
bed
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về yêu cầu đặc biệt với căn phòng.

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau "So do you have any particular requirements about your room in the van?"





Đầu tiên, khi người đàn ông nói là ''One twin bed.'', người phụ nữ trả lời là "But there are three of us, my mum. daughter and me. So can we add another bed?"

=> Tức ban đầu phòng chỉ có một giường đôi, nhưng do có ba người tất cả nên cô ấy có yêu cầu là thêm một giường => Yêu cầu đặc biệt với phòng là thêm giường. => Đáp án: bed



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5
kitchen
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng của câu là cơ sở vật chất quan trọng nhất

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''For the facilities, ...'' (cue của câu này khá ngắn nên bạn phải tập trung bắt ngay đáp án)

Theo cô ấy, ''I think a kitchen is the most important''

=> Căn bếp là quan trọng nhất => Đáp án: kitchen



Bạn lưu ý không nhầm với stove, “of course the stove” do stove không phải là một facility và nó nằm trong kitchen

=> Loại stove

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6
heater
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần tìm thiết bị bổ sung cho căn phòng (extra equipment)

=> Đáp án sẽ đến sau khi người đàn ông gợi ý là "And many things can be added into your room according to your needs..."

Người phụ nữ nói là "Well, I need to have a heater, in case it’ll be cold at night"

=> Cô ấy cần một heater để giữ ấm => Đáp án: heater



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7
microwave
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng là một thiết bị bổ sung cho căn phòng song song với "heater" (as well as)
Tiếp tục với câu trước, người phụ nữ nói "Well, I need to have a heater, in case it’ll be cold at night, and a microwave of course."

=> Đáp án: microwave



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8
airport
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng là địa điểm đến đón họ (pick them up from ____)

=> Đáp án sẽ đến sau "So we can pick you up from the centre for free. Is that OK?"

Tuy nhiên cô ấy trả lời là ''Oh, I’m afraid we’d better be picked up from the airport''

=> Cô ấy muốn được đón từ sân bay hơn => Đáp án: airport

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9
49
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Cần nghe về độ tuổi người sẽ lái caravan

=> Đáp án sẽ đến sau ''I need the driver’s name and age.''

Cô ấy nói "That is my daughter Chris, who is 19, the youngest driver amongst us three."

Tuy nhiên, '' our company only accepts caravan drivers aged 25 or over''

=> Công ty chỉ nhận tài xế caravan từ 25 tuổi trở lên

Xem full giải thích
10
Australia
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần tìm là nơi mà bằng lái xe được cấp (The registered licence issued in ____)
Người phụ nữ nói rằng "I’ve got a licence in America, but I’ve also got one in Australia which is still valid."

=> Cô ấy có 2 giấy phép, một ở Mỹ và một ở Úc.





Tuy nhiên cô ấy có hỏi là ''Is it better for me to register the local one from your country?''

Và người đàn ông nói "Yes, that might be better"

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Section 2

👂️ Bài nghe section 2

00:00
Question 11 - 16
Complete the flow-chart below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
Harvesting and Processing Cocoa Beans
STEP 01
Chocolate beans are
11
and then bags are shipped.
STEP 02
Bags are then
12
and weighed by machines.
STEP 03
Next chocolate beans are
13
in a hopper.
STEP 04
After being roasted at a high temperature
STEP 05
Boiled chocolate beans are
14
and cracked.
STEP 06
Roasted beans needs to be
15

STEP 07
Roasted beans are
16
in the pocket.
Question 17 - 20
What does each type of coffee taste like?
Write the correct letter, A-D.
List of Findings
A
intense
B
mild
C
chocolaty
D
smoky
17
First Crack
18
Green Beans
19
French Roast
20
Espresso Smoky

❓ Tapescript section 2

Harvesting And Processing Cocoa Beans
00:00
Host:
Hello and welcome to today’s talk. Here with me is the famous botanist.
Host:
Professor Alison Downing. So, Alison, tell us something about cocoa beans.
Alison:
Cocoa beans, also called cacao beans, are the primary constituent in making chocolate.
Alison:
Grown in tropical areas in South and Central America, West Africa and Asia, the cocoa tree is often raised on small, family-owned farms.
Alison:
When the harvested pods are opened to expose the beans, the pulp and cocoa seeds are removed and the rind is discarded.
Alison:
The pulp and seeds are then piled in heaps, placed in bins, or laid out on grates for several days.
Alison:
During this time, the seeds and pulp undergo a process called ‘sweating’, where the thick pulp liquefies as it ferments.
Alison:
The fermented pulp trickles away, leaving cocoa seeds behind to be collected.
Alison:
This is when the beans are harvested and then the bags holding them are ready to be transported.
Alison:
But the most important step in processing the cocoa bean is cleaning it.
Alison:
Once the beans are unloaded from the railroad cars, the packages are opened and then weighed by machines.
Alison:
Then the pods are split, and the seeds or beans are covered with a sweet white pulp or mucilage.
Alison:
On arrival at the factory, the cocoa beans are sorted and put in a hopper to be cleaned more rigorously.
Alison:
The wet beans are then transported to a facility so they can be fermented and dried.
Alison:
They are fermented for 4 to 7 days and must be mixed every 2 days.
Alison:
They are dried for 5 to 14 days, depending on the climate conditions.
Alison:
The fermented beans are dried by spreading them out over a large surface and constantly raking them.
Alison:
Then the beans are ready to be roasted. Now, roasting takes place at a high temperature and then the beans are boiled in a heated chamber.
Alison:
During the roasting process the beans will be expanded and cracked.
Alison:
But prior to this, the beans are trodden and shuffled about using bare human feet
Alison:
During this process, red clay mixed with water is sprinkled over the beans to obtain a finer colour, polish, and protection against molds during shipment to factories in the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and other countries.
Alison:
Now, back to what I was saying. After the beans are cracked, they need to be cooled.
Alison:
Then the roasted beans are sealed in pockets.
Host:
Wow, that is not a simple process, is it? But someone told me that different roasting levels of coffee can lead to different kind of flavours.
Alison:
Yes. Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products.
Alison:
The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavour of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to change in taste.
Alison:
Unroasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugars, and caffeine as those that have been roasted, but lack the taste of roasted coffee beans due to the Maillard and other chemical reactions that occur during roasting.
Alison:
The vast majority of coffee is roasted commercially on a large scale, but small-scale commercial roasting has grown significantly with the trend toward ‘single-origin’ coffees served at specialty shops.
Alison:
Some coffee drinkers even roast coffee at home as a hobby in order to both experiment with the flavour profile of the beans and ensure the freshest possible roast.
Alison:
So here, I am going to introduce some of these roasted coffee beans and their special flavours.
Alison:
Now, the First Crack is lighter-bodied, and has a higher acidity level with no obvious roast flavour, and is popular for its special mild taste.
Alison:
This level of roast is ideal for tasting the full original character of the coffee. The Green Beans are raw, unroasted coffee beans.
Alison:
They are strictly hard beans with a smoky flavour and are slightly acidic.
Alison:
We’ve also got French Roast. And the flavour that comes across in French roast coffee usually has more to do with the roasting process than the actual quality of the beans.
Alison:
By the time the beans are dark enough to qualify as French, most of their original flavour has dissipated.
Alison:
In its place come the flavours of caramelising sugar, bittersweet coffee, and often, a bit of chocolate.
Alison:
And finally, Espresso Smoky. That is coffee brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.
Alison:
Espresso is generally thicker than coffee brewed through other methods, has a higher concentration of suspended and dissolved solids, and has crema on top.
Alison:
As a result of the pressurised brewing process, the flavours and chemicals in a typical cup of espresso are very concentrated.
Alison:
Espresso is also the base for other drinks such as a cafe latte, cappuccino, cafe macchiato, cafe mocha, flat white,

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 2

11
harvested
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem chocolate beans được làm gì trước khi được đóng gói





Alison nói rằng "This is when the beans are harvested and then the bags holding them are ready to be transported."

=> Hạt cacao được thu hoạch rồi túi hàng sẽ được đóng gói vận chuyển => Đáp án: harvested



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12
opened
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Sau đó là qui trình trước khi cân các túi cacao bằng máy.
Alison nói rằng "the packages are opened and then weighed by machines."

=> Các gói được mở sau đó được cân => Đáp án: opened



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13
cleaned
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tiếp theo chúng ta cần biết các hạt chocolate được làm gì trong hopper (cái phễu)
Alison tiếp tục nói rằng "On arrival at the factory, the cocoa beans are sorted and put in a hopper to be cleaned more rigorously."

=> Sau khi tới nhà máy, hạt ca cao được cho vào một cái phễu để được làm sạch. => Đáp án: cleaned



Xem full giải thích
14
expanded
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Theo thứ tự, đây là bước đến sau việc ''being roasted at a high temperature''

=> Mình biết đáp án sẽ đến sau "Now, roasting takes place at a high temperature and then the beans are boiled in a heated chamber"

Alison nói rằng "During the roasting process the beans will be expanded and cracked."

=> Trong quá trình rang, hạt cacao sẽ bị nở ra và nứt ra. => Đáp án: expanded



Xem full giải thích
15
cooled
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem sau đó hạt đã được rang cần phải thế nào
Theo Alison, " After the beans are cracked, they need to be cooled."

=> Sau khi bị nứt, hạt cà phê cần phải được làm nguội. => Đáp án: cooled

Xem full giải thích
16
sealed
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đây là bước cuối cùng

Alison nói là ''Then the roasted beans are sealed in pockets.''

=> Sau khi hạt rang nguội, chúng sẽ được đóng kín trong túi. => Đáp án: sealed



Xem full giải thích
17
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng đầu tiên là First Crack

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Now, the First Crack is ...''





Theo Alison, "the First Crack is lighter-bodied, and has a higher acidity level with no obvious roast flavour, and is popular for its special mild taste."

=> Có ba điều mà Alison nói về First Crack: lighter-bodied, has a higher acidity level, và nối tiếng vì mild taste. => Đáp án là B



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18
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng tiếp theo là Green Beans

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''The Green Beans are raw, unroasted coffee beans.''

Alison nói "They are strictly hard beans with a smoky flavour and are slightly acidic."

=> Có ba tính từ đi với Green Beans ở câu này: hard, smoky và acidic => Đáp án là D





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19
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về vị của loại cà phê French Roast

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''We’ve also got French Roast''

Alison có nói " In its place come the flavours of caramelising sugar, bittersweet coffee, and often, a bit of chocolate"

=> French Roast có sự kết hợp của nhiều hương vị: đường caramel, vị cà phê đắng và một chút sô cô la. => Đáp án là C



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20
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần tìm liên quan đến Espresso Smoky

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''And finally, Espresso Smoky.''

Theo Alison "the flavours and chemicals in a typical cup of espresso are very concentrated.."

=> Hương vị của Espresso Smoky thực sự rất đậm (“concentrated” và “intense” đồng nghĩa với nhau trong ngữ cảnh này) => Đáp án là A



Lưu ý: Trên thực tế, nếu tự tin với các phương án trước thì có thể chọn ngay đáp án A, đáp án cuối cùng.

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Section 3

👂️ Bài nghe section 3

00:00
Question 21 - 26
Choose the correct letter A, B or C
21
What is the thing that makes the Moa similar to dinosaur?
A
Both are of interest to the public.
B
Both are extinct at similar time
C
Both left lots of fossil remains
22
What is the difference between Moa and other birds?
A
no wing bones
B
a long tail
C
a smaller head
23
What’s the special feature of their chicks?
A
They never return to the nests.
B
Most of them die within two months after birth.
C
They can find food by themselves.
24
What is the tutor’s opinion on male hatching the eggs?
A
He doubts whether it is true or possible.
B
He thinks it may be true.
C
He can say with certainty that it is true.
25
What is the male student’s response after hearing some people see a Moa recently
A
He is surprised.
B
He is worried.
C
He is amused.
26
Why did the Moa become extinct?
A
climate change
B
human interference
C
competitions with other animals
Question 27 - 30
Choose FOUR answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-F.
List of Findings
A
the much taller female
B
less fossils left
C
the biggest eggs
D
feeding at night
E
better vocal sound
F
poor eyesight
27
the North Island Giant Moa
28
the Crested Moa
29
the Stout-legged Moa
30
the Eastern Moa

❓ Tapescript section 3

The Moa
00:00
Lecturer:
Thank you all for coming here today to hear about the Moa, a kind of animal which has been extinct for a long time.
Lecturer:
Well, first of all we’ll look at what the Moa are. The Moa are nine species of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.
Lecturer:
They were the dominant herbivores in New Zealand’s forest, shrubland and subalpine ecosystems for thousands of years, but around 500 years ago, they all went extinct.
Lecturer:
When I mention extinct animals during ancient times, you may immediately think of dinosaurs, which disappeared around 66 million years ago.
Lecturer:
Fossils of dinosaurrs which we use to study are large in number, but not many of those of Moa remain, though both animals appeal to people today.
Student Female:
So the Moa sound more mysterious now. But sir, I’ve got a question about these flightless birds.
Student Female:
How can we distinguish them from other birds?
Lecturer:
That’s a good question! Birds are commonly characterised by being warm- blooded, having feathers and wings usually capable of flight, and laying eggs, while the flightless Moa.
Lecturer:
until their extinction, were the largest birds in the world. Their heads are relatively small in relation to their bodies, and they are the only wingless birds lacking even the vestigial wings and substantial tail bones in their family.
Student Male:
That’s impressive. But were they bom to be like that? I mean when they were chicks.
Lecturer:
Yes, absolutely! So let’s move onto the chicks.
Lecturer:
The eggs of Moa were laid in nests and incubated for about two months.
Lecturer:
The chicks would be well- developed upon hatching and probably would be able to leave the nests to feed on their own almost immediately.
Student Female:
I’ve heard that the male Moa are thought to have incubated the eggs. Is that true?
Lecturer:
I think there is a possibility for that.
Lecturer:
I’ve read somewhere that the sex- specific DNA recovered from the outer surfaces of eggshells suggested that these eggs were likely to have been hatched by the male, but we still need to consult more.
Lecturer:
But I have a question. There has been some occasional speculation that the Moa were still alive, because someone said they had caught sight of them in New Zealand in the late 19th century or even the 20th.
Lecturer:
Do you think it’s possible?
Student Male:
I’m not amazed by that, since that kind of thing has been claimed several times, but I find it funny because no reliable evidence of Moa tracks has ever been found, and experts still contend that Moa survival is extremely unlikely.
Student Female:
So what was the reason for the Moa’s extinction? I wonder if it was global warming or some other factors related to their living environment.
Lecturer:
Well, before the arrival of human settlers in New Zealand, the Moa’s only predator was the massive Haas’s eagle.
Lecturer:
Then the Maori arrived sometime before CE 1300, and all Moa genera were soon driven to extinction by hunting. What a horrible thing
Lecturer:
All right. Now let’s look at the features of some species of Moa.
Lecturer:
The South Island Giant Moa may have been the tallest birds ever known, and the second tallest of the nine moa species is the North Island Giant Moa, with the females being markedly larger than males both in weight and height.
Student Male:
And I’ve heard that the smallest of the Moa birds are the Coastal Moa. Is that right?
Lecturer:
Yes, you’re right. And have you heard about any other kinds of Moa before?
Student Female:
I know the Crested Moa. The eggs they laid may be larger than others’.
Lecturer:
As they mainly lived in the remote interior of the Southern Island, their fossils are rare or absent in archaeological sites, and no egg remains have yet been identified.
Lecturer:
Yes, of course. A considerable amount of remains of the Stoutlegged Moa exist, due to the well-preserved properties of their habitat.
Lecturer:
Yes, of course. A considerable amount of remains of the Stoutlegged Moa exist, due to the well-preserved properties of their habitat.
Lecturer:
Their skulls reveal relatively bad vision, a good sense of smell, and a very short bill.
Lecturer:
Then there is the Eastern Moa. They were remarkable in having very long and narrow windpipes, which probably enabled them to make louder, more resonant calls than those of other Moa, and have the greatest vocal abilities, so they could communicate when they could not see each other in the forest or at night.
Lecturer:
They used a range of senses, apart from sound in their search for food, such as their sense of smell and vision.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 3

21
A
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem điều gì khiến Moa giống với khủng long

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Well, first of all we’ll look at what the Moa are.''

Từ đoạn văn, ''the Moa disappeared around 500 years ago'' trong khi ''the dinosaurs disappeared around 66 million years ago.''

=> Moa tuyệt chủng vào 500 năm trước trong khi khủng long biến mất vào 66 triệu năm trước => Do đó, cả hai không giống nhau ở thời gian tuyệt chủng => Loại B



Từ đoạn văn "Fossils of dinosaurs (...) are large in number, but not many of those of Moa remain"

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22
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần nghe là sự khác biệt giữa Moa và các loài chim

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''How can we distinguish them from other birds?''





Đầu tiên, người nói đưa ra các đặc điểm chung của hai loài ''Birds are commonly characterised by being (...) capable of flight ... while the flightless Moa until their extinction, were the largest birds in the world.''

=> Từ những đặc điểm này, mình có thể nhận thấy khác biệt rõ nhấtbirds có thể bay (capable of flight) còn Moa thì không (flightless) => Mình có thể đoán đáp án là A, nhưng do không chắc chắn nên bạn nên nghe tiếp.

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23
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần tìm đặc điểm đặc biệt của chicks

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''I mean when they were chicks.''

Đầu tiên, lecturer đưa ra thông tin là ''The eggs of Moa were laid in nests and incubated for about two months.''

=> Hai tháng là thời gian ấp trứng (incubated), không phải thời gian phần lớn Moa con chết => Loại đáp án B





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24
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta cần tìm ý kiến ​​của gia sư về việc con đực ấp trứng

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau "I’ve heard that the male Moa are thought to have incubated the eggs. Is that true?"

Giảng viên xác nhận rằng "I think there is a possibility for that".

=> Có khả năng điều này là đúng, giảng viên không nói là điều này chắc chắn đúng hay nghi ngờ liệu nó có thể xảy ra không. => Đáp án là B



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25
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng là phản ứng của nam sinh viên sau khi nghe một số người nhìn thấy Moa gần đây

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''someone said they had caught sight of them in New Zealand in the late 19th century or even the 20th.''

Ngay từ đâu student M nói là "I’m not amazed by that"

=>Anh ấy không ngạc nhiên => Loại đáp án A





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26
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng là lí do Moa tuyệt chủng

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''So what was the reason for the Moa’s extinction?''

Đầu tiên, học sinh phân vân là ''I wonder if it was global warming or some other factors related to their living environment.''

=> Ứng với đáp án A nhưng do đây mới chỉ là phân vân, chưa được giảng viên xác nhận nên bạn chưa khoanh vội.

Sau đó, giảng viên đưa ra thông tin là ''the Moa’s only predator was the massive Haas’s eagle''

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27
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần tìm là đặc điểm của loài the North Island Giant Moa.

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''and the second tallest of the nine moa species is the North Island Giant Moa''

Giảng viên khẳng định rõ ràng rằng "North Island Giant Moa, with the females being markedly larger than males both in weight and height."

=> Con Moa cái lớn hơn con đực cả về cân nặng và chiều cao. => Đáp án là A



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28
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần tìm đặc điểm của loài the Crested Moa

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''I know the Crested Moa''

Đầu tiên, học sinh nói là ''The eggs they laid may be larger than others’.'' (ứng với đáp án C)

Tuy nhiên, giảng viên nói rằng "their fossils are rare or absent in archaeological sites, and no egg remains have yet been identified.''

=> Điều mà học sinh nói chỉ là phỏng đoán do không còn egg remains để xác thực; điều chắc chắn mới là việc không có hoặc có rất ít hóa thạch còn sót lại. => Loại đáp án C

=> Đáp án là B


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29
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần tìm là đặc điểm của loài the Stout-legged Moa

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''A considerable amount of remains of the Stout-legged Moa exist''

Giảng viên nói rằng " Their skulls reveal relatively bad vision, a good sense of smell, and a very short bill."

=> Hộp sọ của loài này cho thấy tầm nhìn của chúng tương đối tệ. => Đáp án là F



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30
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng cuối cùng là Eastern Moa

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Then there is the Eastern Moa.''

Giảng viên nói rằng "They were remarkable in having very long and narrow windpipes, which probably enabled them to make louder, more resonant calls than those of other Moa, "

=> Do đặc điểm ngoại hình của chúng, Eastern Moa có thể kêu to hơn, vang hơn các Moa khác (make louder calls). => Nói cách khác, Eastern Moa tạo ra âm thanh tốt hơn => Đáp án là D



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Section 4

👂️ Bài nghe section 4

00:00
Question 31 - 35
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
History of time-measurement
Primitive measurements by observing
Two time keepers:
  • The

    31
    

  • Natural events, such as winds and rains, rivers flooding, plants flowering , and the cycles of breeding

    32
    32 behaviour.

Precise measurements
They became important for organising activities for:
  • 

    33
    

  • 

    34
    

The oldest time keepers were discovered in Mesopotamia and
35
.
Question 36 - 40
Complete the table below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

❓ Tapescript section 4

History Of Time-Measurement
00:00
Good morning, everyone. Today, I’m going to talk about the research project I’ve been involved in on time measurement.
Do you know how time is measured? Consider how we measure length, and how with time we encounter a difficulty.
Before we could grasp it, it would slip through our fingers.
In fact, as we can see, we are forced to have the recourse to measure something else—the movement of something in space, or a set of movements in space
All the methods that have been employed so far really measure time by a motion in space.
The measurement of time is no easy matter; a scientific unit only arrives at after much thought and reflection.
As the most primitive form of measurement, the sun seems to be natural.
Ever since man first noticed the regular movements of the sun and stars, we have wondered about the passage of time.
Prehistoric people first recorded time according to the sun’s position.
To start off, let us take noon, which is when the sun is on the meridian at the highest point of its course across the heavens, and when it casts the shortest shadow.
But this measurement, which was regarded as a major one in ancient times, was less important than the natural events that occurred.
The earliest natural events that had been recognised were in the heavens, but during the course of the year there were many other events that indicated significant changes in the environment.
Seasonal winds and rains, the flooding of rivers, the flowering of trees and plants, and the breeding cycles or migration of animals, all led to natural divisions of the year, and further observation and local customs led to the recognition of the seasons.
Years later, precise measurements were invented, because the passage of time was extremely important for astronomers and priests who were responsible for determining the exact hour for daily rituals and for important religious festivals.
Apart from the connection with religion, accurate time measurement was also related to the government, since they divided the day or the night into different periods in order to regulate work and various events.
For thousands of years, devices have been used to measure and keep track of time.
The current sexagesimal system of time measurement, dates back to approximately 2000 BCE from the Sumerians.
It was found that the earliest ancient time keepers were mainly invented and used in Mesopotamia, where the water clock was introduced from, as well as in North Africa, especially in the area of ancient Egypt.
So now, I’d like to introduce you to some of the most well-known ancient timekeepers, as well as the disadvantages of them, for which they were replaced by various new forms of clocks that were used afterwards.
A sundial is a device that tells the time of day by the apparent positioning of the Sun in the sky.
In the narrowest sense of the word, it consists of a flat plate and a gnomon which casts a shadow onto the dial.
As the sun appears to move across the sky, the shadow aligns with different hour-lines which are marked on the dial to indicate the time of day.
However, it was quickly noted that the length of the day varied at different times of the year, therefore there could have been a difference between ‘clock time’ and ‘sundial time’.
In addition, the sundial was of no use at night, so a water clock was invented.
The water clock, or clepsydra, appeared to have been invented around 1,500 BCE and was a device which relied on the steady flow of water from or into a container.
Measurements could be marked on the container or on a receptacle for the water.
It was reliable, but the water flow still depended on the variation of pressure and temperature from the top of water in the container.
As the technology of glass-blowing developed, from some time in the 14th century, it became possible to make sandglasses.
Originally, they were used as a measure for periods of time like lamps or candles, but as clocks became more accurate they were calibrated to measure specific periods of time.
The drawback however, as you can imagine, was the limited length of time they could measure.
The last timekeeper to be introduced is the fire candle clock.
Candle clocks take advantage of a simple concept: the slow and consistent nature of a burning wax candle.
By utilising this process, our ancestors were able to keep steady track of the time.
The clocks were created by engraving the length of the candle with evenly spaced markings.
Each marking represented a single unit of time, and as the wax burned down, each hour would disappear.
However, the draughts and the variable quality of the wax mainly influenced the time of burning.
Like oil lamps, candles were used to mark the passage of time from one event to another, rather than tell the time of day...

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 4

31
sun’s position
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về hai công cụ theo dõi giờ (time keepers) nguyên thủy

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''As the most primitive form of measurement, ...''

Người giảng viên noi "Prehistoric people first recorded time according to the sun’s position."

=> Người tiền sử đã quan sát vị trí của mặt trời để ghi lại thời gian. => Đáp án: sun’s position



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32
animal
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đáp án là một danh từ (song song với natural events và the cycle of breeding)

=> Đáp án sẽ tới sau ''during the course of the year there were many other events that indicated significant changes in the environment.''





Mình nghe được là "Seasonal winds and rains, the flooding of rivers, the flowering of trees and plants, and the breeding cycles or migration of animals"

=> Mình có thể nghe được tất cả hiện tượng có trong đề bài, với đối tượng cuối là migration of animals => migration of animal ~ animal behaviour => Đáp án: animal



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33
religion
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hai câu tiếp nằm trong mục precise measurements

=> Phần này tới sau ''precise measurements were invented, ...''





Giảng viên nói rằng thời gian "extremely important for astronomers and priests who were responsible for determining the exact hour for daily rituals and for important religious festivals. "

=> Thời gian là vô cùng quan trọng để xác định thời gian chính xác cho các nghi lễ hàng ngày và các lễ hội tôn giáo. => Đáp án có thể là daily rituals and religious festivals => Nhưng đáp án không được quá 2 từ => Nghe tiếp

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34
the government/government
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đáp án của câu là một hoạt động khác ngoài religion.

Trong bài nói rằng "Apart from the connection with religion, accurate time measurement was also related to the government,"

=> Precise measurements liên quan đến chính phủ => Đáp án: (the) government



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35
North Africa
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần tìm là danh từ chỉ địa điểm song song với "Mesopotamia"

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''were mainly invented and used in Mesopotamia ...''

Sau đó, ''where the water clock was introduced from, as well as in North Africa"

=> Nói rằng những time keepers sớm nhất đã được phát hiện ở Mesopotamia và Bắc Phi. => Đáp án: North Africa

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36
varied
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đối tượng của câu là sun dial

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''A sundial is a device that tells the time of day ...''

Sau khi giới thiệu về cách hoạt động của sun dial, người nói nói là "However, it was quickly noted that the length of the day varied at different times of the year''

=> Nhược điểm của đồng hồ mặt trời là ở các thời điểm khác nhau trong năm, thời gian trong ngày khác nhau => Đáp án: varied



Xem full giải thích
37
temperature
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem flow of water vẫn phụ thuộc vào cái gì, bên cạnh pressure

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''The water clock, or clepsydra, ...''

Trong bài nói rõ ràng rằng " It was reliable, but the water flow still depended on the variation of pressure and temperature from the top of water in the container."

=> Dòng nước phụ thuộc vào sự thay đổi của áp suất và nhiệt độ. => Đáp án: temperature



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38
sandglasses
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần tìm là tên loại time keeper tiếp theo.





Sau khi nói xong về waterclock, người nói chuyển chủ đề là ''As the technology of glass-blowing developed, from some time in the 14th century, it became possible to make sandglasses.''

=> Đối tượng tiếp theo là sandglasses => Đáp án: sandglasses



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39
limited
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần tìm là disadvantage của sandglasses có liên quan tới “time duration"





Sau khi giới thiệu về sandglasses, "The drawback however, as you can imagine, was the limited length of time they could measure."

=> Nhược điểm là chúng chỉ có thể đo một khoảng thời gian nhất định (length of time = time duration) => Đáp án: limited



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40
Time
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần tìm thông tin liên quan tới Fire candle clock và disadvantage của nó

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''The last timekeeper to be introduced is the fire candle clock.''

Sau khi giới thiệu về fire candle, người nói bảo ''However, the draughts and the variable quality of the wax mainly influenced the time of burning.''

=> Nói cách khác, thời gian cháy phụ thuộc vào sáp nến. => Đáp án: time

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