Cambridge IELTS 9 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 9 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 9 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 9 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

The life and work of Marie Curie
Marie Curie is probably the most famous woman scientist who has ever lived. Born Maria Sklodowska in Poland in 1867, she is famous for her work on radioactivity, and was twice a winner of the Nobel Prize. With her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics, and was then sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. From childhood, Marie was remarkable for her prodigious memory, and at the age of 16 won a gold medal on completion of her secondary education. Because her father lost his savings through bad investment, she then had to take work as a teacher. From her earnings she was able to finance her sister Bronia's medical studies in Paris, on the understanding that Bronia would, in turn, later help her to get an education. In 1891 this promise was fulfilled and Marie went to Paris and began to study at the Sorbonne (the University of Paris). She often worked far into the night and lived on little more than bread and butter and tea. She came first in the examination in the physical sciences in 1893, and in 1894 was placed second in the examination in mathematical sciences. It was not until the spring of that year that she was introduced to Pierre Curie. Their marriage in 1895 marked the start of a partnership that was soon to achieve results of world significance. Following Henri Becquerel's discovery in 1896 of a new phenomenon, which Marie later called 'radioactivity', Marie Curie decided to find out if the radioactivity discovered in uranium was to be found in other elements. She discovered that this was true for thorium. Turning her attention to minerals, she found her interest drawn to pitchblende, a mineral whose radioactivity, superior to that of pure uranium, could be explained only by the presence in the ore of small quantities of an unknown substance of very high activity. Pierre Curie joined her in the work that she had undertaken to resolve this problem, and that led to the discovery of the new elements, polonium and radium. While Pierre Curie devoted himself chiefly to the physical study of the new radiations, Marie Curie struggled to obtain pure radium in the metallic state. This was achieved with the help of the chemist André-Louis Debierne, one of Pierre Curie's pupils. Based on the results of this research, Marie Curie received her Doctorate of Science, and in 1903 Marie and Pierre shared with Becquerel the Nobel Prize for Physics for the discovery of radioactivity. The births of Marie's two daughters, Irène and Eve, in 1897 and 1904 failed to interrupt her scientific work. She was appointed lecturer in physics at the École Normale Supérieure for girls in Sèvres, France (1900), and introduced a method of teaching based on experimental demonstrations. In December 1904 she was appointed chief assistant in the laboratory directed by Pierre Curie. The sudden death of her husband in 1906 was a bitter blow to Marie Curie, but was also a turning point in her career: henceforth she was to devote all her energy to completing alone the scientific work that they had undertaken. On May 13, 1906, she was appointed to the professorship that had been left vacant on her husband's death, becoming the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the isolation of a pure form of radium. During World War I, Marie Curie, with the help of her daughter Irène, devoted herself to the development of the use of X-radiography, including the mobile units which came to be known as ‘Little Curies', used for the treatment of wounded soldiers. In 1918 the Radium Institute, whose staff Irène had joined, began to operate in earnest, and became a centre for nuclear physics and chemistry. Marie Curie, now at the highest point of her fame and, from 1922, a member of the Academy of Medicine, researched the chemistry of radioactive substances and their medical applications. In 1921, accompanied by her two daughters, Marie Curie made a triumphant journey to the United States to raise funds for research on radium. Women there presented her with a gram of radium for her campaign. Marie also gave lectures in Belgium, Brazil, Spain and Czechoslovakia and, in addition, had the satisfaction of seeing the development of the Curie Foundation in Paris, and the inauguration in 1932 in Warsaw of the Radium Institute, where her sister Bronia became director. One of Marie Curie's outstanding achievements was to have understood the need to accumulate intense radioactive sources, not only to treat illness but also to maintain an abundant supply for research. The existence in Paris at the Radium Institute of a stock of 1.5 grams of radium made a decisive contribution to the success of the experiments undertaken in the years around 1930. This work prepared the way for the discovery of the neutron by Sir James Chadwick and, above all, for the discovery in 1934 by Irène and Frédéric Joliot-Curie of artificial radioactivity. A few months after this discovery, Marie Curie died as a result of leukaemia caused by exposure to radiation. She had often carried test tubes containing radioactive isotopes in her pocket, remarking on the pretty blue-green light they gave off. Her contribution to physics had been immense, not only in her own work, the importance of which had been demonstrated by her two Nobel Prizes, but because of her influence on subsequent generations of nuclear physicists and chemists.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 6
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Marie Curie’s husband was a joint winner of both Marie’s Nobel Prizes.
2
Marie became interested in science when she was a child.
3
Marie was able to attend the Sorbonne because of her sister’s financial contribution.
4
Marie stopped doing research for several years when her children were born.
5
Marie took over the teaching position her husband had held.
6
Marie’s sister Bronia studied the medical uses of radioactivity.
Question 7 - 13
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
Marie Curie’s research on radioactivity
• When uranium was discovered to be radioactive, Marie Curie found that the element called
7
had the same property. 
• Marie and Pierre Curie’s research into the radioactivity of the mineral known as
8
led to the discovery of two new elements. 
• In 1911, Marie Curie received recognition for her work on the element
9
• Marie and Irene Curie developed X-radiography which was used as a medical technique for
10
• Marie Curie saw the importance of collecting radioactive material both for research and for cases of
11
• The radioactive material stocked in Paris contributed to the discoveries in the 1930s of the
12
. and of what was known as artificial radioactivity. 
• During her research, Marie Curie was exposed to radiation and as a result she suffered from
13
.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Phân tích info theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 With her husband , Pierre Curie , and Henri Becquerel, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics, and was then sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry 

  • Structure: With N/NP, S-V and V 

→ With her husband - Pierre, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize and was sole winner of 1911 Nobel Prize 

→ Trong câu này, bạn sẽ gặp từ mới là “sole winner”, nhưng bạn có thể dựa vào connection để đoán nghĩa.

Xem full giải thích
2
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking 



 From childhood , Marie was remarkable for her prodigious memory , and at the age of 16 won a gold medal on completion of her secondary education. 

  • Structure: From N/NP, S-V1 and V2

→ From childhood, Marie was remarkable for her memory and won a gold medal at 16 

→ từ thông tin trên mình có thể hiểu: Marie’s memory is good and she won a medal at 16 years old 

Xem full giải thích
3
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking

để nắm main idea, ta có:

 1 From her earnings she was able to finance her sister Bronia's medical studies in Paris , on the understanding that  Bronia would , in turn , later help her to get an education .

 2 In 1891 this promise was fulfilled and Marie went to Paris and began to study at the Sorbonne .

  • Structure: From N/NP S-V on the understanding that S2-V2

  • In 1891 this promise was fulfilled and she began to study at Sorbonne 

Xem full giải thích
4
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin cần xác định: Việc sinh con có ảnh hưởng đến công việc nghiên cứu khoa học của Marie không?

 The births of Marie's two daughters, Irène and Eve in 1897 and 1904 failed to interrupt her scientific work. 

→ The births of Marie’s 2 daughters không cản trở việc nghiên cứu của cô

→ Suy ra: Marie were still working when she had babies 

→ opposite meaning với câu hỏi

Xem full giải thích
5
True
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Giải thích chi tiết

Phân tích theo structure



 On May 13, 1906 , she was appointed to the professorship that had been left vacant on her husband's death , ...

→ she was appointed to the professorship → phần này ko hiểu không sao vì bạn có thể đọc phần giải thích bằng mệnh đề quan hệ sau that

→ Marie được appointed to the professorship mà được để trống do her husband's death, trở thành giảng viên nữ đầu tiên

-> Vậy Marie đảm nhận vị trí của chồng sau khi anh qua đời

Xem full giải thích
6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Meaning câu hỏi là: Bronia học medical uses của radioactivity

 From her earnings she was able to finance her sister Bronia's medical studies in Paris , on the understanding...

→ her sister Bronia's medical studies in Paris

→ Bronia studied medical in Paris

Xem full giải thích
7
thorium
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



 Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài. 



Sử dụng Linearthinking

để nắm main idea của infor, bạn sẽ có như sau:

 1 Following Henri Becquerel's discovery in 1896 of a new phenomenon , which Marie later called 'radioactivity', Marie Curie decided to find out if the radioactivity discovered in uranium was to be found in other elements

 2 She discovered that this was true for thorium .

Xem full giải thích
8
pitchblende
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



 Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài. 



Sử dụng Linearthinking

để nắm main idea của infor, bạn sẽ có như sau:

 1 Turning her attention to minerals , she found her interest drawn to pitchblende , a mineral whose radioactivity could be explained only by the presence in the ore of of an unknown substance

Main idea: Marie's new interest is pitchblende và nguyên phần “a mineral …” ở phía sau là để giải thích cho pitchblende 

Xem full giải thích
9
radium
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài. 



Sử dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea của infor, bạn sẽ có như sau:

 In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the isolation of a pure form of radium. 

→ Vậy main idea: Marie received Nobel Prize on the element of radium

Xem full giải thích
10
soldiers
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài. 



Meaning của câu hỏi: Marie and Irene developed X-radiography - từng được sử dụng như là 1 medical technique cho ____ 

→ tìm purpose sử dụng của X-ray trong bài đọc 

Câu này bạn đọc xong, có thể sẽ bị điền nhầm là “treatment" vì cụm used for the treatment → Sai



Xem full giải thích
11
illness
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài. 



Sử dụng Linearthinking

để nắm main idea của infor, bạn sẽ có như sau:

 One of Marie achievement was to understand the need to accumulate radioactive sources not only to treat illness but also maintain supply for research 

→ Radioactive sources are important for treating illness and maintaining supply for research 

Xem full giải thích
12
neutron
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài. 



Sử dụng Linearthinking

để nắm main idea của infor, bạn sẽ có như sau:

 1 The existence in Paris of radium made a contribution to the success of the experiments in 1930 

 2 This work prepared the way for the discovery of neutron... 

Xem full giải thích
13
leukaemia/leukemia
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài. 



Sử dụng Linearthinking

để nắm main idea của infor, bạn sẽ có như sau:

 After this discovery Marie Curie died as a result of leukaemia caused by exposure to radiation 

Main idea câu này bạn rút ra được như sau: Marie Curie was exposed to radiation → she suffered from leukaemia → then died 

Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Young children's sense of identity
A
A. A sense of self develops in young children by degrees. The process can usefully be thought of in terms of the gradual emergence of two somewhat separate features: the self as a subject, and the self as an object. William James introduced the distinction in 1892, and contemporaries of his, such as Charles Cooley, added to the developing debate. Ever since then psychologists have continued building on the theory.
B
B. According to James, a child's first step on the road to self-understanding can be seen as the recognition that he or she exists. This is an aspect of the self that he labelled 'self-as- subject', and he gave it various elements. These included an awareness of one's own agency (i.e. one's power to act), and an awareness of one's distinctiveness from other people. These features gradually emerge as infants explore their world and interact with caregivers. Cooley (1902) suggested that a sense of the self-as-subject was primarily concerned with being able to exercise power. He proposed that the earliest examples of this are an infant's attempts to control physical objects, such as toys or his or her own limbs. This is followed by attempts to affect the behaviour of other people. For example, infants learn that when they cry or smile someone responds to them.
C
C. Another powerful source of information for infants about the effects they can have on the world around them is provided when others mimic them. Many parents spend a lot of time, particularly in the early months, copying their infant's vocalizations and expressions. In addition, young children enjoy looking in mirrors, where the movements they can see are dependent upon their own movements. This is not to say that infants recognize the reflection as their own image (a later development). However, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) suggest that infants' developing understanding that the movements they see in the mirror are contingent on their own, leads to a growing awareness that they are distinct from other people. This is because they, and only they, can change the reflection in the mirror.
D
D. This understanding that children gain of themselves as active agents continues to develop in their attempts to co-operate with others in play. Dunn (1988) points out that it is in such day-to-day relationships and interactions that the child's understanding of his- or herself emerges. Empirical investigations of the self-as-subject in young children are, however, rather scarce because of difficulties of communication: even if young infants can reflect on their experience, they certainly cannot express this aspect of the self directly.
E
E. Once children have acquired a certain level of self-awareness, they begin to place themselves in a whole series of categories, which together play such an important part in defining them uniquely as 'themselves'. This second step in the development of a full sense of self is what James called the 'self-as-object'. This has been seen by many to be the aspect of the self which is most influenced by social elements, since it is made up of social roles (such as student, brother, colleague) and characteristics which derive their meaning from comparison or interaction with other people (such as trustworthiness, shyness, sporting ability).
F
F. Cooley and other researchers suggested a close connection between a person's own understanding of their identity and other people's understanding of it. Cooley believed that people build up their sense of identity from the reactions of others to them, and from the view they believe others have of them. He called the self-as-object the 'looking-glass self', since people come to see themselves as they are reflected in others. Mead (1934) went even further, and saw the self and the social world as inextricably bound together: 'The self is essentially a social structure, and it arises in social experience ... it is impossible to conceive of a self arising outside of social experience.'
G
G. Lewis and Brooks-Gunn argued that an important developmental milestone is reached when children become able to recognize themselves visually without the support of seeing contingent movement. This recognition occurs around their second birthday. In one experiment, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) dabbed some red powder on the noses of children who were playing in front of a mirror, and then observed how often they touched their noses. The psychologists reasoned that if the children knew what they usually looked like, they would be surprised by the unusual red mark and would start touching it. On the other hand, they found that children of 15 to 18 months are generally not able to recognize themselves unless other cues such as movement are present.
H
H. Finally, perhaps the most graphic expressions of self-awareness in general can be seen in the displays of rage which are most common from 18 months to 3 years of age. In a longitudinal study of groups of three or four children, Bronson (1975) found that the intensity of the frustration and anger in their disagreements increased sharply between the ages of 1 and 2 years. Often, the children's disagreements involved a struggle over a toy that none of them had played with before or after the tug-of-war: the children seemed to be disputing ownership rather than wanting to play with it. Although it may be less marked in other societies, the link between the sense of 'self' and of 'ownership' is a notable feature of childhood in Western societies.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 19
Reading Passage has eight paragraphs, A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-H
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14
an account of the method used by researchers in a particular study
15
the role of imitation in developing a sense of identity
16
the age at which children can usually identify a static image of themselves
17
a reason for the limitations of scientific research into ‘self-as-subject’
18
reference to a possible link between culture and a particular form of behaviour
19
examples of the wide range of features that contribute to the sense of ‘self-as-object’
Question 20 - 23
Look at the following findings and the list of researchers below.
Match each finding with the correct researcher or researchers, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E
List of Findings
A
James
B
Cooley
C
Lewis and Brooks-Gunn
D
Mead
E
Bronson
20
A sense of identity can never be formed without relationships with other people.
21
A child’s awareness of self is related to a sense of mastery over things and people.
22
At a certain age, children’s sense of identity leads to aggressive behaviour.
23
Observing their own reflection contributes to children’s self awareness.
Question 24 - 26
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
How children acquire a sense of identity
First, children come to realise that they can have an effect on the world around them, for example by handling objects, or causing the image to move when they face a
24
. This aspect of self-awareness is difficult to research directly, because of
25
problems.
Secondly, children start to become aware of how they are viewed by others. One important stage in this process is the visual recognition of themselves which usually occurs when they reach the age of two. In Western societies at least, the development of self awareness is often linked to a sense of
26
, and can lead to disputes.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
G
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Meaning: sự mô tả của 1 method được sử dụng bởi researchers cho 1 particular study

Đoán paraphrasing: 

Xem full giải thích
15
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • an imitation: sự bắt chước → vậy có khả năng sẽ sử dụng synonym

  • developing a sense of identity: phát triển điều gì đó mà cá nhân hoá, không giống với người khác 

Xem full giải thích
16
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • the age at which children ..: trong bài cần nhắc đến một mốc thời gian (milestone) hay một ẩn ý về mốc thời gian (hint)  

  • identify a static image of themselves: nhận diện được bản thân qua 1 static image   

Xem full giải thích
17
D
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • Self-as-subject: vì cụm này được để trong ngoặc kép, nên thường sẽ không được paraphrase → bạn chỉ cần đi tìm đoạn thông tin chứa cụm này → locate được đoạn B;D;E;F

  • a reason for the limitations: nêu ra cụ thể 1 reason nào đó cho limitation

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
18
H
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • Reference to a possible link between: nêu cụ thể ra 1 reference về mối quan hệ giữa hai việc nào đó

  • culture and a particular form of behaviour: có thể trong bài sẽ sử dụng synonyms để diễn tả về văn hoá cũng như 1 hành vi nào đó 

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
19
E
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • examples of the wide range of features : nêu cụ thể ra 1 ví dụ cụ thể về các features 

  • contribute to the sense of “self-as-object'’: đề cập liên quan tới “self-as-object'’

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
20
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài



Sau khi locate xong, bạn cần hiểu meaning của Passage bằng Linearthinking



Xem full giải thích
21
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Sau khi locate xong, bạn cần hiểu meaning của Passage bằng Linearthinking



Xem full giải thích
22
E
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài



Sau khi locate xong, bạn cần hiểu meaning của Passage bằng Linearthinking



Xem full giải thích
23
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài



Sau khi locate xong, bạn cần hiểu meaning của Passage bằng Linearthinking



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24
mirror
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.

Locate information: Dựa vào “children have effect on the world around them” + causing the image to move → bạn có thể quickly locate thông tin ở đoạn C

Câu cuối được phân tích theo Structure như sau:

 This is because they can change the reflection in the mirror 

→ “they” chính là infants : they can cause the image to change (= move) when they face a mirror 

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25
communication
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 investigation of the self-as-subject are scarce because of difficulties of communication 

→ Structure: S-V because of N/NP 

→ Reason: communication problems → Result: investigation are scarce 

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26
ownership
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 Although it may be less marked in other societies the link between the sense of self and ownership is a notable feature in Western societies 

Structure: Although S-V, S-V 

Tuy nhiên, bạn thấy thông tin bạn cần tìm kiếm nằm ở vế thứ 2 của “although'’, cụ thể là “the link" và “Western societies” 

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

The Development of Museums
A
A. The conviction that historical relics provide infallible testimony about the past is rooted in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when science was regarded as objective and value free. As one writer observes: 'Although it is now evident that artefacts are as easily altered as chronicles, public faith in their veracity endures: a tangible relic seems ipso facto real.' Such conviction was, until recently, reflected in museum displays. Museums used to look - and some still do - much like storage rooms of objects packed together in showcases: good for scholars who wanted to study the subtle differences in design, but not for the ordinary visitor, to whom it all looked alike. Similarly, the information accompanying the objects often made little sense to the lay visitor. The content and format of explanations dated back to a time when the museum was the exclusive domain of the scientific researcher.
B
B. Recently, however, attitudes towards history and the way it should be presented have altered. The key word in heritage display is now 'experience', the more exciting the better and, if possible, involving all the senses. Good examples of this approach in the UK are the Jorvik Centre in York; the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television in Bradford; and the Imperial War Museum in London. In the US the trend emerged much earlier: Williamsburg has been a prototype for many heritage developments in other parts of the world. No one can predict where the process will end. On so-called heritage sites the re-enactment of historical events is increasingly popular, and computers will soon provide virtual reality experiences, which will present visitors with a vivid image of the period of their choice, in which they themselves can act as if part of the historical environment. Such developments have been criticised as an intolerable vulgarisation, but the success of many historical theme parks and similar locations suggests that the majority of the public does not share this opinion.
C
C. In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites on the one hand, and theme parks on the other, is gradually evaporating. They already borrow ideas and concepts from one another. For example, museums have adopted story lines for exhibitions, sites have accepted 'theming'as a relevant tool, and theme parks are moving towards more authenticity and research-based presentations. In zoos, animals are no longer kept in cages, but in great spaces, either in the open air or in enormous greenhouses, such as the jungle and desert environments in Burgers'Zoo in Holland. This particular trend is regarded as one of the major developments in the presentation of natural history in the twentieth century.
D
D. Theme parks are undergoing other changes, too, as they try to present more serious social and cultural issues, and move away from fantasy. This development is a response to market forces and, although museums and heritage sites have a special, rather distinct, role to fulfil, they are also operating in a very competitive environment, where visitors make choices on how and where to spend their free time. Heritage and museum experts do not have to invent stories and recreate historical environments to attract their visitors: their assets are already in place. However, exhibits must be both based on artefacts and facts as we know them, and attractively presented. Those who are professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history are thus in a difficult position, as they must steer a narrow course between the demands of 'evidence' and 'attractiveness', especially given the increasing need in the heritage industry for income-generating activities.
E
E. It could be claimed that in order to make everything in heritage more 'real', historical accuracy must be increasingly altered. For example, Pithecanthropus erectus is depicted in an Indonesian museum with Malay facial features, because this corresponds to public perceptions. Similarly, in the Museum of Natural History in Washington, Neanderthal man is shown making a dominant gesture to his wife. Such presentations tell us more about contemporary perceptions of the world than about our ancestors. There is one compensation, however, for the professionals who make these interpretations: if they did not provide the interpretation, visitors would do it for themselves, based on their own ideas, misconceptions and prejudices. And no matter how exciting the result, it would contain a lot more bias than the presentations provided by experts.
F
F. Human bias is inevitable, but another source of bias in the representation of history has to do with the transitory nature of the materials themselves. The simple fact is that not everything from history survives the historical process. Castles, palaces and cathedrals have a longer lifespan than the dwellings of ordinary people. The same applies to the furnishings and other contents of the premises. In a town like Leyden in Holland, which in the seventeenth century was occupied by approximately the same number of inhabitants as today, people lived within the walled town, an area more than five times smaller than modern Leyden. In most of the houses several families lived together in circumstances beyond our imagination. Yet in museums, fine period rooms give only an image of the lifestyle of the upper class of that era. No wonder that people who stroll around exhibitions are filled with nostalgia; the evidence in museums indicates that life was so much better in the past. This notion is induced by the bias in its representation in museums and heritage centres.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 30
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-E from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-vii
List of Headings
I
Commercial pressures on people in charge
II
Mixed views on current changes to museums
III
Interpreting the facts to meet visitor expectations
IV
The international dimension
V
Collections of factual evidence
VI
Fewer differences between public attractions
VII
Current reviews and suggestions
27
Paragraph B
28
Paragraph C
29
Paragraph D
30
Paragraph E
Question 31 - 36
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
31
Compared with today’s museums, those of the past
A
did not present history in a detailed way.
B
were not primarily intended for the public.
C
were more clearly organised.
D
preserved items with greater care.
32
According to the writer, current trends in the heritage industry
A
emphasise personal involvement.
B
have their origins in York and London.
C
rely on computer images.
D
reflect minority tastes.
33
The writer says that museums, heritage sites and theme parks
A
often work in close partnership.
B
try to preserve separate identities.
C
have similar exhibits.
D
are less easy to distinguish than before.
34
The writer says that in preparing exhibits for museums, experts
A
should pursue a single objective.
B
have to do a certain amount of language translation.
C
should be free from commercial constraints.
D
have to balance conflicting priorities.
35
In paragraph E, the writer suggests that some museum exhibits
A
fail to match visitor expectations.
B
are based on the false assumptions of professionals.
C
reveal more about present beliefs than about the past.
D
allow visitors to make more use of their imagination.
36
The passage ends by noting that our view of history is biased because
A
we fail to use our imagination.
B
only very durable objects remain from the past.
C
we tend to ignore things that displease us.
D
museum exhibits focus too much on the local area.
Question 37 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
37
Consumers prefer theme parks which avoid serious issues.
38
More people visit museums than theme parks.
39
The boundaries of Leyden have changed little since the seventeenth century.
40
Museums can give a false impression of how life used to be.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
II
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan/skim các bạn sẽ thấy các keyword như là in the UK, in the US → đang chỉ về international 

Cộng thêm keyword "criticised" sẽ nghĩ theo chiều hướng đưa ra nhận định “dimension"

→ nhanh tay chọn heading iv  → SAI 

Với Linearthinking

Câu 1 + 2 the keyword in heritage display now is experience

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28
VI
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đối với đoạn này, nếu bạn apply Linearthinking

(Read in structure + connection), bạn sẽ tóm lại được main idea như sau: 

Câu 1 museum and heritage sites - and theme parks không còn quá khác biệt

Câu 2 giải thích tại sao distinction đó lại evaporating → do borrow ideas và concepts

Câu 3 + 4 Đưa ví dụ minh họa việc borrow như thế nào ở museums, theme parks, và zoos.

Câu 5  Xu hướng này là one of the major developments in natural history

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29
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đối với đoạn này, nếu bạn apply Linearthinking

(Read in structure + connection), bạn sẽ tóm lại được main idea như sau:

Câu 1 + 2 theme parks thay đổi, không chú trọng fantasy mà tập trung vào social and cultural issues để phù hợp với thị hiếu người dùng trong môi trường cạnh tranh

Câu 3 + 4 Heritage and museums experts không cần invent stories nhưng phải based on artefacts and facts và attractively presented

Câu 5 do đó những người interpreting history phải try hard in their work

Từ main idea của các câu trên, bạn thấy được rằng đoạn này đang được tập trung phân tích về việc: because of commercial pressures, people who work for theme parks + museums have to put effort into the work 

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30
III
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Giải thích chi tiết

Đối với đoạn này, nếu bạn apply Linearthinking

(Read in structure + connection), bạn sẽ tóm lại được main idea như sau:

Câu 1 Historical accuracy phải được altered

Câu 2 + 3 give examples cho việc “historical accuracy be altered/changed", qua Pithencan được depicted or Neanderthal được shown như thế nào.

Câu 4 such presentations (depict, show) cho chúng ta biết về perceptions of the world

Câu 5 đưa ra quan điểm bảo vệ cho việc change "historical accuracy": nếu ko thay đổi, thì visitor sẽ tự hiểu theo ý của họ

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31
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Compared today’s museums with museums trong quá khứ

Dựa vào keywords: museums - those of the past để locate info 

 Museums used to look like storage rooms of objects : good for scholars who wanted to study in design but not for visitors 

→ Main idea: museums in the past was for people who wanted to study/ not to visit (not open to the public) 

=> Đáp án B - were not primarily intended for the public



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32
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

  1. Nếu bạn dùng Skim/scan trong câu này, bạn sẽ thấy các keyword như: computers; provide image → chọn ngay C - rely on computer images → SAI 

    

  2. Apply Linearthinking 

    

→ Dựa vào keywords: current trends & heritage industry để locate info 

 On heritage sites the re-enactment of historical events is increasingly popular , and computers will provide  virtual reality experiences in which they themselves can act as if part of the historical environment 

→ Main idea: computers will provide virtual experiences where (=in which) they themselves can involve in the historical environment

=> Đáp án A - emphasize personal involvement.



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33
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Apply Linearthinking 



Dựa vào keywords: museums, heritage and theme parks để locate info - chú ý về mối quan hệ của cả 3

1/ Nếu bạn hiểu từ “evaporating" → bạn có thể suy ra nhanh chóng main idea: the difference between 3 of them is becoming less → Chọn đáp án D 

2/ Nếu bạn không hiểu từ vựng “evaporating", bạn có thể đọc connection với câu sau 

The distinction is evaporating because they borrow ideas from each other → so they have some similar areas 

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34
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

→ Dựa vào keywords: preparing exhibits for museums & experts để locate info 

Apply Linearthinking 

- Read in structure

 3 Those who are engaged in the art of history are in a difficult position as they must steer a narrow course  between the demands of evidence and attractiveness 

→ evidence and attractiveness: là 2 demands khác nhau → steer a narrow course between sth có nghĩa là cần có sự cân bằng 

→ experts' responsibility: need to balance the priorities (evidence and attractiveness)

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35
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì câu hỏi đã nêu sẵn đoạn E, nên bạn sẽ vào đoạn E để đọc info 

Apply Linearthinking

- Read in structure

Câu 1 + 2 đưa ra ví dụ của các exhibitions → không cần hiểu sâu 

Câu 3 Such presentations tell us more about contemporary perceptions of the world than our ancestors 

Main idea của câu 3 such presentations give us more information about the beliefs at the moment (= contemporary) than the past (= our ancestors) 

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36
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Apply Linearthinking



→ Vì câu hỏi đã nêu sẵn ở cuối bài, nên bạn sẽ vào đoạn cuối để đọc info 

 1 Human bias is inevitable but another source of bias in the representation of history has to do with the transitory nature of the materials themselves

→ đọc xong câu đầu bạn chưa rõ về “nature of materials" thì sẽ đọc thêm connection với hai câu sau 

 2 The simple fact is that not everything from history survives the historical process

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37
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào keywords: theme parks + consumers + avoid serious issues để các bạn locate info trong bài đọc 

Read in structure 

 Theme parks are undergoing other changes as they try to present more social and cultural issues and...

→ Main idea: “they" try to solve the problem by presenting more social and cultural issues, không phải avoid it 

→ Opposite meaning 

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38
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Bạn sẽ thấy hầu như thông tin trong bài đều nhắc tới museums and theme parks; và có thông tin visitors sẽ có quyền make choices và where to spend time 

Nhưng không có thông tin so sánh là prefer cái nào hơn cũng như có nhiều người visit hay không

→ không đủ thông tin kết luận 

=> Đáp án: NOT GIVEN





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39
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào keywords: Leyden + 17th century để các bạn locate info trong bài đọc 

cơ bản hai thông tin khi bạn đọc xong sẽ giống nhau

→ phần bạn cần so sánh meaning ở đây là have changed little trái nghĩa với 5 times smaller  

=> Đáp án: FALSE 



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40
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

→ Dựa vào keywords: museum + how life used to be để tìm thông tin + paraphrasing

Apply Linearthinking

- Read in structure 

  1.  the evidence in museums indicates that life was so much better in the past

  2.  This notion is induced by the bias in its representation in museums and ... 

Trong hai câu này có thể bạn sẽ bị từ mới là "induce" nhưng bạn vẫn sẽ ra được main idea dựa và structure của 2 câu: 

→ S-V. This V → câu 2 giải thích cho câu 1  

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Bạn có thể tải bản đẹp của đề và đáp án CAM9 - Reading Test 4 tại đây