Cambridge IELTS 16 - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 16 - Reading Test 3 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 16 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 16 - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Roman shipbuilding and navigation
Shipbuilding today is based on science and ships are built using computers and sophisticated tools. Shipbuilding in ancient Rome, however, was more of an art relying on estimation, inherited techniques and personal experience. The Romans were not traditionally sailors but mostly land based people, who learned to build ships from the people that they conquered, namely the Greeks and the Egyptians. There are a few surviving written documents that give descriptions and representations of ancient Roman ships, including the sails and rigging. Excavated vessels also provide some clues about ancient shipbuilding techniques. Studies of these have taught us that ancient Roman shipbuilders built the outer hull first, then proceeded with the frame and the rest of the ship. Planks used to build the outer hull were initially sewn together. Starting from the 6th century BCE, they were fixed using a method called mortise and tenon, whereby one plank locked into another without the need for stitching. Then in the first centuries of the current era, Mediterranean shipbuilders shifted to another shipbuilding method, still in use today, which consisted of building the frame first and then proceeding with the hull and the other components of the ship. This method was more systematic and dramatically shortened ship construction times. The ancient Romans built large merchant ships and warships whose size and technology were unequalled until the 16th century CE. Warships were built to be lightweight and very speedy. They had to be able to sail near the coast, which is why they had no ballast or excess load and were built with a long, narrow hull. They did not sink when damaged and often would lie crippled on the sea's surface following naval battles. They had a bronze battering ram, which was used to pierce the timber hulls or break the oars of enemy vessels. Warships used both wind (sails) and human power (oarsmen) and were therefore very fast. Eventually, Rome's navy became the largest and most powerful in the Mediterranean, and the Romans had control over what they therefore called Mare Nostrum meaning 'our sea'. There were many kinds of warship. The 'trireme' was the dominant warship from the 7th to 4th century BCE. It had rowers in the top, middle and lower levels, and approximately 50 rowers in each bank. The rowers at the bottom had the most uncomfortable position as they were under the other rowers and were exposed to the water entering through the oar-holes. It is worth noting that contrary to popular perception, rowers were not slaves but mostly Roman citizens enrolled in the military. The trireme was superseded by larger ships with even more rowers. Merchant ships were built to transport lots of cargo over long distances and at a reasonable cost. They had a wider hull, double planking and a solid interior for added stability. Unlike warships, their V-shaped hull was deep underwater, meaning that they could not sail too close to the coast. They usually had two huge side rudders located off the stern and controlled by a small tiller bar connected to a system of cables. They had from one to three masts with large square sails and a small triangular sail at the bow. Just like warships, merchant ships used oarsmen, but coordinating the hundreds of rowers in both types of ship was not an easy task. In order to assist them, music would be played on an instrument, and oars would then keep time with this. The cargo on merchant ships included raw materials (e.g. iron bars, copper, marble and granite), and agricultural products (e.g. grain from Egypt's Nile valley). During the Empire, Rome was a huge city by ancient standards of about one million inhabitants. Goods from all over the world would come to the city through the port of Pozzuoli situated west of the bay of Naples in Italy and through the gigantic port of Ostia situated at the mouth of the Tiber River. Large merchant ships would approach the destination port and, just like today, be intercepted by a number of towboats that would drag them to the quay. The time of travel along the many sailing routes could vary widely. Navigation in ancient Rome did not rely on sophisticated instruments such as compasses but on experience, local knowledge and observation of natural phenomena. In conditions of good visibility, seamen in the Mediterranean often had the mainland or islands in sight, which greatly facilitated navigation. They sailed by noting their position relative to a succession of recognisable landmarks. When weather conditions were not good or where land was no longer visible, Roman mariners estimated directions from the pole star or, with less accuracy, from the Sun at noon. They also estimated directions relative to the wind and swell. Overall, shipping in ancient Roman times resembled shipping today with large vessels regularly crossing the seas and bringing supplies from their Empire.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage? In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1
The Romans' shipbuilding skills were passed on to the Greeks and the Egyptians.
2
Skilled craftsmen were needed for the mortise and tenon method of fixing planks.
3
The later practice used by Mediterranean shipbuilders involved building the hull before the frame.
4
The Romans called the Mediterranean Sea Mare Nostrum because they dominated its use.
5
Most rowers on ships were people from the Roman army.
Question 6 - 13
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Warships and merchant ships
Warships were designed so that they were
6
and moved quickly. They often remained afloat after battles and were able to sail close to land as they lacked any additional weight. A battering ram made of
7
was included in the design for attacking and damaging the timber and oars of enemy ships. Warships, such as the 'trireme', had rowers on three different
8
.
Unlike warships, merchant ships had a broad
9
that lay far below the surface of the sea. Merchant ships were steered through the water with the help of large rudders and a tiller bar. They had both square and
10
sails. On merchant ships and warships,
11
was used to ensure rowers moved their oars in and out of the water at the same time.
Quantities of agricultural goods such as
12
were transported by merchant ships to two main ports in Italy. The ships were pulled to the shore by
13
. When the weather was clear and they could see islands or land, sailors used landmarks that they knew to help them navigate their route.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 The Romans were not traditionally sailors , who learned to build ships from the Greeks and the Egyptians.

=> Main idea: The Romans - vốn không phải là sailors - thật ra họ học cách build ships từ the Greeks and the Egyptians

=> Nói cách khác, kỹ năng shipbuilding được - the Greeks and the Egyptians - truyền lại cho - the Romans

=> Ngược với câu hỏi -> Chọn FALSE



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2
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Skilled craftsmen were needed for the mortise and tenon method of fixing planks.

=> Cần skilled craftsmen - để thực hiên - the mortise and tenon method of fixing planks.

=> Ta có thể dễ dàng tìm được thông tin về 'mortise and tenon method', nhưng bài đọc không nói thực hiện method này có đòi hỏi craftsmen phải rành nghề/giỏi

=> Không đủ thông tin để kết luận -> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
3
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Hiểu câu hỏi: The later practice used by Mediterranean shipbuilders involved building the hull before the frame. 

=> Phương pháp được ứng dụng sau này - là - building the hull (vỏ tàu) before the frame (khung tàu)

Bài đọc: Mediterranean shipbuilders shifted to another shipbuilding method , which consisted of building the frame first and then proceeding with the hull

=> 'building the frame first and then proceeding with the hull' -> Ngược với câu hỏi

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4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Rome's navy became the largest and most powerful in the Mediterranean , and the Romans had control over what they therefore called Mare Nostrum meaning 'our sea'. 

=> Main idea: Rome's navy - trở nên quyền lực nhất -> Romans thống trị biển Mediterranean - và gọi nó là Mare Nostrum, nghĩa là 'our sea'

=> Nói cách khác, The Romans gọi Mediterranean SeaMare Nostrum (our sea) vì họ có quyền kiểm soát nó

So sánh với câu hỏi: The Romans called the Mediterranean Sea Mare Nostrum because they dominated its use. 

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5
True
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Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 ...rowers were not slaves but mostly Roman citizens enrolled in the military .

=> Main idea: rowers không phải slaves - mà là - những công dân Roman được tuyển vào quân đội

So sánh với câu hỏi: Most rowers on ships were people from the Roman army.

=> Thông tin bài đọc khớp với câu hỏi

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6
lightweight
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Warships were designed so that they were _____ and moved quickly

=> Đáp án là tính từ (sau 'be') - một đặc tính của warships, bên cạnh việc chạy nhanh





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Warships were built to be lightweight and very speedy.

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7
bronze
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: A battering ram made of _____ was included in the design for attacking and damaging the timber and oars of enemy ships.

=> Đáp án là một chất liệu (sau 'made of')

=> Dễ dàng tìm được thông tin dựa vào 'battering ram'





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

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8
levels
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 There were many kinds of warship

 2 The 'trireme' was the dominant warship

 3 It  had rowers in the top, middle and lower levels

=> Câu 1 + 2 : 'trireme' là một loại warship phổ biến

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9
hull
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vì thông tin phân mảnh ở nhiều câu, ta đọc connection với Linearthinking nhé

 1 Merchant ships were built to transport lots of cargo... 

 2 They had a wider hull , double planking and a solid interior 

 3 Unlike warships , their V-shaped hull was deep underwater

=> Câu 1 nhắc đến merchant ships

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10
triangular
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Khi đọc tới 'side rudders' + 'tiller' bar' là ta biết thông tin cần đọc sẽ ở gần đó



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

They had from one to three masts with large square sails and a small triangular sail at the bow.

=> Main idea: Merchant ships - có 1-3 masts với square sails và triangular sail.

=> Đáp án cần tìm là 1 tính từ bổ nghĩa cho sails - được nhắc đến song song với 'square'

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11
music
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 Just like warships merchant ships used oarsmen but coordinating the hundreds of rowers in both types of ship was not an easy task

 2 In order to assist them , music would be played and oars would then keep time with this

>>> 'coordinate' là một verb - có nghĩa là điều phối, làm cho mọi người làm việc nhịp nhàng, đồng đều

>>> Nếu không biết từ này, ta có thể đoán được bằng cách so sánh với phần summary nha



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12
grain
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể nhanh chogns khoanh vùng được thông tin dựa vào 'agricultural products' cũng như tên 2 cảng 'Pozzuoli' + 'Ostia'



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

The cargo on merchant ships included raw materials and agricultural products (e.g. grain from Egypt's Nile valley). 

=> Main idea: hàng hóa trên merchant ships bao gồm raw materials và agricultural products (như grain from Egypt's Nile Valley)

=> Đáp án cần tìm là một ví dụ của argicultural products

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13
towboats
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi:  The ships were pulled to the shore by ______

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một thứ mà kéo merchant ships vào bờ





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Large merchant ships would  approach the destination port and be intercepted by a number of towboats that would drag them to the quay. 

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Climate change reveals ancient artefacts in Norway's glaciers
A
A. Well above the treeline in Norway's highest mountains, ancient fields of ice are shrinking as Earth's climate warms. As the ice has vanished, it has been giving up the treasures it has preserved in cold storage for the last 6,000 years – items such as ancient arrows and skis from Viking Age* traders. And those artefacts have provided archaeologists with some surprising insights into how ancient Norwegians made their livings.
B
B. Organic materials like textiles and hides are relatively rare finds at archaeological sites. This is because unless they’re protected from the microorganisms that cause decay, they tend not to last long. Extreme cold is one reliable way to keep artefacts relatively fresh for a few thousand years, but once thawed out, these materials experience degradation relatively swiftly. With climate change shrinking ice cover around the world, glacial archaeologists need to race the clock to find newly revealed artefacts, preserve them, and study them. If something fragile dries and is windblown it might very soon be lost to science, or an arrow might be exposed and then covered again by the next snow and remain well-preserved. The unpredictability means that glacial archaeologists have to be systematic in their approach to fieldwork.
C
C. Over a nine-year period, a team of archaeologists, which included Lars Pilø of Oppland County Council, Norway, and James Barrett of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, surveyed patches of ice in Oppland, an area of south-central Norway that is home to some of the country's highest mountains. Reindeer once congregated on these icy patches in the later summer months to escape biting insects, and from the late Stone Age**, hunters followed. In addition, trade routes threaded through the mountain passes of Oppland, linking settlements in Norway to the rest of Europe. The slow but steady movement of glaciers tends to destroy anything at their bases, so the team focused on stationary patches of ice, mostly above 1,400 metres. That ice is found amid fields of frost-weathered boulders, fallen rocks, and exposed bedrock that for nine months of the year is buried beneath snow. 'Fieldwork is hard work - hiking with all our equipment, often camping on permafrost - but very rewarding. You're rescuing the archaeology, bringing the melting ice to wider attention, discovering a unique environmental history and really connecting with the natural environment,' says Barrett. -------------------------------------------- *Viking Age: a period of European history from around 700 CE to around 1050 CE when Scandinavian Vikings migrated throughout Europe by means of trade and warfare ** The Stone Age: a period in early history that began about 3.4 million years ago
D
D. At the edges of the contracting ice patches, archaeologists found more than 2,000 artefacts, which formed a material record that ran from 4,000 BCE to the beginnings of the Renaissance in the 14th century. Many of the artefacts are associated with hunting. Hunters would have easily misplaced arrows and they often discarded broken bows rather than take them all the way home. Other items could have been used by hunters traversing the high mountain passes of Oppland: all-purpose items like tools, skis, and horse tack.
E
E. Barrett's team radiocarbon-dated 153 of the artefacts and compared those dates to the timing of major environmental changes in the region - such as periods of cooling or warming - and major social and economic shifts – such as the growth of farming settlements and the spread of international trade networks leading up to the Viking Age. They found that some periods had produced lots of artefacts, which indicates that people had been pretty active in the mountains during those times. But there were few or no signs of activity during other periods.
F
F. What was surprising, according to Barrett, was the timing of these periods. Oppland's mountains present daunting terrain and in periods of extreme cold, glaciers could block the higher mountain passes and make travel in the upper reaches of the mountains extremely difficult. Archaeologists assumed people would stick to lower elevations during a time like the Late Antique Little Ice Age, a short period of deeper-than-usual cold from about 536-600 CE. But it turned out that hunters kept regularly venturing into the mountains even when the climate turned cold, based on the amount of stuff they had apparently dropped there. “Remarkably, though, the finds from the ice may have continued through this period, perhaps suggesting that the importance of mountain hunting increased to supplement failing agricultural harvests in times of low temperatures,' says Barrett. A colder turn in the Scandinavian climate would likely have meant widespread crop failures, so more people would have depended on hunting to make up for those losses.
G
G. Many of the artefacts Barrett's team recovered date from the beginning of the Viking Age, the 700s through to the 900s CE. Trade networks connecting Scandinavia with Europe and the Middle East were expanding around this time. Although we usually think of ships when we think of Scandinavian expansion, these recent discoveries show that plenty of goods travelled on overland routes, like the mountain passes of Oppland. And growing Norwegian towns, along with export markets, would have created a booming demand for hides to fight off the cold, as well as antlers to make useful things like combs. Business must have been good for hunters.
H
H. Norway's mountains are probably still hiding a lot of history - and prehistory - in remote ice patches. When Barrett's team looked at the dates for their sample of 153 artefacts, they noticed a gap with almost no artefacts from about 3,800 to 2,200 BCE. In fact, archaeological finds from that period are rare all over Norway. The researchers say that could be because many of those artefacts have already disintegrated or are still frozen in the ice. That means archaeologists could be extracting some of those artefacts from retreating ice in years to come.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 19
Reading Passage 2 has eight sections, A-H.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes on your answer sheet.
14
an explanation for weapons being left behind in the mountains
15
a reference to the physical difficulties involved in an archaeological expedition
16
an explanation of why less food may have been available
17
a reference to the possibility of future archaeological discoveries
18
examples of items that would have been traded
19
a reference to the pressure archaeologists are under to work quickly
Question 20 - 22
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Interesting finds at an archaeological site
Organic materials such as animal skins and textiles are not discovered very often at archaeological sites. They have little protection against
20
, which means that they decay relatively quickly. But this is not always the case. If temperatures are low enough, fragile artefacts can be preserved for thousands of years.

A team of archaeologists have been working in the mountains in Oppland in Norway to recover artefacts revealed by shrinking ice cover. In the past, there were trade routes through these mountains and
21
gathered there in the summer months to avoid being attacked by
22
on lower ground. The people who used these mountains left things behind and it is those objects that are of interest to archaeologists.
Question 23 - 26
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of the following statements does the writer make about the discoveries of Barrett's team?
A
Artefacts found in the higher mountain passes were limited to skiing equipment.
B
Hunters went into the mountains even during periods of extreme cold.
C
The number of artefacts from certain time periods was relatively low.
D
Radiocarbon dating of artefacts produced some unreliable results.
E
More artefacts were found in Oppland than at any other mountain site.
Which TWO of the following statements does the writer make about the Viking Age?
A
Hunters at this time benefited from an increased demand for goods.
B
The beginning of the period saw the greatest growth in the wealth of Vikings.
C
Vikings did not rely on ships alone to transport goods.
D
Norwegian towns at this time attracted traders from around the world.
E
Vikings were primarily interested in their trading links with the Middle East.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc

=> Có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • weapons -> nghĩ về các từ chỉ vũ khí cụ thể (sword, knife, arrow,...)

  • are being left behind in the mountains -> nghĩ về việc vũ khí bị bỏ lại trên núi mà không được mang về

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15
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc

=> Có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • physical difficulties -> nghĩ về những khó khăn vật lý (thời tiết, địa hình, động vật hoang dã,...) khi đi khảo cổ

  • an archaeological expedition -> tìm nhưng từ liên quan vì có thể bài đọc sẽ paraphrase

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16
F
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

why less food may have been available -> nghĩ về lý do khiến thức ăn cạn kiệt (thiên tai, mùa màng thất bát, sâu hại...)

Xem full giải thích
17
H
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

possibility of future archaeological discoveries -> nghĩ về các thông tin, cụm từ liên quan đến tương lai

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
18
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

examples of items that would have been traded -> nghĩ về những vật phẩm cụ thể, mà được đem ra mua bán

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine + xác định info

Xem full giải thích
19
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc

=> Có thể tìm info nhanh hơn



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

the pressure archaeologists are under to work quickly -> nghĩ về những yếu tố khiến archeologists phải làm việc nhanh , và cụ thể là làm gi?

Xem full giải thích
20
microorganisms
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Organic materials such as animal skins and textiles ....They have little protection against _____, which means that they decay relatively quickly

=> Đáp án là danh từ - một thứ mà gây hại cho organic materials, khiến chúng nhanh chóng bị hủy hoại

=> Ta đễ dàng tìm được thông tin cần đọc với các cụm từ 'organic materials' + 'textiles'





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Xem full giải thích
21
reindeer
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: In the past, there were trade routes through these mountains and _____ gathered there in the summer months

=> Vì ở vị trí chủ ngữ đi với động từ 'gathered', đáp án chỉ có thể là danh từ chỉ người/động vật

=> Ta có thể dựa vào thông tin 'summer months' để nhanh chóng xác định thông tin cần đọc.





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Xem full giải thích
22
insects
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Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Reindeer once congregated on these icy patches in the later summer months to escape biting insects , and from the late Stone Age

=> Ta thấy 'escape' (trốn thoát) đồng nghĩa với 'avoid being attacked' (tránh bị tấn công)

=> Đây đều là các từ đơn giản, nên ta dễ dàng nhận ra đáp án là 'insects'

=> Answer: insects



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23
B
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Vì 'Barrett's team' được nhắc đến xuyên suốt bài đọc, ta không thể dựa vào tên riêng mà xác định thông tin

=> 'Discoveries'những phát hiện, mà thường thì những đoạn đầu sẽ chỉ giới thiệu về team, về tình huống cho chúng ta biết

=> Cho nên ta sẽ ưu tiên những đoạn sau, và cụ thể là chú ý tới những từ liên quan tới 'discoveries' (Ex: found, discovered, findings,...) - và phát hiện trong khảo cổ thì thường sẽ là các tạo tác của người xưa (artefacts, skis, bows, arrows,...)





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

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24
C
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Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 They found that some periods had produced lots of artefacts , which indicates.... 

=> Barrett's team phát hiện rằng ở một số thời kỳ, artefact được sản xuất nhiều

 2 But there were few or no signs of activity during other periods.

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25
A
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Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 growing Norwegian towns , along with export markets , would have created a booming demand for hides... , as well as antlers... 

 2 Business must have been good for hunters

=> Câu 1 : Norwegian towns + export markets phát triển -> nhu cầu mua bán hides + antlers tăng nhanh

=> Câu 2 : việc kinh doanh thuận lợi cho hunters

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26
C
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Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Although we think of ships when we think of Scandinavian expansion , these recent discoveries show that plenty of goods travelled on overland routes

=> Main idea: Mặc dù khi nghĩ đến Scandinavian expansion thì chúng ta sẽ nghĩ họ chủ yếu dùng ship - nhưng những nghiên cứu gần đây chỉ ra rằng - nhiều hàng hóa được vận chuyển bằng đường bộ

=> Vậy Vikings không phụ thuộc duy nhất vào ships khi vận chuyển hàng hóa

=> Ứng với đáp án C. Vikings did not rely on ships alone to transport goods.



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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Plant 'thermometer' triggers springtime growth by measuring night-time heat
A photoreceptor molecule in plant cells has been found to have a second job as a thermometer after dark - allowing plants to read seasonal temperature changes. Scientists say the discovery could help breed crops that are more resilient to the temperatures expected to result from climate change
A
A. An international team of scientists led by the University of Cambridge has discovered that the thermometer' molecule in plants enables them to develop according to seasonal temperature changes. Researchers have revealed that molecules called phytochromes - used by plants to detect light during the day – actually change their function in darkness to become cellular temperature gauges that measure the heat of the night. The new findings, published in the journal Science, show that phytochromes control genetic switches in response to temperature as well as light to dictate plant development.
B
B. At night, these molecules change states, and the pace at which they change is directly proportional to temperature', say scientists, who compare phytochromes to mercury in a thermometer. The warmer it is, the faster the molecular change - stimulating plant growth.
C
C. Farmers and gardeners have known for hundreds of years how responsive plants are to temperature: warm winters cause many trees and flowers to bud early, something humans have long used to predict weather and harvest times for the coming year. The latest research pinpoints for the first time a molecular mechanism in plants that reacts to temperature - often triggering the buds of spring we long to see at the end of winter.
D
D. With weather and temperatures set to become ever more unpredictable due to climate change, researchers say the discovery that this light-sensing molecule also functions as the internal thermometer in plant cells could help us breed tougher crops. 'It is estimated that agricultural yields will need to double by 2050, but climate change is a major threat to achieving this. Key crops such as wheat and rice are sensitive to high temperatures. Thermal stress reduces crop yields by around 10% for every one degree increase in temperature,' says lead researcher Wigge from Cambridge's Sainsbury Laboratory. 'Discovering the molecules that allow plants to sense temperature has the potential to accelerate the breeding of crops resilient to thermal stress and climate change.'
E
E. In their active state, phytochrome molecules bind themselves to DNA to restrict plant growth. During the day, sunlight activates the molecules, slowing down growth. If a plant finds itself in shade, phytochromes are quickly inactivated - enabling it to grow faster to find sunlight again. This is how plants compete to escape each other's shade. 'Light-driven changes to phytochrome activity occur very fast, in less than a second,' says Wigge. At night, however, it's a different story. Instead of a rapid deactivation following sundown, the molecules gradually change from their active to inactive state. This is called 'dark reversion'. 'Just as mercury rises in a thermometer, the rate at which phytochromes revert to their inactive state during the night is a direct measure of temperature,' says Wigge.
F
F. “The lower the temperature, the slower the rate at which phytochromes revert to inactivity, so the molecules spend more time in their active, growth-suppressing state. This is why plants are slower to grow in winter. Warm temperatures accelerate dark reversion, so that phytochromes rapidly reach an inactive state and detach themselves from the plant's DNA - allowing genes to be expressed and plant growth to resume.' Wigge believes phytochrome thermo-sensing evolved at a later stage, and co-opted the biological network already used for light-based growth during the downtime of night.
G
G. Some plants mainly use day length as an indicator of the season. Other species, such as daffodils, have considerable temperature sensitivity, and can flower months in advance during a warm winter. In fact, the discovery of the dual role of phytochromes provides the science behind a well-known rhyme long used to predict the coming season: oak before ash we'll have a splash, ash before oak we're in for a soak. Wigge explains: 'Oak trees rely much more on temperature, likely using phytochromes as thermometers to dictate development, whereas ash trees rely on measuring day length to determine their seasonal timing. A warmer spring, and consequently a higher likeliness of a hot summer, will result in oak leafing before ash. A cold spring will see the opposite. As the British know only too well, a colder summer is likely to be a rain-soaked one.'
H
H. The new findings are the culmination of twelve years of research involving scientists from Germany, Argentina and the US, as well as the Cambridge team. The work was done in a model system, using a mustard plant called Arabidopsis, but Wigge says the phytochrome genes necessary for temperature sensing are found in crop plants as well. “Recent advances in plant genetics now mean that scientists are able to rapidly identify the genes controlling these processes in crop plants, and even alter their activity using precise molecular "scalpels”, adds Wigge. Cambridge is uniquely well-positioned to do this kind of research as we have outstanding collaborators nearby who work on more applied aspects of plant biology, and can help us transfer this new knowledge into the field.'

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In boxes on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
27
The Cambridge scientists' discovery of the thermometer molecule' caused surprise among other scientists.
28
The target for agricultural production by 2050 could be missed.
29
Wheat and rice suffer from a rise in temperatures.
30
It may be possible to develop crops that require less water.
31
Plants grow faster in sunlight than in shade.
32
Phytochromes change their state at the same speed day and night.
Question 33 - 37
Reading Passage 3 has eight sections, A-H.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes on your answer sheet.
33
mention of specialists who can make use of the research findings
34
a reference to a potential benefit of the research findings
35
scientific support for a traditional saying
36
a reference to people traditionally making plans based on plant behaviour
37
a reference to where the research has been reported
Question 38 - 40
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
38
Daffodils are likely to flower early in response to
_____
weather.
39
If ash trees come into leaf before oak trees, the weather in
_____
will probably be wet.
40
The research was carried out using a particular species of
_____
.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
Not Given
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 A team of scientists led by the University of Cambridge has discovered that the thermometer' molecule in plants enables  them to develop according to seasonal temperature changes.

=> Bài đọc chỉ đề cập tới việc các nhà khoa học phát hiện ra thermometer molecule

=> Chứ không hề cho biết các nhà khoa học có surprised hay không

=> Thông tin không đủ để kết luận -> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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28
True
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Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 'It is estimated that agricultural yields will need to double by 2050 , but climate change is a major threat to achieving this. 

=> Main idea:  agricultural yields cần phải double vào năm 2050 - nhưng biến đổi khí hậu - là mối đe dọa chính để đạt được con số này

=> Nói cách khác, mục tiêu đạt được mức agricultural yields dự định vào năm 2050 có thể không đạt được

=> Khớp với thông tin câu hỏi -> Chọn TRUE



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29
True
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Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Key crops such as wheat and rice are sensitive to high temperatures. 

=> Main idea: Key crops - ví dụ như là wheat and rice thì nhạy cảm với nhiệt độ cao

So sánh với câu hỏi: Wheat and rice suffer from a rise in temperatures. 

=> Wheat and rice có thể bị ảnh hưởng bởi nhiệt độ cao

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30
Not Given
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Hiểu câu hỏi: It may be possible to develop crops that require less water. 

=> Có thể phát triển những loại cây cần ít nước hơn

=> Tuy nhiên, bài đọc chỉ đề cập tới việc phát triển những loại cây mà chịu được 'thermal stress' + 'climate change'

=> Không nói tới việc chúng có cần ít nước hơn hay không

=> Không đủ thông tin để kết luận -> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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31
False
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Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 During the day , sunlight activates the molecules , slowing down growth .

 2 If a plant finds itself in shade , phytochromes are quickly inactivated - enabling it to grow faster to find sunlight again .

=> Câu 1 : Ban ngày - sunlight kích hoạt molecules - làm chậm lại quá trình phát triển

=> Câu 2 : Nếu ở dưới bóng râm - molecules bị vô hiệu hóa - làm cho cây phát triển nhanh hơn - để tìm được sunlight.

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32
False
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Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Instead of a rapid deactivation following sundown , the molecules gradually change from their active to inactive state .

=> Main idea: Thay vì - bị deactivate nhanh - molecules chậm rãi chuyển từ trạng thái active sang inactive - khi mặt trời lặn

=> Nói cách khác, vào buổi tối thì molecules thay chuyển trạng thái chậm hơn ban ngày

>>> Giả sử trong trường hợp bạn nào thiếu từ vựng, không biết từ 'gradually', ta có thể dựa vào cấu trúc mà chọn đáp án nhé

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33
H
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc

=> Có thể tìm info nhanh hơn



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • specialists -> nghĩ về việc từ này có thể được paraphrase lại thành những từ khác chỉ người có chuyên môn

  • make use of the research findings -> nghĩ xem cụ thể họ làm gì để tận dụng, áp dụng kết quả research vô lĩnh vực nào

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34
D
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc

=> Có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

a potential benefit -> nghĩ về những lợi ích mà molocules có thể mang lại

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35
G
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Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc, bạn sẽ tìm được info nhanh hơn.

=> Thật vậy, trong bài có một câu nói rất đặc biệt mà mình nghĩ ai đọc qua cũng sẽ nhớ. Nếu để bài này làm cuối cùng, ta sẽ có thể dễ dàng biết ngay câu đó nằm ở đoạn nào

=> Câu nói ở đoạn G: 'oak before ash we'll have a splash, ash before oak we're in for a soak'







Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để hiểu rõ hơn main idea, ta có: 

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36
C
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Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc

=> Có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • people traditionally making plans -> nghĩ xem con người làm plan (kế hoạch, dự đoán) về cái gì

  • plant behaviour -> nghĩ về cách mà cây phát triển, thay lá, nở hoa, ra quả,...

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37
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

where the research has been reported -> nghĩ về nơi mà nghiên cứu được công bố (thường là tạp chí, sách báo, ...)

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

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38
warm
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Daffodils are likely to flower early in response to ____ weather.

=> Đáp án là tính từ - bổ nghĩa cho weather

=> Dựa vào thông tin 'daffodils', ta nhanh chóng tìm được vị trí cần đọc





Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

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39
summer
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Vì thông tin phân mảnh, ta cần đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm được ý chính:

 1 A warmer spring consequently a hot summer will result in oak leafing before ash

 2 A cold spring will see the opposite

 3 As the British know only too well a colder summer is a rain-soaked one 

=> Câu 1 : warmer spring -> dẫn tới hot summer -> oak ra lá trước ash

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40
mustard plant/mustard plants/mustard
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Hiểu câu hỏi: The research was carried out using a particular species of _____

=> Đáp án là danh từ - tên một loại cây gì đó mà được sử dụng trong nghiên cứu

=> Vì câu hỏi dạng Sentence Completion thường đi theo thứ tự bài đọc -> Câu trước thông tin ở cuối đoạn G, nên câu này chắc chắn nằm ở đoạn H



>>> Nắm được nguyên lý của các dạng bài, cũng giúp ta đọc một cách khoa học và nhanh hơn nhé





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