Cambridge IELTS 16 - Listening Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

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Cambridge IELTS 16 - Listening Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Section 1

👂️ Bài nghe section 1

00:00
Question 1 - 10
Complete the notes below.
Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Children's Engineering Workshops
Tiny Engineers (ages 4–5)
Activities
  • Create a cover for an

    1
    so they can drop it from a height without breaking it.

  • Take part in a competition to build the tallest

    2
    .

  • Make a

    3
    powered by a balloon.

Junior Engineers (ages 6–8)
Activities:
  • Build model cars, trucks and

    4
    and learn how to program them so they can move.

  • Take part in a competition to build the longest

    5
    using card and wood.

  • Create a short

    6
    with special software.

  • Build,

    7
    and program a humanoid robot.

Cost for a five-week block: £50
Held on
8
from 10 am to 11 am
Location
Building 10A,
9
Industrial Estate, Grasford
Plenty of
10
is available.

❓ Tapescript section 1

Children's Engineering Workshops
00:00
SARAH:
Hello. Children's Engineering Workshops.
FATHER:
Oh hello. I wanted some information about the workshops in the school holidays.
SARAH:
Sure.
FATHER:
I have two daughters who are interested. The younger one's Lydia, she's four - do you take children as young as that?
SARAH:
Yes, our Tiny Engineers workshop is for four to five-year-olds.
FATHER:
What sorts of activities do they do?
SARAH:
All sorts. For example, they work together to design a special cover that goes round an egg, so that when it's inside they can drop it from a height and it doesn't break. Well, sometimes it does break but that's part of the fun!
FATHER:
Right. And Lydia loves building things. Is there any opportunity for her to do that?
SARAH:
Well, they have a competition to see who can make the highest tower. You'd be amazed how high they can go.
FATHER:
Right
SARAH:
But they're learning all the time as well as having fun. For example, one thing they do is to design and build a car that's attached to a balloon, and the force of the air in that actually powers the car and makes it move along. They go really fast too.
FATHER:
OK, well, all this sounds perfect.
FATHER:
Now Carly, that's my older daughter, has just had her seventh birthday, so presumably she'd be in a different group?
SARAH:
Yes, she'd be in the Junior Engineers. That's for children from six to eight.
FATHER:
And do they do the same sorts of activities?
SARAH:
Some are the same, but a bit more advanced. So they work out how to build model vehicles, things like cars and trucks, but also how to construct animals using the same sorts of material and technique, and then they learn how they can program them and make them move.
FATHER:
So they learn a bit of coding?
SARAH:
They do. They pick it up really quickly. We're there to help if they need it, but they learn from one another too.
FATHER:
Right. And do they have competitions too?
SARAH:
Yes, with the Junior Engineers, it's to use recycled materials like card and wood to build a bridge, and the longest one gets a prize.
FATHER:
That sounds fun. I wouldn't mind doing that myself!
SARAH:
Then they have something a bit different, which is to think up an idea for a five-minute movie and then film it, using special animation software. You'd be amazed what they come up with.
FATHER:
And of course, that's something they can put on their phone and take home to show all their friends.
SARAH:
Exactly. And then they also build a robot in the shape of a human, and they decorate it and program it so that it can move its arms and legs.
FATHER:
Perfect. So, is it the same price as the Tiny Engineers?
SARAH:
It's just a bit more: £50 for the five weeks.
FATHER:
And are the classes on a Monday, too?
SARAH:
They used to be, but we found it didn't give our staff enough time to clear up after the first workshop, so we moved them to Wednesdays. The classes are held in the morning from ten to eleven.
FATHER:
OK. That's better for me actually. And what about the location? Where exactly are the workshops held?
SARAH:
They're in building 10A - there's a big sign on the door, you can't miss it, and that's in Fradstone Industrial Estate.
FATHER:
Sorry?
SARAH:
Fradstone - that's F-R-A-D-S-T-O-N-E.
FATHER:
And that's in Grasford, isn't it?
SARAH:
Yes, up past the station.
FATHER:
And will I have any parking problems there?
SARAH:
No, there's always plenty available. So would you like to enrol Lydia and Carly now?
FATHER:
ОК.
SARAH:
So can I have your full name ...

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 1

1
egg
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun (bắt đầu bằng nguyên âm do mình thấy từ an)



Nghe tới Tiny Engineers là biết đáp án sắp vào



Nghe thấy they work together to design a special cover that goes round an egg, so that [...] they can drop it from a height and it doesn't break

=> thiết kế vỏ bọc xung quanh một quả trứng để nó không bể

=> đáp án la egg



Xem full giải thích
2
tower
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới building things là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy Sarah nói là they have a competition to see who can make the highest tower

=> cuộc thi để xem ai có thể xây tháp cao nhất, make = build

=> đáp án là tower



Xem full giải thích
3
car
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới one thing they do is...

=> đang chuẩn bị nói về hoạt động tiếp theo



Nghe tiếp thấy design and build a car that's attached to a balloon

=> sau đó Sarah giải thích thêm là lực của không khí trong balloon sẽ làm xe di chuyển

Xem full giải thích
4
animals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun số nhiều



Nghe tới nhóm Junior Engineers là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy they work out how to build model vehicles, things like cars and trucks, but also how to construct animals

=> học cách xây mô hình xe cộ, và cũng làm mô hình động vật, build = construct

=> đáp án là animals



Xem full giải thích
5
bridge
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới competitions là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy it's to use recycled materials like card and wood to build a bridge, and the longest one gets a prize

=> dùng nguyên liệu tái chế để xây cầu, cầu dài nhất sẽ được giải

=> đây là một cuộc thi

Xem full giải thích
6
movie / film
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới Then they have something a bit different

=> chuẩn bị nói tới hoạt động tiếp theo



Nghe thấy think up an idea for a five-minute movie and then film it using special animation software

=> lên ý tưởng và quay một phim ngắn dùng các phần mềm đồ họa đặc biệt

Xem full giải thích
7
decorate
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: verb



Nghe tới build a robot là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy they decorate it and program it

=> it = robot, cần phải trang trí về lập trình cho robot

=> đáp án là decorate



Xem full giải thích
8
Wednesdays
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: day of the week



Nghe tới câu hỏi are the classes on a Monday

=> đang hỏi về thời gian, biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy they used to be, but [...] we moved them to Wednesdays

=> lớp từng được tổ chức vào thứ hai, nhưng đã được chuyển sang thứ tư

Xem full giải thích
9
Fradstone
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: tên riêng



Nghe tới câu hỏi what about the location

=> biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy that's in Fradstone Industrial Estate

=> sau đó có đánh vần ra tên riêng F-R-A-D-S-T-O-N-E

Xem full giải thích
10
parking
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe thấy will I have any parking problem there

=> người khách đang hỏi về việc đậu xe, dự đoán Sarah sẽ trả lời là có nhiều chỗ để đậu xe nên không có problem

=> Sarah trả lời there's always plenty available

=> luôn có nhiều chỗ đậu xe

Xem full giải thích

Section 2

👂️ Bài nghe section 2

00:00
Question 11 - 14
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
11
Stevenson's was founded in
A
1923.
B
1924.
C
1926.
12
Originally, Stevenson's manufactured goods for
A
the healthcare industry.
B
the automotive industry.
C
the machine tools industry.
13
What does the speaker say about the company premises?
A
The company has recently moved.
B
The company has no plans to move.
C
The company is going to move shortly.
14
The programme for the work experience group includes
A
time to do research.
B
meetings with a teacher.
C
talks by staff.
Question 15 - 20
Label the map below.
Write the correct letter, A-J
CAM16_L1_S2 - Plan of Stevenson's site_NoOpt.png
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
coffee room
15
warehouse
16
staff canteen
17
meeting room
18
human resources
19
boardroom
20

❓ Tapescript section 2

Plan Of Stevenson's Site
00:00
Good morning, everyone, and welcome to Stevenson's, one of the country's major manufacturers of metal goods.
Thank you for choosing us for your two weeks of work experience.
My name is Julia Simmons, and since the beginning of this year I've been the managing director.
Stevenson's is quite an old company.
Like me, the founder, Ronald Stevenson, went into the steel industry when he left school - that was in 1923.
He set up this company when he finished his apprenticeship, in 1926, although he actually started making plans two years earlier, in 1924.
He was a very determined young man!
Stevenson's long-term plan was to manufacture components for the machine tools industry although in fact that never came about - and for the automotive industry, that is, cars and lorries.
However, there was a delay of five years before that happened, because shortly before the company went into production, Stevenson was given the opportunity to make goods for hospitals and other players in the healthcare industry, so that's what we did for the first five years.
Over the years, we've expanded the premises considerably - we were lucky that the site is big enough, so moving to a new location has never been necessary.
However, the layout is far from ideal for modern machinery and production methods, so we intend to carry out major refurbishment of this site over the next five years.
I'd better give you some idea of what you'll be doing during your two weeks with us, so you know what to expect.
Most mornings you'll have a presentation from one of the managers, to learn about their department, starting this morning with research and development.
And you'll all spend some time in each department, observing what's going on and talking to people - as long as you don't stop them from doing their work altogether! In the past, a teacher from your school has come in at the end of each week to find out how the group were getting on, but your school isn't able to arrange that this year.
OK, now I'll briefly help you to orientate yourselves around the site.
As you can see, we're in the reception area, which we try to make attractive and welcoming to visitors.
There's a corridor running left from here, and if you go along that, the door facing you at the end is the entrance to the coffee room.
This looks out onto the main road on one side, and some trees on the other, and that'll be where you meet each morning.
The factory is the very big room on the far side of the site.
Next to it is the warehouse, which. can be accessed by lorries going up the road to the turning area at the end.
You can get to the warehouse by crossing to the far side of the courtyard, and then the door is on your right.
Somewhere you'll be keen to find is the staff canteen.
This is right next to reception.
I can confidently say that the food's very good, but the view isn't.
The windows on one side look onto a corridor and courtyard, which aren't very attractive at all, and on the other onto the access road, which isn't much better.
You'll be using the meeting room quite often, and you'll find it by walking along the corridor to the left of the courtyard, and continuing along it to the end.
The meeting room is the last one on the right, and I'm afraid there's no natural daylight in the room.
Then you'll need to know where some of the offices are.
The human resources department is at the front of this building, so you head to the left along the corridor from reception, and it's the second room you come to.
It looks out onto the main road.
And finally, the boardroom, where you'll be meeting sometimes.
That has quite a pleasant view, as it looks out on to the trees.
Go along the corridor past the courtyard, right to the end.
The boardroom is on the left, next to the factory.
OK, now are there any questions before we ...

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 2

11
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới Stevenson's is quite an old company là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy Ronald Stevenson, went into the steel industry when he left school - that was in 1923

=> năm 1923 là năm Ronald tốt nghiệp chứ không phải năm thành lập công ty

=> loại A



Nghe tiếp thấy He set up this company when he finished his apprenticeship, in 1926, although he actually started making plans two years earlier, in 1924

Xem full giải thích
12
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới manufacture components là biết đáp án sắp vào



Nghe thấy Stevenson's long-term plan was to manufacture components for the machine tools industry although in fact that never came about

=> kế hoạch ban đầu là sản xuất cho machine tools industry, tuy nhiên kế hoạch này không thành

=> loại C



Nghe tiếp thấy có nhắc tới for the automotive industry

Xem full giải thích
13
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới speaker nói về premises là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy we were lucky that the site is big enough, so moving to a new location has never been necessary

=> chưa bao giờ cần phải chuyển sang địa điểm khác, không có nhu cầu phải move

=> chọn B





Nghe tiếp thấy we intend to carry out major refurbishment of this site over the next five years

Xem full giải thích
14
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy what you'll be doing during your two weeks with us

=> đang nói về chương trình (programme)

=> biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy Most mornings you'll have a presentation from one of the managers

=> sẽ có các bài thuyết trình từ managers (= staff, nhân viên công ty)

Xem full giải thích
15
H
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nghe tới we're in the reception area

=> là điểm bắt đầu



Nghe thấy There's a corridor running left from here, and if you go along that, the door facing you at the end is the entrance to the coffee room

=> đi theo hành lang bên tay trái, phòng cuối cùng sẽ là coffee room

=> chọn H



Xem full giải thích
16
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy nhắc tới factory, sau đó nói là next to it is the warehouse

=> đáp án là A, B, hoặc C



Nghe tiếp thấy warehouse can be accessed by lorries going up the road to the turning area at the end

=> chỉ có phòng C là bên cạnh factory và có thể access được từ bên đường

=> chọn C



Xem full giải thích
17
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy staff canteen và right next to reception

=> đáp án là G hoặc J



Nghe tiếp thấy The windows on one side look onto a corridor and courtyard, [...] and on the other onto the access road

=> một bên thì nhìn ra courtyard, bên kia thì nhìn ra access road

=> chọn G



Xem full giải thích
18
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy meeting room là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe tiếp thấy you'll find it by walking along the corridor to the left of the courtyard, and continuing along it to the end và The meeting room is the last one on the right

=> đi theo hành lang bên tay trái, cho tới cuối hành lang, meeting room là phòng cuối cùng bên tay phải

=> chọn B



Xem full giải thích
19
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy The human resources department is at the front of this building, so you head to the left along the corridor from reception, and it's the second room you come to

=> đi theo hành lang bên trái của reception, là phòng thứ hai mà bạn sẽ thấy

=> chọn I



Xem full giải thích
20
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy boardroom là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe tiếp thấy Go along the corridor past the courtyard, right to the end. The boardroom is on the left, next to the factory

=> vẫn đi theo hành lang bên trái, tới cuối hành lang thì sẽ thấy boardroom bên tay trái, ngay bên cạnh factory

=> chọn A



Xem full giải thích

Section 3

👂️ Bài nghe section 3

00:00
Question 21 - 24
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Which TWO parts of the introductory stage to their art projects do Jess and Tom agree were useful?
A
The Bird Park visit
B
The workshop sessions
C
The Natural History Museum visit
D
The projects done in previous years
E
The handouts with research sources
In which TWO ways do both Jess and Tom decide to change their proposals?
A
by giving a rationale for their action plans
B
by being less specific about the outcome
C
by adding a video diary presentation
D
by providing a timeline and a mind map
E
by making their notes more evaluative
Question 25 - 30
Which personal meaning do the students decide to give to each of the following pictures?
Choose SIX answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-H
List of Findings
A
a childhood memory
B
hope for the future
C
fast movement
D
a potential threat
E
the power of colour
F
the continuity of life
G
protection of nature
H
a confused attitude to nature
25
Falcon (Landseer)
26
Fish hawk (Audubon)
27
Kingfisher (van Gogh)
28
Portrait of William Wells
29
Vairumati (Gauguin)
30
Portrait of Giovanni de Medici

❓ Tapescript section 3

Art Projects
00:00
JESS:
How are you getting on with your art project, Tom?
TOM:
OK. Like, they gave us the theme of birds to base our project on, and I'm not really all that interested in wildlife. But I'm starting to get into it. I've pretty well finished the introductory stage.
JESS:
So have I. When they gave us all those handouts with details of books and websites to look at, I was really put off, but the more I read, the more interested I got.
TOM:
Me too. I found I could research so many different aspects of birds in art - colour, movement, texture. So I was looking forward to the Bird Park visit.
JESS:
What a letdown! It poured with rain and we hardly saw a single bird. Much less use than the trip to the Natural History Museum.
TOM:
Yeah, I liked all the stuff about evolution there. The workshop sessions with Dr Fletcher were good too, especially the brainstorming sessions.
JESS:
I missed those because I was ill. I wish we could've seen the projects last year's students did.
TOM:
Mm. I suppose they want us to do our own thing, not copy.
JESS:
Have you drafted your proposal yet?
TOM:
Yes, but I haven't handed it in. I need to amend some parts. I've realised the notes from my research are almost all just descriptions, I haven't actually evaluated anything. So I'll have to fix that.
JESS:
Oh, I didn't know we had to do that. I'll have to look at that too. Did you do a timeline for the project?
TOM:
Yes, and a mind map.
JESS:
Yeah, so did I. I quite enjoyed that. But it was hard having to explain the basis for my decisions in my action plan.
TOM:
What?
JESS:
You know, give a rationale.
TOM:
I didn't realise we had to do that. OK, I can add it now. And I've done the video diary presentation, and worked out what I want my outcome to be in the project.
JESS:
Someone told me it's best not to be too precise about your actual outcome at this stage, so you have more scope to explore your ideas later on. So I'm going to go back to my proposal to make it a bit more vague.
TOM:
Really? OK, I'll change that too then.
TOM:
One part of the project I'm unsure about is where we choose some paintings of birds and say what they mean to us. Like, I chose a painting of a falcon by Landseer. I like it because the bird's standing there with his head turned to one side, but he seems to be staring straight at you. But I can't just say it's a bit scary, can I?
JESS:
You could talk about the possible danger suggested by the bird's look.
TOM:
Oh, OK.
JESS:
There's a picture of a fish hawk by Audubon I like. It's swooping over the water with a fish in its talons, and with great black wings which take up most of the picture.
TOM:
So you could discuss it in relation to predators and food chains?
JESS:
Well actually I think I'll concentrate on the impression of rapid motion it gives.
TOM:
Right.
JESS:
Do you know that picture of a kingfisher by van Gogh - it's perching on a reed growing near a stream.
TOM:
Yes it's got these beautiful blue and red and black shades.
JESS:
Mm hm. I've actually chosen it because I saw a real kingfisher once when I was little. I was out walking with my grandfather, and I've never forgotten it.
TOM:
So we can use a personal link?
JESS:
Sure.
TOM:
OK. There's a portrait called William Wells, I can't remember the artist but it's a middle-aged man who's just shot a bird. And his expression, and the way he's holding the bird in his hand suggests he's not sure about what he's done. To me it's about how ambiguous people are in the way they exploit the natural world.
JESS:
Interesting. There's Gauguin's picture Vairumati. He did it in Tahiti. It's a woman with a white bird behind her that is eating a lizard, and what I'm interested in is what idea this bird refers to. Apparently, it's a reference to the never-ending cycle of existence.
TOM:
Wow. I chose a portrait of a little boy. Giovanni de Medici. He's holding a tiny bird in one fist. I like the way he's holding it carefully so he doesn't hurt it.
JESS:
Ah right.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 3

21
E
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới art project và introductory stage là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy Jess nói When they gave us all those handouts with details of books and websites to look at, I was really put off, but the more I read, the more interested I got

=> lúc đầu Jess không thích handouts nhưng càng đọc thì càng thấy hứng thú

=> Tom đồng ý và nói Me too

=> chọn E



Xem full giải thích
22
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy nhắc tới Bird Park visit và Jess nói là What a letdown

=> buổi đi thăm Bird Park gây thất vọng

=> loại A



Nghe tiếp thấy Jess so sánh là (Bird Park) much less use than the trip to the Natural History Museum

=> Natural History Museum có nhiều thứ bổ ích hơn

Xem full giải thích
23
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới Jess hỏi về proposal là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy Tom nói I've realised the notes from my research are almost all just descriptions, I haven't actually evaluated anything. So I'll have to fix that.

=> ghi chú cua Tom hầu như mới chỉ toàn là mô tả (descriptions) chứ chưa mang tính đánh giá (evaluative) hay nhận xét

=> Jess trả lời là Oh, I didn't know we had to do that. I'll have to look at that too.

=> Jess cũng sẽ phải sửa lại về mặt này

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24
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy Jess hỏi Tom có làm timeline chưa, và Tom nói là đã làm rồi và có thêm cả mind map

=> Jess trả lời là so did I

=> cả 2 đều đã làm time line và mind map, không cần chỉnh sửa thêm

=> loại D



Nghe tiếp thấy Jess nói về việc it was hard having to explain the basis for my decisions in my action plan (rationale)

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25
D
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Nghe thấy nhắc tới painting of a falcon by Landseer là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe Jess nói là You could talk about the possible danger suggested by the bird's look

=> danger = threat trong câu này

=> chọn D



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26
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe thấy Jess nói về fish hawk by Audubon và Tom gợi ý là you could discuss it in relation to predators and food chains

=> tuy nhiên nghe tiếp thì Jess nói là I'll concentrate on the impression of rapid motion it gives

=> rapid motion = fast movement

=> chọn C



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27
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới kingfisher by van Gogh là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy Jess nói là I've actually chosen it because I saw a real kingfisher once when I was little. I was out walking with my grandfather, and I've never forgotten it.

=> Jess chọn bức tranh này do kỉ niệm hồi còn nhỏ đã nhìn thấy kingfisher thật

=> chọn A



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28
H
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Nghe thấy Tom nói về bức tranh William Wells và the way he's holding the bird in his hand suggests he's not sure about what he's done. To me it's about how ambiguous people are in the way they exploit the natural world.

=> theo cách Tom hiểu thì bức tranh này là về việc con người chưa thực sự hiểu rõ về những gì họ đã làm cho thiên nhiên, thái độ của họ vẫn còn khó hiểu

=> ambiguous = confused

=> chọn H



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29
F
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Nghe thấy Jess nói về Vairumati và nói rằng it's a reference to the never-ending cycle of existence

=> bức tranh này muốn nói về vòng quay vô tận của sự sống

=> chọn F



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30
G
Mở rộng

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Nghe thấy Tom nói về Giovanni de Medici là he's holding it carefully so he doesn't hurt it

=> có thể hiểu là bức tranh này muốn nói về việc bảo vệ thiên nhiên (protect = doesn't hurt)

=> chọn G



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Section 4

👂️ Bài nghe section 4

00:00
Question 31 - 40
Complete the notes below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
Stoicism
Stoicism is still relevant today because of its
31
appeal.
Ancient Stoics
  • Stoicism was founded over 2,000 years ago in Greece.

  • The Stoics' ideas are surprisingly well known, despite not being intended for

    32
    .

Stoic principles
  • Happiness could be achieved by leading a virtuous life. 

  • Controlling emotions was essential.

  • Epictetus said that external events cannot be controlled but the

    33
    people make in response can be controlled.

  • A Stoic is someone who has a different view on experiences which others would consider as

    34
    .

The influence of Stoicism
  • George Washington organised a

    35
    about Cato to motivate his men. 

  • The French artist Delacroix was a Stoic. 

  • Adam Smith's ideas on

    36
    were influenced by Stoicism.

  • Some of today's political leaders are inspired by the Stoics. 

  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)

  • the treatment for

    37
    is based on ideas from Stoicism

  • people learn to base their thinking on

    38
    .

  • In business, people benefit from Stoicism by identifying obstacles as

    39
    .

Relevance of Stoicism
  • It requires a lot of

    40
    but Stoicism can help people to lead a good life. 

  • It teaches people that having a strong character is more important than anything else.

❓ Tapescript section 4

Stoicism
00:00
Ancient philosophy is not just about talking or lecturing, or even reading long, dense books.
In fact, it is something people have used throughout history - to solve their problems and to achieve their greatest triumphs.
Specifically, I am referring to Stoicism, which, in my opinion, is the most practical of all philosophies and therefore the most appealing.
Stoicism was founded in Ancient Greece by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC, but was practised by the likes of Epictetus, Cato, Seneca and Marcus Aurelius.
Amazingly, we still have access to these ideas, despite the fact that the most famous Stoics never wrote anything down for publication.
Cato definitely didn't.
Marcus Aurelius never intended his Meditations to be anything but personal.
Seneca's letters were, well, letters and Epictetus' thoughts come to us by way of a note-taking student.
Stoic principles were based on the idea that its followers could have an unshakable happiness in this life and the key to achieving this was virtue.
The road to virtue, in turn, lay in understanding that destructive emotions, like anger and jealousy, are under our conscious control - they don't have to control us, because we can learn to control them.
In the words of Epictetus: "external events I cannot control, but the choices I make with regard to them, I do control".
The modern day philosopher and writer Nassim Nicholas Taleb defines a Stoic as someone who has a different perspective on experiences which most of us would see as wholly negative; a Stoic "transforms fear into caution, pain into transformation, mistakes into initiation and desire into undertaking".
Using this definition as a model, we can see that throughout the centuries Stoicism has been practised in more recent history by kings, presidents, artists, writers and entrepreneurs.
The founding fathers of the United States were inspired by the philosophy.
George Washington was introduced to Stoicism by his neighbours at age seventeen, and later, put on a play based on the life of Cato to inspire his men.
Thomas Jefferson kept a copy of Seneca beside his bed.
Writers and artists have also been inspired by the stoics.
Eugène Delacroix, the renowned French Romantic artist (known best for his painting Liberty Leading the People) was an ardent Stoic, referring to it as his "consoling religion".
The economist Adam Smith's theories on capitalism were significantly influenced by the Stoicism that he studied as a schoolboy, under a teacher who had translated Marcus Aurelius' works.
Today's political leaders are no different, with many finding their inspiration from the ancient texts.
Former US president Bill Clinton rereads Marcus Aurelius every single year, and many have compared former President Obama's calm leadership style to that of Cato.
Wen Jiabao, the former prime minister of China, claims that Meditations is one of two books he travels with and that he has read it more than one hundred times over the course of his life.
Stoicism had a profound influence on Albert Ellis, who invented Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, which is used to help people manage their problems by changing the way that they think and behave.
It's most commonly used to treat depression.
The idea is that we can take control of our lives by challenging the irrational beliefs that create our faulty thinking, symptoms and behaviours by using logic instead.
Stoicism has also become popular in the world of business.
Stoic principles can build the resilience and state of mind required to overcome setbacks because Stoics teach turning obstacles into opportunity.
A lesson every business entrepreneur needs to learn.
I would argue that studying Stoicism is as relevant today as it was 2,000 years ago, thanks to its brilliant insights into how to lead a good life.
At the very root of the thinking, there is a very simple way of living - control what you can and accept what you can't.
This is not as easy as it sounds and will require considerable practice - it can take a lifetime to master.
The Stoics also believed the most important foundation for a good and happy life is not money, fame, power or pleasure, but having a disciplined and principled character - something which seems to resonate with many people today.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích section 4

31
practical
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: adjective



Nghe tới Stoicism là biết đáp án sắp vào



Nghe thấy speaker nói là the most practical of all philosophies and therefore the most appealing

=> stoicism có sức hút do nó practical nhất

=> đáp án là practical



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32
publication
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe thấy we still have access to these ideas, despite the fact that the most famous Stoics never wrote anything down for publication

=> mặc dù các người theo chủ nghĩa stoicism không hề xuất bản tài liệu nào cả nhưng chúng ta ngày nay vẫn nắm rõ được triết lý này

=> sau câu này thì speaker nêu ra các ví dụ là các nhà triết học không hề viết sách hay xuất bản cái gì về chủ đề này

=> đáp án là publication



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33
choices
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun có thể collocate với make



Nghe tới emotions và learn to control them

=> đang nhắc tới ý thứ 2 ngay trên ý mình cần nghe

=> đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy speaker trích lời của Epictetus: "external events I cannot control, but the choices I make with regard to them, I do control"

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34
negative
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: adjective



Nghe tới defines a Stoic as someone...

=> đang định nghĩa Stoic

=> biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy defines a Stoic as someone who has a different perspective on experiences which most of us would see as wholly negative

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35
play
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới tên George Washington là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy put on a play based on the life of Cato to inspire his men

=> soạn vở kịch dựa trên Cato

=> đáp án là play



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36
capitalism
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới tên Adam Smith là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy Adam Smith's theories on capitalism were significantly influenced by the Stoicism that he studied as a schoolboy

=> thuyết của Adam Smith về chủ nghĩa tư bản được dựa trên Stoicism

=> đáp án là capitalism



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37
depression
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun, nhiều khả năng là một loại bệnh lý do đi sau treatment



Nghe tới Cognitive Behaviour Therapy là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe tiếp thấy it's most commonly used to treat depression

=> dùng để trị trầm cảm

=> đáp án là depression



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38
logic
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe thấy we can take control of our lives by challenging the irrational beliefs that create our faulty thinking, symptoms and behaviours by using logic instead

=> chúng ta có thể thách thức các niềm tin vô lý mà tạo nên cách suy nghĩ sai lệch, và thay vào đó dùng logic

=> cần dùng logic làm cơ sở cho cách suy nghĩ mới

=> đáp án là logic

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39
opportunity
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới in the world of business là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy because Stoics teach turning obstacles into opportunity

=> Stoicism có thể biến chướng ngại vật thành cơ hội

=> đáp án là opportunity



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40
practice
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới how to lead a good life là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe tiếp thấy this is not as easy as it sounds and will require considerable practice

=> sẽ cần phải luyện tập nhiều, considerable = a lot of

=> đáp án là practice



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