Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 15 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

The return of the huarango
The arid valleys of southern Peru are welcoming the return of a native plant
The south coast of Peru is a narrow, 2,000-kilometer-long strip of desert squeezed between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It is also one of the most fragile ecosystems on Earth. It hardly ever rains there, and the only year-round source of water is located tens of meters below the surface. This is why the huarango tree is so suited to life there: it has the longest roots of any tree in the world. They stretch down 50-80 meters and, as well as sucking up water for the tree, they bring it into the higher subsoil, creating a water source for other plant life. Dr. David Beresford-Jones, an archaeobotanist at Cambridge University, has been studying the role of the huarango tree in landscape change in the Lower Ica Valley in southern Peru. He believes the huarango was key to the ancient people’s diet and, because it could reach deep water sources, it allowed local people to withstand years of drought when their other crops failed. But over the centuries huarango trees were gradually replaced with crops. Cutting down native woodland leads to erosion, as there is nothing to keep the soil in place. So when the huarangos go, the land turns into a desert. Nothing grows at all in the Lower Ica Valley now. For centuries the huarango tree was vital to the people of the neighbouring Middle Ica Valley too. They grew vegetables under it and ate products made from its seed pods. Its leaves and bark were used for herbal remedies, while its branches were used for charcoal for cooking and heating, and its trunk was used to build houses. But now it is disappearing rapidly. The majority of the huarango forests in the valley have already been cleared for fuel and agriculture – initially, these were smallholdings, but now they’re huge farms producing crops for the international market. ‘Of the forests that were here 1,000 years ago, 99 per cent have already gone,’ says botanist Oliver Whaley from Kew Gardens in London, who, together with ethnobotanist Dr William Milliken, is running a pioneering project to protect and restore the rapidly disappearing habitat. In order to succeed, Whaley needs to get the local people on board, and that has meant overcoming local prejudices. ‘Increasingly aspirational communities think that if you plant food trees in your home or street, it shows you are poor, and still need to grow your own food,’ he says. In order to stop the Middle Ica Valley going the same way as the Lower Ica Valley, Whaley is encouraging locals to love the huarangos again. ‘It’s a process of cultural resuscitation,’ he says. He has already set up a huarango festival to reinstate a sense of pride in their eco-heritage, and has helped local schoolchildren plant thousands of trees. ‘In order to get people interested in habitat restoration, you need to plant a tree that is useful to them,’ says Whaley. So, he has been working with local families to attempt to create a sustainable income from the huarangos by turning their products into foodstuffs. ‘Boil up the beans and you get this thick brown syrup like molasses. You can also use it in drinks, soups or stews.’ The pods can be ground into flour to make cakes, and the seeds roasted into a sweet, chocolatey ‘coffee’. ‘It’s packed full of vitamins and minerals,’ Whaley says. And some farmers are already planting huarangos. Alberto Benevides, owner of Ica Valley’s only certified organic farm, which Whaley helped set up, has been planting the tree for 13 years. He produces syrup and flour, and sells these products at an organic farmers’ market in Lima. His farm is relatively small and doesn’t yet provide him with enough to live on, but he hopes this will change. ‘The organic market is growing rapidly in Peru,’ Benevides says. ‘I am investing in the future.’ But even if Whaley can convince the local people to fall in love with the huarango again, there is still the threat of the larger farms. Some of these cut across the forests and break up the corridors that allow the essential movement of mammals, birds and pollen up and down the narrow forest strip. In the hope of counteracting this, he’s persuading farmers to let him plant forest corridors on their land. He believes the extra woodland will also benefit the farms by reducing their water usage through a lowering of evaporation and providing a refuge for bio-control insects. ‘If we can record biodiversity and see how it all works, then we’re in a good position to move on from there. Desert habitats can reduce down to very little,’ Whaley explains. ‘It’s not like a rainforest that needs to have this huge expanse. Life has always been confined to corridors and islands here. If you just have a few trees left, the population can grow up quickly because it’s used to exploiting water when it arrives.’ He sees his project as a model that has the potential to be rolled out across other arid areas around the world. ‘If we can do it here, in the most fragile system on Earth, then that’s a real message of hope for lots of places, including Africa, where there is drought and they just can’t afford to wait for rain.’

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answer in boxes on your answer sheet.
The importance of the huarango tree
– its roots can extend as far as 80 metres into the soil

– can access
1
deep below the surface

– was a crucial part of local inhabitants’
2
a long time ago

– helped people to survive periods of
3


– prevents
4
of the soil

– prevents land from becoming a
5


Question 6 - 8
Complete the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Traditional uses of the huarango tree
Question 9 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
9
Local families have told Whaley about some traditional uses of huarango products.
10
Farmer Alberto Benevides is now making a good profit from growing huarangos.
11
Whaley needs the co-operation of farmers to help preserve the area’s wildlife.
12
For Whaley’s project to succeed, it needs to be extended over a very large area.
13
Whaley has plans to go to Africa to set up a similar project.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
water
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có: It hardly rains and the only source of water is located tens of meters below the surface

 huapango tree suited to life there : it has longest roots

 They stretch down 50-80 meters -> Main idea: Water is scarce but fortunately huapango's roots can get access to water deep below.

Vậy: can access _____ deep below the surface = water is located tens of meters below the surface.

=> Đáp án: water



Xem full giải thích
2
diet
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này tương đối đơn giản vì paraphrase dễ nhận biết:

  • key = crucial part

  • ancient people = local inhabitants

=> Đáp án: diet



Xem full giải thích
3
drought
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có: the huarango was key to the ancient people’s diet and because it could reach deep water sources it allowed local people  to withstand years of drought  -> Main idea: huarango gave people food + helped them survive drought

So với question: helped people to survive periods of _________ = allowed local people to withstand years of drought

=> Đáp án: drought



Xem full giải thích
4
erosion
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 huarango trees were replaced with crops 

Cutting down native woodland leads to erosion , as there is nothing to keep the soil in place. 

-> cutting down huarango trees leads to erosion

 -> Main idea: huarango trees prevent soil erosion

Xem full giải thích
5
desert
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có: when the huarangos go - land turns into desert -> Without huarangos, land turns into desert  -> Main idea: huarangos prevent land from becoming desert ( tương tự cấu trúc Question)

Vậy: huarangos prevent land from becoming ............ = when the huarangos go, the land turns into a desert.

=> Đáp án: desert



Xem full giải thích
6
its branches/huarango branches/the branches
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase đơn giản:

 its branches were used for charcoal for cooking and heating -> Part of the tree, the branches, were used as fuel for cooking and heating (tương tự question)

Vậy: Part of tree: .............. = its branches

=> Đáp án: its branches/ the branches/ huarango branches



Xem full giải thích
7
leaves
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase dễ nhận diện, tuy nhiên nhiều bạn vẫn sẽ gặp khó khăn nếu không biết từ vựng vì câu này cũng không dựa vào connections được vì bài đang liệt kê các công dụng khác nhau của huarango, (và đáp án là một trong số đó)

  • herbal remedies (thảo dược) = medicine

Biết được từ này thì có thể rút ra được đáp án: leaves



Xem full giải thích
8
its trunk/huarango trunk/the trunk
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase cũng đơn giản.

its trunk - was used to build houses. -> its trunk was used for construction.

=> Đáp án: its trunk/the trunk/ huarango trunk



Xem full giải thích
9
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



1. to stop Middle Ica Valley going the same way as the Lower Ica Valley , Whaley is encouraging locals to love the huarangos again. 

2. It’s a process of cultural resuscitation 

3. he set up huarango festival to reinstate a sense of pride in their eco-heritage 

-> Main idea: Whaley encourages locals to love huarangos ( câu 1 nêu ý chính, câu 2 nêu ý kiến của Whaley về việc đó, câu 3 nêu vd cụ thể) -> Không nhắc gì đến Local families - told Whaley about - huarango products (question)

Xem full giải thích
10
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Alberto Benevides been planting the tree (huarango) for years

 He produces syrup 

 His farm is small and doesn’t provide him with enough to live on 

=> Main idea: Alberto earns a living from huarango but the tree does NOT provide with him good profit

So với Question: Alberto Benevides is now making a good profit from growing huarangos

Xem full giải thích
11
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

if Whaley can convince the local to fall in love with the huarango , there is still the threat of farms 

 Some of these (larger farms) break up - the (forest) corridors that allow - the essential movement of animal 

 he persuading farmers to let him plant forest corridors on their land 

=> farms can damage wildlife, that's why Whaley needs the farmers' cooperation (in preserving wildlife)

So với Question: Whaley needs the co-operation of farmers to help preserve the area’s wildlife

Xem full giải thích
12
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

It's not like a rainforest that needs to have huge expanse 

 Life has always been confined here 

 If you just have a few trees left , the population can grow up quickly 

-> Huarango doesn't need a large area. Even in small areas, with just a few trees, population can grow up quickly

So với câu hỏi: For Whaley’s project (planting huarango) to succeed, it needs to be extended over a very large area

Xem full giải thích
13
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

He sees his project as a model that has the potential to be rolled out around the world .

 If we can do it here , then that’s a real message of hope for lots of places , including Africa .

-> Whaley's project may be useful in lots of places, including Africa (Dự án có thể sẽ hữu ích ở nhiều nơi, kể cả Châu Phi)

So với Question: Whaley has plans to go to Africa to set up a similar project

=> Đáp án: C. Not given



Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Silbo Gomero – the whistle ‘language’ of the Canary Islands
La Gomera is one of the Canary Islands situated in the Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of Africa. This small volcanic island is mountainous, with steep rocky slopes and deep, wooded ravines, rising to 1,487 meters at its highest peak. It is also home to the best known of the world’s whistle ‘languages’, a means of transmitting information over long distances which is perfectly adapted to the extreme terrain of the island. This ‘language’, known as ‘Silbo’ or ‘Silbo Gomero’ – from the Spanish word for ‘whistle’ – is now shedding light on the language-processing abilities of the human brain, according to scientists. Researchers say that Silbo activates parts of the brain normally associated with spoken language, suggesting that the brain is remarkably flexible in its ability to interpret sounds as language. ‘Science has developed the idea of brain areas that are dedicated to language, and we are starting to understand the scope of signals that can be recognized as a language,’ says David Corina, co-author of a recent study and associate professor of psychology at the University of Washington in Seattle. Silbo is a substitute for Spanish, with individual words recoded into whistles that have high- and low-frequency tones. A whistler – or silbador – puts a finger in his or her mouth to increase the whistle’s pitch, while the other hand can be cupped to adjust the direction of the sound. ‘There is much more ambiguity in the whistled signal than in the spoken signal,’ explains lead researcher Manuel Carreiras, a psychology professor at the University of La Laguna on the Canary island of Tenerife. Because whistled ‘words’ can be hard to distinguish, silbadores rely on repetition, as well as awareness of context, to make themselves understood. The silbadores of Gomera are traditionally shepherds and other isolated mountain folk, and their novel means of staying in touch allows them to communicate over distances of up to 10 kilometers. Carreiras explains that silbadores are able to pass a surprising amount of information via their whistles. ‘In daily life, they use whistles to communicate short commands, but any Spanish sentence could be whistled.’ Silbo has proved particularly useful when fires have occurred on the island and rapid communication across large areas has been vital. The study team used neuroimaging equipment to contrast the brain activity of sobadores while listening to whistled and spoken Spanish. Results showed the left temporal lobe of the brain, which is usually associated with spoken language, was engaged during the processing of Silbo. The researchers found that other key regions in the brain’s frontal lobe also responded to the whistles, including those activated in response to sign language among deaf people. When the experiments were repeated with non-whistlers, however, activation was observed in all areas of the brain. ‘Our results provide more evidence about the flexibility of human capacity for language in a variety of forms,’ Corina says. ‘These data suggest that left-hemisphere language regions are uniquely adapted for communicative purposes, independent of the modality of a signal. The non-Silbo speakers were not recognising Silbo as a language. They had nothing to grab onto, so multiple areas of their brains were activated.’ Carreiras says the origins of Silbo Gomero remain obscure, but that indigenous Canary Islanders, who were of North African origin, already had a whistled language when Spain conquered the volcanic islands in the 15th century. Whistled languages survive today in Papua New Guinea, Mexico, Vietnam, Guyana, China, Nepal, Senegal, and a few mountainous pockets in southern Europe. There are thought to be as many as 70 whistled languages still in use, though only 12 have been described and studied scientifically. This form of communication is an adaptation found among cultures where people are often isolated from each other, according to Julien Meyer, a researcher at the Institute of Human Sciences in Lyon, France. ‘They are mostly used in mountains or dense forests,’ he says. ‘Whistled languages are quite clearly defined and represent an original adaptation of the spoken language for the needs of isolated human groups.’ But with modern communication technology now widely available, researchers say whistled languages like Silbo are threatened with extinction. With dwindling numbers of Gomera islanders still fluent in the language, Canaries’ authorities are taking steps to try to ensure its survival. Since 1999, Silbo Gomero has been taught in all of the island’s elementary schools. In addition, locals are seeking assistance from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). ‘The local authorities are trying to get an award from the organization to declare [Silbo Gomero] as something that should be preserved for humanity,’ Carreiras adds.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 19
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
14
La Gomera is the most mountainous of all the Canary Islands.
15
Silbo is only appropriate for short and simple messages.
16
In the brain-activity study, silbadores and non-whistlers produced different results.
17
The Spanish introduced Silbo to the islands in the 15th century.
18
There is precise data available regarding all of the whistle languages in existence today.
19
The children of Gomera now learn Silbo.
Question 20 - 26
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Silbo Gomero
How Silbo is produced
● high- and low-frequency tones represent different sounds in Spanish
20

● pitch of whistle is controlled using silbador’s
21

22
is changed with a cupped hand

How Silbo is used
● has long been used by shepherds and people living in secluded locations
● in everyday use for the transmission of brief
23

● can relay essential information quickly, e.g. to inform people about
24


The future of Silbo
● future under threat because of the new
25

● Canaries’ authorities hoping to receive a UNESCO
26
to help preserve it

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
Not Given
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

La Gomera is one of Canary Islands ...

 This island is mountainous ...

=> Main idea:  La Gomera of Canary is a mountainous island

-> Hòn đảo có "mountainous" , nhưng bài không hề đề cập tới việc nó là " the most mountainous"

=> Đáp án: C. Not given



Xem full giải thích
15
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

silbadores are able to pass a surprising amount of information via their whistles. 

 they use whistles to communicate short commands , but any Spanish sentence  could be whistled 

=> Main idea: Silbo is appropriate for even long, difficult sentences

So với Question: Silbo is only appropriate for short and simple messages

=> Đáp án: B. False



Xem full giải thích
16
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



 1 study team used equipment to contrast the brain activity of sobadores while listening to whistled and spoken Spanish .

 2 Results showed the left temporal lobe of the brain was engaged during the processing of Silbo .

 3 brain’s frontal lobe also responded to the whistles .

-> some parts of the brain of Sobadores are activated

Xem full giải thích
17
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



 the origins of Silbo Gomero remain obscure but that Canary Islanders already had a whistled language when Spain conquered the islands in the 15th century. 

=> Main idea: Canary Islanders had a whistled language before the Spanish came

So với Question: The Spanish introduced Silbo to the islands in the 15th century (=Canary Islanders had a whistled language after the Spanish came)

=> Đáp án: B. False



Xem full giải thích
18
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



 There are thought to be many whistled languages still in use , though only few have been studied scientifically .

=> Main idea: There is precise data available regarding few whistle languages in existence today (Có sẵn dữ liệu chính xác về một số ngôn ngữ còn tồn tại đến ngày nay)

So với Question: There is precise data available regarding all of the whistle languages in existence today

=> Đáp án: B. False



Xem full giải thích
19
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này khá đơn giản : Silbo Gomero has been taught in all of the island’s elementary schools => Main idea:  Children has been learnning Silbo

So với Question: The children of Gomera now learn Silbo

=> Đáp án: A. True

Xem full giải thích
20
words
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Silbo is a substitute for Spanish with individual words recoded into whistles that have high- and low-frequency tones -> Main idea: Spanish words are recoded into whistles that have high- and low-frequency tones

-> Vậy: high- and low-frequency tones represent different sounds in Spanish _________ = Spanish, with individual words recoded into whistles

=> Đáp án: words



Xem full giải thích
21
finger
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

A whistler or silbador puts a finger in his or her mouth to increase the whistle’s pitch -> Main idea: Silbadors use finger to control the pitch of whistle

-> Vậy: How Silbo is produced- pitch of whistle is controlled using silbador’s __________ = puts a finger in his or her mouth

=> Đáp án: finger



Xem full giải thích
22
direction
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

(Located info thuộc câu đã đọc cấu trúc trước đó) Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

the other hand - can be cupped to adjust the direction of the sound (of Silbo) 

-> Main idea: The whistlers can change the direction of Silbo using cupped hand

-> Vậy: How Silbo is produced - __________ is changed with a cupped hand = the other hand can be cupped to adjust the direction of the sound.

=> Đáp án: direction



Xem full giải thích
23
commands
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này cấu trúc câu đơn giản, chỉ cần biết được Paraphrase giữa Passage và Question là bạn sẽ nhìn ra ngay đáp án: - daily life -> everyday use - to communicate -> the transmission - short -> brief

=> Đáp án: commands





Xem full giải thích
24
fires
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Silbo proved useful when fires occurred and rapid communication has been vital -> Main idea: Silbo is used to quickly send essential information about fires

-> Vậy: How Silbo is used

- can relay essential information quickly, e.g. to inform people about __________ = Silbo has proved particularly useful when fires have occurred on the island

=> Đáp án: fires

Xem full giải thích
25
technology
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

with modern communication technology available , whistled languages like Silbo are threatened with extinction -> Main idea: Silbo are threatened with extinction because of new technology

-> Vậy: The future of Silbo

- future (of Silbo) - under threat - because of new __________ = with modern communication technology now widely available

=> Đáp án: technology



Xem full giải thích
26
award
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

 1 locals are seeking assistance from UNESCO

 2 The local authorities are trying to get an award from the organization to declare [Silbo Gomero] as something that should be preserved for humanity 

-> Main idea: The authorities are trying to get an award from UNESCO in order to preserve Silbo

-> Vậy: The future of Silbo - Canaries’ authorities hoping to receive a UNESCO ____________to help preserve it = The local authorities are trying to get an award from the organisation

Xem full giải thích

Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Environmental practices of big businesses
The environmental practices of big businesses are shaped by a fundamental fact that for many of us offend our sense of justice. Depending on the circumstances, a business may maximize the amount of money it makes, at least in the short term, by damaging the environment and hurting people. That is still the case today for fishermen in an unmanaged fishery without quotas and for international logging companies with short-term leases on tropical rainforest land in places with corrupt officials and unsophisticated landowners. When government regulation is effective, and when the public is environmentally aware, environmentally clean big businesses may out-compete dirty ones, but the reverse is likely to be true if government regulation is ineffective and if the public doesn’t care. It is easy for the rest of us to blame a business for helping itself by hurting other people. But blaming alone is unlikely to produce change. It ignores the fact that businesses are not charities but profit-making companies, and that publicly owned companies with shareholders are under obligation to those shareholders to maximize profits, provided that they do so by legal means. US laws make a company’s directors legally liable for something termed ‘breach of fiduciary responsibility’ if they knowingly manage a company in a way that reduces profits. The car manufacturer Henry Ford was in fact successfully sued by shareholders in 1919 for raising the minimum wage of his workers to $5 per day: the courts declared that, while Ford’s humanitarian sentiments about his employees were nice, his business existed to make profits for its stockholders. Our blaming of businesses also ignores the ultimate responsibility of the public for creating the condition that let a business profit through destructive environmental policies. In the long run, it is the public, either directly or through its politicians, that has the power to make such destructive policies unprofitable and illegal, and to make sustainable environmental policies profitable. The public can do that by suing businesses for harming them, as happened after the Exxon Valdez disaster, in which over 40,000m3 of oil were spilled off the coast of Alaska. The public may also make their opinion felt by preferring to buy sustainably harvested products; by making employees of companies with poor track records feel ashamed of their company and complain to their own management; by preferring their governments to award valuable contracts to businesses with a good environmental track record; and by pressing their governments to pass and enforce laws and regulations requiring good environmental practices. In turn, big businesses can expert powerful pressure on any suppliers that might ignore public or government pressure. For instance, after the US public became concerned about the spread of a disease known as BSE, which was transmitted to humans through infected meat, the US government’s Food and Drug Administration introduced rules demanding that the meat industry abandon practices associated with the risk of the disease spreading. But for five years the meat packers refused to follow these, claiming that they would be too expensive to obey. However, when a major fast-food company then made the same demands after customer purchases of its hamburgers plummeted, the meat industry complied within weeks. The public’s task is therefore to identify which links in the supply chain are sensitive to public pressure: for instance, fast-food chains or jewelry stores, but not meat packers or gold miners. Some readers may be disappointed or outraged that I place the ultimate responsibility for business practices harming the public on the public itself. I also believe that the public must accept the necessity for higher prices for products to cover the added costs, if any, of sound environmental practices. My views may seem to ignore the belief that businesses should act in accordance with moral principles even if this leads to a reduction in their profits. But I think we have to recognize that, throughout human history, in all politically complex human societies, government regulation has arisen precisely because it was found that not only did moral principles need to be made explicit, they also needed to be enforced. To me, the conclusion that the public has the ultimate responsibility for the behavior of even the biggest businesses is empowering and hopeful, rather than disappointing. My conclusion is not a moralistic one about who is right or wrong, admirable or selfish, a good guy or a bad guy. In the past, businesses have changed when the public came to expect and require different behavior, to reward businesses for behavior that the public wanted, and to make things difficult for businesses practicing behaviors that the public didn’t want. I predict that in the future, just as in the past, changes in public attitudes will be essential for changes in businesses’ environmental practices.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 31
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-J, below.
Write the correct letter, A-J, in boxes on your answer sheet.
Big businesses
Many big businesses today are prepared to harm people and the environment in order to make money, and they appear to have no
27
Lack of
28
by governments and lack of public
29
can lead to environmental problems such as
30
or the destruction of
31
.
A
funding
B
trees
C
rare species
D
moral standards
E
control
F
involvement
G
flooding
H
overfishing
I
worker support
Question 32 - 34
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes on your answer sheet.
32
The main idea of the third paragraph is that environmental damage
A
requires political action if it is to be stopped
B
is the result of ignorance on the part of the public.
C
could be prevented by the action of ordinary people.
D
can only be stopped by educating business leaders.
33
In the fourth paragraph, the writer describes ways in which the public can
A
reduce their own individual impact on the environment.
B
learn more about the impact of business of the environment.
C
raise awareness of the effects of specific environmental disasters.
D
influence the environmental policies of businesses and governments
34
What pressure was exerted by big business in the case of the disease BSE?
A
Meat packers stopped supplying hamburgers to fast-food chains
B
A fast-food company forced their meat suppliers to follow the law.
C
Meat packers persuaded the government to reduce their expenses.
D
A fast-food company encouraged the government to introduce legislation.
Question 35 - 39
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
35
The public should be prepared to fund good environmental practices
36
There is a contrast between the moral principles of different businesses.
37
It is important to make a clear distinction between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour.
38
The public have successfully influenced businesses in the past.
39
In the future, businesses will show more concern for the environment.
Question 40
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in box on your answer sheet.
40
What would be the best subheading for this passage?
A
Will the world survive the threat caused by big businesses?
B
How can big businesses be encouraged to be less driven by profit?
C
What environmental dangers are caused by the greed of businesses?
D
Are big businesses to blame for the damage they cause the environment?

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
moral standards
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

1 environmental practices of businesses are shaped by a fundamental fact that offend our sense of justice -> businesses offend moral standards -> businesses don't have moral standards themselves 2 business maximize money by damaging the environment and hurting people => Main idea: businesses don't have moral standards - because they maximize money - by harming the environment and people

-> Vậy: big businesses today - are prepared to harm people and the environment - in order to make money, - and they appear to have no _______________________ = big businesses are shaped by a fundamental fact that for many of us offends our sense of justice

=> Đáp án D. moral standards



Xem full giải thích
28
control
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Simplified: When government regulation is effective environmentally clean businesses out-compete dirty ones , but the reverse is true if government regulation is ineffective Note: "the reverse" thể hiện ý trái ngược với ý trước đó -> Main idea: When government regulation is in ineffective, environmentally dirty businesses will do better than cleaner ones . -> Lack of ineffective control by goverment can lead to environmental problems

-> Vậy: Lack of ___________ by governments = government regulation is ineffective

=> Đáp án: E. control

Xem full giải thích
29
involvement
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta đã đọc cấu trúc câu này ở đoạn trước:

but the reverse is likely to be true if the public doesn’t care -> Lack of public involvement can lead to environmental problems

-> Vậy: lack of public .............................= the public doesn’t care

=> Đáp án: F. involvement



Xem full giải thích
30
overfishing
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

1 business maximize money by damaging the environment 2 That is the case for fishermen in an unmanaged fishery without quotas Connection: Câu 2 là ví dụ cụ thể cho [business - maximize money - by damaging the environment].

-> Nhờ vào read connection, ta có thể đoán được "unmanaged fishery without quotas" chỉ việc đánh bắt quá mức (overfishing)

=> Đáp án: H. overfishing



Xem full giải thích
31
trees
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này đã được đọc cấu trúc trước đó.

-> "international logging companies with short-term leases on tropical rainforest land là dẫn chứng cụ thể cho [business - maximize money - by damaging the environment]

-> Vậy: international logging companies with short-term leases on tropical rainforest land = destruction of trees

=> Đáp án: B. trees



Xem full giải thích
32
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đọc Linear:



1. Our blaming of businesses ignores responsibility of the public  

2. the public - has the power - to make such destructive policies unprofitable and illegal , and make sustainable environmental policies profitable .

Paraphrase lại idea:

1. The public let business profit from destructive environmental policies -> the public is also responsible 

Xem full giải thích
33
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này khó ở chỗ, đề yêu cầu: "Ở đoạn 4, nhà văn miêu tả các cách mà người công chúng có thể ______" - Nhiều bạn sẽ vội vàng lao vào đọc kỹ đoạn 4 - Thật ra, đề yêu cầu học sinh phải rút ra được điểm chung của tất cả các hành động của công chúng, mà ý này thật ra đã được nói ở đoạn 3, và chúng ta đã đọc cấu trúc và nắm ý chính của nó rồi! (Đoạn 4 là nêu lên các dẫn chứng cụ thể cho ý đoạn 3) - Bạn có thể tránh được cái bẫy này từ đầu nếu đọc Linear để nhận ra ý chính và liên kết các đoạn.

=> Đáp án: D. influence the environmental policies of businesses and governments.



Xem full giải thích
34
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Dùng Linearthinking để đọc main idea của đoạn như sau:



 1 . after spread of disease BSE , US government introduced rules demanding meat industry abandon sth 

 2 . But meat packers refuse to follow 

 3 . However , when major company made same demands , meat industry complied 

-> Hiểu khái quát là, chính phủ không gây ảnh hưởng được tới meat industry, nhưng một big business trong ngành có thể gây sức ép khiến meat industry tuân thủ theo chính phủ

Xem full giải thích
35
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking:

public must accept the necessity for higher prices for products to cover the costs of environmental practices . => Main idea:  The public must accept the costs of environmental practices

So với câu hỏi : The public should be prepared to fund good environmental practices.

=> Đáp án: A. Yes



Xem full giải thích
36
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking:

(My views may seem to ignore the belief that : Khúc này như reported speech-> thông tin chính ở sau) businesses should act in accordance with moral principles => Main idea: businesses should follow moral principles -> Ý không hề đề cập tới "contrast between - moral principles of different businesses"

=> Đáp án: C. Not given



Xem full giải thích
37
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

My conclusion is not one about who is right or wrong => Main idea:  Is is NOT important - to make a clear distinction between - who is right or wrong

So với câu hỏi: It IS important - to make a clear distinction between - acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

=> Đáp án: B. No



Xem full giải thích
38
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

In the past businesses changed when public came to expect and require different behavior => Main idea:  In the past, the public have successfully influenced businesses (tương tự câu hỏi)

So sánh với câu hỏi: The public have successfully influenced businesses in the past.

=> Đáp án: A. Yes



Xem full giải thích
39
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

(I predict that : giống như reported speech -> main info nằm ở đoạn sau.) in the future changes in public attitudes be essential for changes in businesses’ environmental practices. -> The public can determine businesses’ environmental practices. -> Main idea không hề đề cập tới ý trong câu hỏi: In the future businesses show more concern for the environment

=> Đáp án: C. Not given



Xem full giải thích
40
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu mình đọc theo Linearthinking

thì đã nắm được ý chính hầu hết các đoạn văn là đưa ra main idea cho nguyên bài rồi.

Nhưng nếu các bạn quên, thì nên đọc lại đoạn đầu và cuối, lấy ý chính 2 đoạn này ghép lại

Para 1. Many big businesses today are prepared to harm people and the environment in order to make money. Therefore, government regulation and public involvement are needed.

Para 7. In the future, just as in the past, changes in public attitudes will be essential for changes in businesses' environmental practices.

-> Big businesses do not take the whole blame for environmental damage, since the public also involves.

Xem full giải thích

Download PDF

Bạn có thể tải bản đẹp của đề và đáp án CAM15 - Reading Test 4 tại đây