Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 2 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 2 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 15 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 2 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Could urban engineers learn from dance?
A
A. The way we travel around cities has a major impact on whether they are sustainable. Transportation is estimated to account for 30% of energy consumption in most of the world’s most developed nations, so lowering the need for energy-using vehicles is essential for decreasing the environmental impact of mobility. But as more and more people move to cities, it is important to think about other kinds of sustainable travel too. The ways we travel affect our physical and mental health, our social lives, our access to work and culture, and the air we breathe. Engineers are tasked with changing how we travel round cities through urban design, but the engineering industry still works on the assumptions that led to the creation of the energy-consuming transport systems we have now: the emphasis placed solely on efficiency, speed, and quantitative data. We need radical changes, to make it healthier, more enjoyable, and less environmentally damaging to travel around cities.
B
B. Dance might hold some of the answers. That is not to suggest everyone should dance their way to work, however healthy and happy it might make us, but rather that the techniques used by choreographers to experiment with and design movement in dance could provide engineers with tools to stimulate new ideas in city-making. Richard Sennett, an influential urbanist and sociologist who has transformed ideas about the way cities are made, argues that urban design has suffered from a separation between mind and body since the introduction of the architectural blueprint.
C
C. Whereas medieval builders improvised and adapted construction through their intimate knowledge of materials and personal experience of the conditions on a site, building designs are now conceived and stored in media technologies that detach the designer from the physical and social realities they are creating. While the design practices created by these new technologies are essential for managing the technical complexity of the modern city, they have the drawback of simplifying reality in the process.
D
D. To illustrate, Sennett discusses the Peachtree Center in Atlanta, USA, a development typical of the modernist approach to urban planning prevalent in the 1970s, Peachtree created a grid of streets and towers intended as a new pedestrian-friendly downtown for Atlanta. According to Sennett, this failed because its designers had invested too much faith in computer-aided design to tell them how it would operate. They failed to take into account that purpose-built street cafés could not operate in the hot sun without the protective awnings common in older buildings, and would need energy-consuming air conditioning instead, or that its giant car park would feel so unwelcoming that it would put people off getting out of their cars. What seems entirely predictable and controllable on screen has unexpected results when translated into reality.
E
E. The same is true in transport engineering, which uses models to predict and shape the way people move through the city. Again, these models are necessary, but they are built on specific world views in which certain forms of efficiency and safety are considered and other experiences of the city ignored. Designs that seem logical in models appear counter-intuitive in the actual experience of their users. The guard rails that will be familiar to anyone who has attempted to cross a British road, for example, were an engineering solution to pedestrian safety based on models that prioritise the smooth flow of traffic. On wide major roads, they often guide pedestrians to specific crossing points and slow down their progress across the road by using staggered access points to divide the crossing into two — one for each carriageway. In doing so they make crossings feel longer, introducing psychological barriers greatly impacting those that are the least mobile, and encouraging others to make dangerous crossings to get around the guard rails. These barriers don’t just make it harder to cross the road: they divide communities and decrease opportunities for healthy transport. As a result, many are now being removed, causing disruption, cost, and waste.
F
F. If their designers had had the tools to think with their bodies — like dancers — and imagine how these barriers would feel, there might have been a better solution. In order to bring about fundamental changes to the ways we use our cities, engineering will need to develop a richer understanding of why people move in certain ways, and how this movement affects them. Choreography may not seem an obvious choice for tackling this problem. Yet it shares with engineering the aim of designing patterns of movement within limitations of space. It is an art form developed almost entirely by trying out ideas with the body, and gaining instant feedback on how the results feel. Choreographers have deep understanding of the psychological, aesthetic, and physical implications of different ways of moving.
G
G. Observing the choreographer Wayne McGregor, cognitive scientist David Kirsh described how he ‘thinks with the body’. Kirsh argues that by using the body to simulate outcomes, McGregor is able to imagine solutions that would not be possible using purely abstract thought. This kind of physical knowledge is valued in many areas of expertise, but currently has no place in formal engineering design processes. A suggested method for transport engineers is to improvise design solutions and get instant feedback about how they would work from their own experience of them, or model designs at full scale in the way choreographers experiment with groups of dancers. Above all, perhaps, they might learn to design for emotional as well as functional effects.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 6
Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes on your answer sheet.
1
reference to an appealing way of using dance that the writer is not proposing
2
an example of a contrast between past and present approaches to building
3
mention of an objective of both dance and engineering
4
reference to an unforeseen problem arising from ignoring the climate
5
why some measures intended to help people are being reversed
6
reference to how transport has an impact on human lives
Question 7 - 13
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Guard rails
Guard rails were introduced on British roads to improve the
7
of pedestrians, while ensuring that the movement of
8
is not disrupted. Pedestrians are led to access points, and encouraged to cross one
9
at a time.
An unintended effect is to create psychological difficulties in crossing the road, particularly for less
10
people. Another result is that some people cross the road in a
11
way. The guard rails separate
12
, and make it more difficult to introduce forms of transport that are
13
.


🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
B
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Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 1 Cấu trúc passage:

1. Dance might hold some of the answers .

2. That is not to suggest everyone should dance their way to work , however healthy and happy it might make us. -> The writer doesn't propose dancing to work, however healthy and happy it might make us.

 2 Cấu trúc Question an appealing way of using dance that the writer is not proposing => Đáp án: Paragraph B



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2
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ skim/scan dựa vào từ khóa, sẽ rất khó để thí sinh locate info vì câu paraphrase dựa trên meaning.

Đọc dịch sẽ bị rối vì nhiều từ lạ: "medieval", "improvise", "intimate", etc.

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 1 Cấu trúc Passage: Whereas medieval builders... V-past , building desings V-present Khi đọc cấu trúc, ta nhận diện được: 1. Whereas : so sánh 2 thứ đối lập 2. [S1-V1] đề cập tới "builders" ở quá khứ , [S2-V2] đề cập tới "buiding desings" và "designer" ở hiện tại

 2 Cấu trúc Question: a contrast between past and present approaches to building

-> between A and B -> mention 2 đối tượng

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3
F
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Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 

1 Cấu trúc Passage: 1. engineering need to develop a richer understanding of why people move in certain ways... 2. Choreography may not seem an obvious choice for tackling this problem 3. It (choreography) shares with engineering the aim of designing patterns of movement within limitations of space ...
Nếu không biết nghĩa choreography thì có thể dựa vào đọc connection ở các câu trước:

-> nếu engineer có khả năng như dancer thì có thể tìm ra phương án... -> engineer cần biết cách con người chuyển động

-> Tuy "Choreography" có vẻ như không phải phương án hiển nhiên... -> Đoán được Choreography liên quan dancing

-> aim = objective , choreography = dancing => Main idea: Dancing can be useful for engineering as choreography and engineering both have the same objective of ...

 2 Cấu trúc Question: an objective of both dance and engineering

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4
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 1 Cấu trúc Passage: They failed to take into account that cafés could not operate in the hot sun ... -> failed to take into account = couldn't foresee, in the hot sun = in hot climate => They couldn't foresee that cafés could not operate in hot climate

 2 Cấu trúc Question: unforeseen problem arising from ignoring the climate -> problem = cafés could not operate in hot climate

=> Đáp án: Paragraph D



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5
E
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Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 

1 Cấu trúc Passage: Designs that seem logical in models appear counter-intuitive in actual experience -> Không biết "counter-intuitive" thì vẫn có thể đoán được nó "ngược với logical" nhờ vào flow bài: thiết kế có vẻ logical thì lại "counter-intuitive" trong thực tế many are now being removed * many = Designs that seem logical in models appear counter-intuitive ....

=> Designs that are counter-intuitive in real life are being removed

 2 Cấu trúc Question: measures intended to help people are being reversed

 3 So sánh 2 cấu trúc: - measures intended to help people = Designs that are counter-intuitive in real life - reversed = removed

=> Đáp án: Paragraph E



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6
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 1 Cấu trúc Passage:

 The ways we travel affect our ... -> They ways we travel = how we transport; affect = have an impact on -> Các khía cạnh được liệt kê như "our physical and mental health, our social live..." đều là các khía cạnh của cuộc sống => How we transport has an impact on our lives

 2 Cấu trúc Question: how transport has an impact on human lives

=> Đáp án: Paragraph A



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7
safety
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nhiều mệnh đề quan hệ bổ nghĩa, nếu đọc dịch sẽ rất rối

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:


Cấu trúc Passage Guard rails that will be.... were solution to pedestrian safety based on models ... -> lướt qua phần thông tin phụ bổ nghĩa, ta còn: Guard rails were solution to pedestrian safety -> Đường ray bảo vệ là giải pháp cho sự an toàn của người đi bộ So với câu hỏi: Guard rails were introduced on British roads to improve the _____safety_______ of pedestrians

=> Đáp án: safety



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8
traffic
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Cấu trúc Passage models that prioritise the smooth flow of traffic -> prioritise the smooth flow of traffic = ensure the movement of traffic is not disrupted => models that ensure the movement of traffic is not disrupted

-> mô hình đảm bảo sự di chuyển của giao thông không bị gián đoạn

So với câu hỏi: ensuring that the movement of ____traffic_____ is not disrupted

=> Đáp án: traffic



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9
carriageway
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này chứa nhiều từ khó, tuy nhiên ta vẫn có thể đọc structure để vượt qua rào cản từ vựng Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:


Cấu trúc Passage: they(guard rails) guide pedestrians to crossing points and slow down their progress by using staggered access points to divide crossing into 2 - one for each carriageway -> guard rails divide crossing into 2 - one for each carriageway -> tức là có 2 carriageways => guard rails guide pedestrians to crossing points and divide crossing for 2 carriageways

-> đường ray bảo vệ hướng dẫn người đi bộ đến các điểm băng qua đường và phân chia vạch sang đường cho 2 làn đường So với câu hỏi: Pedestrians are led to access points and encouraged to cross one_____carriageway______ at a time.

=> Đáp án: carriageway



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10
mobile
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Cấu trúc Passage: they make crossings feel longer , introducing psychological barriers greatly impacting those that are the least mobile -> Main idea: [S-V] creates psychological barriers , particularly for the least mobile people

-> tạo ra rào cản tâm lý, đặc biệt là đối với những người ít di chuyển nhất

So với câu hỏi: unintended effect create psychological difficulties in crossing the road, particularly for less __________ people

-> tác động ngoài ý muốn tạo ra những khó khăn về tâm lý khi sang đường, đặc biệt là đối với những người ít __________

=> Đáp án: mobile



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11
dangerous
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Giải thích chi tiết

Trong câu 10, ta biết được một effect của “staggered access points” hay việc phải băng qua từng tuyến đường một, chính là khiến việc băng đường cảm thấy lâu hơn, tạo chướng ngại tâm lý…

Trong câu 5 này, một tác động khác chính là khiến vài người “make dangerous crossings”

=> Đáp án: dangerous



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12
communities
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Cấu trúc Passage: they (these barriers) divide communities Để biết được "These barriers" là gì, cần read connection của các câu trên: "guard rails" được làm ra để đảm bảo giao thông trôi chảy -> chúng hướng dẫn người đi đường

-> chúng làm việc băng qua đường lâu hơn

-> "these barriers" không chỉ làm việc băng qua đường lâu hơn mà còn ... -> These barriers = guard rails => guard rails divide communities

So với câu hỏi: The guard rails separate ___communities_____

=> Đáp án: communities



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13
healthy
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Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ skim scan keyword thì sẽ rất khó để thí sinh locate đáp án vì câu paraphrase dựa trên meaning

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking
Cấu trúc Passage: they (these barriers) divide community and decrease opportunities for healthy transport. -> decrease opportunities for healthy transport = make it difficult to use transport that are healthy => they ... make it difficult to use transport that are healthy

-> chúng ... gây khó khăn khi sử dụng phương tiện giao thông lành mạnh

So với câu hỏi: make it more difficult to introduce forms of transport that are ________

-> khiến việc giới thiệu các hình thức vận tải ________ trở nên khó khăn hơn

=> Đáp án: healthy



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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Should we try to bring extinct species back to life?
A
A. The passenger pigeon was a legendary species. Flying in vast numbers across North America, with potentially many millions within a single flock, their migration was once one of nature’s great spectacles. Sadly, the passenger pigeon’s existence came to an end on 1 September 1914, when the last living specimen died at Cincinnati Zoo. Geneticist Ben Novak is lead researcher on an ambitious project which now aims to bring the bird back to life through a process known as ‘de-extinction’. The basic premise involves using cloning technology to turn the DNA of extinct animals into a fertilised embryo, which is carried by the nearest relative still in existence — in this case, the abundant band-tailed pigeon — before being born as a living, breathing animal. Passenger pigeons are one of the pioneering species in this field, but they are far from the only ones on which this cutting-edge technology is being trialled.
B
B. In Australia, the thylacine, more commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger, is another extinct creature which genetic scientists are striving to bring back to life. ‘There is no carnivore now in Tasmania that fills the niche which thylacines once occupied,’ explains Michael Archer of the University of New South Wales. He points out that in the decades since the thylacine went extinct, there has been a spread in a ‘dangerously debilitating’ facial tumour syndrome which threatens the existence of the Tasmanian devils, the island’s other notorious resident. Thylacines would have prevented this spread because they would have killed significant numbers of Tasmanian devils. ‘If that contagious cancer had popped up previously, it would have burned out in whatever region it started. The return of thylacines to Tasmania could help to ensure that devils are never again subjected to risks of this kind.
C
C. If extinct species can be brought back to life, can humanity begin to correct the damage it has caused to the natural world over the past few millennia? ‘The idea of de-extinction is that we can reverse this process, bringing species that no longer exist back to life,’ says Beth Shapiro of University of California Santa Cruz's Genomics Institute. ‘I don’t think that we can do this. There is no way to bring back something that is 100 per cent identical to a species that went extinct a long time ago.’ A more practical approach for long-extinct species is to take the DNA of existing species as a template, ready for the insertion of strands of extinct animal DNA to create something new; a hybrid, based on the living species, but which looks and/or acts like the animal which died out.
D
D. This complicated process and questionable outcome begs the question: what is the actual point of this technology? ‘For us, the goal has always been replacing the extinct species with a suitable replacement,’ explains Novak. ‘When it comes to breeding, band-tailed pigeons scatter and make maybe one or two nesis per hectare, whereas passenger pigeons were very social and would make 10,000 or more nests in one hectare.’ Since the disappearance of this key species, ecosystems in the eastern US have suffered, as the lack of disturbance caused by thousands of passenger pigeons wrecking trees and branches means there has been minimal need for regrowth. This has left forests stagnant and therefore unwelcoming to the plants and animals which evolved to help regenerate the forest after a disturbance. According to Novak, a hybridised band-tailed pigeon, with the added nesting habits of a passenger pigeon, could, in theory, re-establish that forest disturbance, thereby creating a habitat necessary for a great many other native species to thrive.
E
E. Another popular candidate for this technology is the woolly mammoth. George Church, professor at Harvard Medical School and leader of the Woolly Mammoth Revival Project, has been focusing on cold resistance, the main way in which the extinct woolly mammoth and its nearest living relative, the Asian elephant, differ. By pinpointing which genetic traits made it possible for mammoths to survive the icy climate of the tundra, the project's goal is to return mammoths, or a mammoth-like species, to the area. ‘My highest priority would be preserving the endangered Asian elephant,’ says Church, ‘expanding their range to the huge ecosystem of the tundra. Necessary adaptations would include smaller ears, thicker hair, and extra insulating fat, all for the purpose of reducing heat loss in the tundra, and all traits found in the now extinct woolly mammoth.’ This repopulation of the tundra and boreal forests of Eurasia and North America with large mammals could also be a useful factor in reducing carbon emissions — elephants punch holes through snow and knock down trees, which encourages grass growth. This grass growth would reduce temperatures, and mitigate emissions from melting permafrost.
F
F. While the prospect of bringing extinct animals back to life might capture imaginations, it is, of course, far easier to try to save an existing species which is merely threatened with extinction. ‘Many of the technologies that people have in mind when they think about de-extinction can be used as a form of “genetic rescue”,’ explains Shapiro. She prefers to focus the debate on how this emerging technology could be used to fully understand why various species went extinct in the first place, and therefore how we could use it to make genetic modifications which could prevent mass extinctions in the future. ‘I would also say there’s an incredible moral hazard to not do anything at all,’ she continues. ‘We know that what we are doing today is not enough, and we have to be willing to take some calculated and measured risks.’

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 17
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14
a reference to how further disappearance of multiple species could be avoided
15
explanation of a way of reproducing an extinct animal using the DNA of only that species
16
reference to a habitat which has suffered following the extinction of a species
17
mention of the exact point at which a particular species became extinct
Question 18 - 22
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
The woolly mammoth revival project
Professor George Church and his team are trying to identify the
18
which enabled mammoths to live in the tundra. The findings could help preserve the mammoth's close relative, the endangered Asian elephant.
According to Church, introducing Asian elephants to the tundra would involve certain physical adaptations to minimize
19
. To survive in the tundra, the species would need to have the mammoth-like features of thicker hair,
20
of a reduced size and more
21
.
Repopulating the tundra with mammoths or Asian elephant/mammoth hybrids would also have an impact on the environment, which could help to reduce temperatures and decrease
22
.
Question 23 - 26
Look at the following statements and the list of people below.
Match each statement with the correct person, A, B or C.
Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
List of Findings
A
Ben Novak
B
Michael Archer
C
Beth Shapiro
23
Reintroducing an extinct species to its original habitat could improve the health of a particular species living there.
24
It is important to concentrate on the causes of an animal's extinction.
25
A species brought back from extinction could have an important beneficial impact on the vegetation of its habitat.
26
Our current efforts at preserving biodiversity are insufficient.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
F
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

=> Thông tin về cách tránh việc tuyệt chủng của nhiều loài

Imagine paraphrase: how....-> đưa ra phương pháp/ cách thức

Xem full giải thích
15
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Đoạn này nhiều từ khó, đọc dịch sẽ cực kỳ rối

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

=> Thông tin về giải thích cách … chỉ sử dụng DNA của loài đó

Imagine paraphrase:

explanation of a way of -> đưa ra lời giải thích hoặc diễn giải

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16
D
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Câu này khá đơn giản vì paraphrase dễ nhận biết. So sánh paraphrase giữa passage và question:

  • Since = following

  • the disappearance of this key species = the extinction of a species

  • ecosystems in the eastern US = a habitat

=> Đáp án: Paragraph D



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17
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Câu này khá đơn giản vì paraphrase dễ nhận biết. So sánh paraphrase giữa passage và question:

  • the passenger pigeon = a particular species

  • came to an end = became extinct

=> Đáp án: Paragraph A



Xem full giải thích
18
genetic traits
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

By pinpointing which genetic traits made it possible for mammoths to survive the tundra , the project's goal  is to return mammoths -> Which genetic traits enable mammoths to live in the tundra

-> Những đặc điểm di truyền nào cho phép voi ma mút sống trong lãnh nguyên

So với câu hỏi:  S-V identify the genetic traits which enabled mammoths to live in the tundra

=> Đáp án: genetic traits



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19
heat loss
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Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan, skim; bạn sẽ không locate được “physical adaptations”

. Don’t worry, DOL has Linearthinking!
the endangered Asian elephant expanding their range to the huge ecosystem of the tundra Necessary adaptations - include smaller ears, thicker hair, and extra insulating fat , all for the purpose of reducing heat loss 

-> Necessary adaptations - smaller ears, thicker hair,... =physical adaptations -> for the purpose of reducing heat loss = to reduce heat loss => certain physical adaptations to reduce heat loss (để voi Châu Á sống được ở tundra)

-> một số thích nghi vật lý nhất định để giảm mất nhiệt

So với câu hỏi: certain physical adaptations to minimize _______

-> một số thích nghi vật lý nhất định để giảm thiểu _______

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20
ears
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking: Necessary adaptations would include smaller ears, thicker hair Từ câu trước, ta đã biết "Necessary adaptations" chỉ những điều cần thiết để voi Châu Á có thể survive in the tundra -> To survive in the tundra, they need smaller ears, thicker hair

-> Để tồn tại trong lãnh nguyên, chúng cần đôi tai nhỏ hơn, lông dày hơn So với câu hỏi: To survive in the tundra, the species would need to have the mammoth-like features of thicker hair,_ears of a reduced size

-> Để tồn tại trong lãnh nguyên, loài này cần phải có các đặc điểm giống voi ma mút như lông dày hơn, _ kích thước giảm dần -> of a reduced size = smaller

=> Đáp án: ears



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21
insulating fat/fat
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



Necessary adaptations would include smaller ears, thicker hair, and extra insulating fat, Từ câu trước, ta đã biết "Necessary adaptations" chỉ những điều cần thiết để voi Châu Á có thể survive in the tundra

-> To survive in the tundra, they need smaller ears, thicker hair and extra insulating fat,

-> Để tồn tại trong lãnh nguyên, chúng cần đôi tai nhỏ hơn, lông dày hơn và chất béo cách nhiệt bổ sung, Lưu ý lấy 2 chữ "insulating fat" hoặc 1 "fat" đều được

=> Đáp án insulating fat/ fat



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22
carbon emissions/emissions
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



1.  This repopulation ...large mammals could be a useful factor in reducing carbon emissions...

2. This grass growth would reduce temperatures , and mitigate emissions from melting permafrost. S (This repopulation...large mammals) + be a useful factor in reducing N1(carbon emissions)… -> encourage grass growth -> reduce N2 (temperatures) -> S help to reduce N1 and reduce N2

So với câu hỏi: 

 Repopulating ... hybrids would also have an impact on the environment , which could help to reduce temperatures and decrease ____________. S + have impact on environment, which help to reduce N2 and N1 -> S help to reduce N2 and N1

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23
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài



Để hiểu rõ hơn về ý kiến của Michael Archer: Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

1 Cấu trúc Passage: The return of thylacines to Tasmania could help to ensure that devils are never again subjected to risks of this kind Nếu không hiểu "are never again subjected to risks" là gì, có thể dựa vào read connection ở các câu trên: Kể từ khi thylacines biến mất thì bệnh lan rộng ở devil -> nếu còn thylacines thì điều này đã bị ngăn chặn -> "are never again subjected to risks" là ngăn ngừa bệnh, hay nói cách khác là cải thiện sức khỏe ở loài devil. => The return of thylacines to Tasmania could improve the health of the devils 2 Cấu trúc Question: Reintroducing an extinct species to its original habitat could improve the health of a particular species living there

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24
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Phân tích kỹ hơn ý kiến của Beth Shapiro: Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

1 Cấu trúc Passage: She prefers to focus the debate on how this emerging technology could be used to to understand why various species went extinct -> Shapiro perfers to focus on why various species went extinct. 2 Cấu trúc Question: It is important to concentrate on the causes of an animal's extinction -> the cause = why: đưa lý do

=> Đáp án: C



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25
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Phân tích kỹ hơn ý kiến của Ben Novak: Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Cấu trúc Passage: According to Novak , a hybridised band-tailed pigeon with the added nesting habits... re-establish that forest disturbance

-> Main idea: Theo Novak, một con chim bồ câu đuôi dài lai với thói quen làm tổ bổ sung ... thiết lập lại sự xáo trộn khu rừng đó So với câu hỏi: A species brought back from extinction could have an important beneficial impact on the vegetation of its habitat

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26
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching name

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài



Phân tích kỹ hơn ý kiến của Beth Shapiro: Câu này Paraphrase giữa Passage và Question khá đơn giản:

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

HAVING A LAUGH
The findings of psychological scientists reveal the importance of humor
Humans start developing a sense of humor as early as six weeks old, when babies begin to laugh and smile in response to stimuli. Laughter is universal across all human cultures and even exists in some form in rats, chimps, and bonobos. Like other human emotions and expressions, laughter and humour psychological scientists with rich resources for studying human psychology, ranging from the development of language to the neuroscience of social perception. Theories focusing on the evolution of laughter point to it as an important adaptation for social communication. Take, for example, the recorded laughter in TV comedy shows. Back in 1950, US sound engineer Charley Douglass hated dealing with the unpredictable laughter of live audiences, so started recording his own ‘laugh tracks’. These were intended to help people at home feel like they were in a social situation, such as a crowded theatre. Douglass even recorded various types of laughter, as well as mixtures of laugher from men, women, and children. In doing so, he picked up on a quality of laughter that is now interesting researchers: a simple ‘haha’ communicates a remarkable amount of socially relevant information. In one study conducted in 2016, samples of laughter from pairs of English-speaking students were recorded at the University of California, Santa Cruz. A team made up of more than 30 psychological scientists, anthropologists, and biologists then played these recording to listeners from 24 diverse societies, from indigenous tribes in New Guinea to city-dwellers in India and Europe. Participants were asked whether they thought the people laughing were friends or strangers. On average, the results were remarkably consistent: worldwide, people’s guesses were correct approximately 60% of the time. Researchers have also found that different types of laughter serve as codes to complex human social hierarchies. A team led by Christopher Oveis from the University of California, San Diego, found that high-status individuals had different laughs from low-status individuals, and that strangers’ judgements of an individual’s social status were influenced by the dominant or submissive quality of their laughter. In their study, 48 male college students were randomly assigned to groups of four, with each group composed of two low-status members, who had just joined their college fraternity group, and two high-status members, older student took a turn at being teased by the others, involving the use of mildly insulting nicknames. Analysis revealed that, as expected, high-status individuals produced more dominant laughs and fewer submissive laughs relative to the low-status individuals. Meanwhile, low-status individuals were more likely to change their laughter based on their position of power; that is, the newcomers produced more dominant laughs when they were in the ‘powerful’ role of teasers. Dominant laughter was higher in pitch, louder, and more variable in tone than submissive laughter. A random group of volunteers then listened to an equal number of dominant and submissive laughs from both the high- and low-status individuals, and were asked to estimate the social status of the laughter. In line with predictions, laughers producing dominant laughs were perceived to be significantly higher in status than laughers producing submissive laughs. ‘This was particularly true for low-status individuals, who were rated as significantly higher in status when displaying a dominant versus submissive laugh,’ Oveis and colleagues note. ‘Thus, by strategically displaying more dominant laughter when the context allows, low-status individuals may achieve higher status in the eyes of others.’ However, high-status individuals were rated as high-status whether they produced their natural dominant laugh or tried to do a submissive one. Another study, conducted by David Cheng and Lu Wang of Australian National University, was based on the hypothesis that humour might provide a respite from tedious situations in the workplace. This ‘mental break’ might facilitate the replenishment of mental resources. To test this theory, the researchers recruited 74 business students, ostensibly for an experiment on perception. First, the students performed a tedious task in which they had to cross out every instance of the letter ‘e’ over two pages of text. The students then were randomly assigned to watch a video clip eliciting either humour, contentment, or neutral feelings. Some watched a clip of the BBC comedy Mr. Bean, others a relaxing scene with dolphins swimming in the ocean, and others a factual video about the management profession. The students then completed a task requiring persistence in which they were asked to guess the potential performance of employees based on provided profiles, and were told that making 10 correct assessments in a row would lead to a win. However, the software was programmed such that is was nearly impossible to achieve 10 consecutive correct answers. Participants were allowed to quit the task at any point. Students who had watched the Mr. Bean video ended up spending significantly more time working on the task, making twice as many predictions as the other two groups. Cheng and Wang then replicated these results in a second study, during which they had participants complete long multiplication questions by hand. Again, participants who watched the humorous video spent significantly more time working on this tedious task and completed more questions correctly than did the students in either of the other groups. ‘Although humour has been found to help relieve stress and facilitate social relationships, traditional view of task performance implies that individuals should avoid things such as humour that may distract them from the accomplishment of task goals,’ Cheng and Wang conclude. ‘We suggest that humour is not only enjoyable but more importantly, energizing.’

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 31
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes on your answer sheet.
27
When referring to laughter in the first paragraphs, the writer emphasises
A
its impact on language.
B
its function in human culture.
C
its value to scientific research.
D
its universality in animal societies.
28
What does the writer suggest about Charley Douglass?
A
He understood the importance of enjoying humour in a group setting.
B
He believed that TV viewers at home needed to be told when to laugh.
C
He wanted his shows to appeal to audiences across the social spectrum.
D
He preferred shows where audiences were present in the recording studio.
29
What makes the Santa Cruz study particularly significant?
A
the various different types of laughter that were studied
B
the similar results produced by a wide range of cultures
C
the number of different academic disciplines involved
D
the many kinds of people whose laughter was recorded
30
Which of the following happened in the San Diego study?
A
Some participants became very upset.
B
Participants exchanged roles.
C
Participants who had not met before became friends.
D
Some participants were unable to laugh.
31
In the fifth paragraph, what did the results of the San Diego study suggest?
A
It is clear whether a dominant laugh is produced by a high- or low-status person.
B
Low-status individuals in a position of power will still produce submissive laughs.
C
The submissive laughs of low- and high-status individuals are surprisingly similar.
D
High-status individuals can always be identified by their way of laughing.
Question 32 - 36
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-H, below.
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes on your answer sheet.
The benefits of humour
In one study at Australian National University, randomly chosen groups of participants were shown one of three videos, each designed to generate a different kind of
32
. When all participants were then given a deliberately frustrating task to do, it was found that those who had watched the
33
video persisted with the task for longer and tried harder to accomplish the task than either of the other two groups.
A second study in which participants were asked to perform a particularly
34
task produced similar results. According to researchers David Cheng and Lu Wang, these findings suggest that humour not only reduces
35
and helps build social connections but it may also have a
36
Effect on the body and mind.

A
laughter
B
relaxing
C
boring
D
anxiety
E
stimulating
F
emotion
G
enjoyment
H
amusing
Question 37 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
37
Participants in the Santa Cruz study were more accurate at identifying the laughs of friends than those of strangers.
38
The researchers in the San Diego study were correct in their predictions regarding the behavior of the high-status individuals.
39
The participants in the Australian National University study were given a fixed amount of time to complete the task focusing on employee profiles.
40
Cheng and Wang’s conclusions were in line with established notions regarding task performance.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking: Cấu trúc Passage: laughter provide psychological scientists with rich resources for studying human psychology , ranging from A to B -> Main idea: laughter provides scientists with resources for research

-> tiếng cười cung cấp cho các nhà khoa học nguồn tài nguyên để nghiên cứu

So với list of answer, ta chọn được đáp án: C. its value to scientific research

(vì value = resources for research)

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28
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc Linearthinking để hiểu hướng phân tích logic như sau: 1 Charley Douglass hated dealing with unpredictable laughter of live audiences and started recording his own ‘laugh tracks’

 2 These were intended to help people at home feel like they were in a social situation

-> main idea 2 câu: Charley created "laugh tracks" to help - people at home - feel like they were in a group (be in a social situation)

-> Charley đã tạo "laugh tracks" để giúp những người ở nhà - cảm thấy như họ đang ở trong một nhóm

-> "laugh tracks" to help - people at home - feel like they were in a group = enjoying humour in a group setting

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29
B
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

1. sample of laughter at Santa Cruz 2. scientists played these recordings to listeners from diverse societies 3. Participants were asked (question about the recordings) 4. the results (from activity at sentence no.3) were consistent 

-> Main idea: Thử nghiệm trên đa dạng các đối tượng, nhưng kết quả đều như nhau = the results were consistent

-> the results were consistent = the similar results

=> Đáp án: B. the similar results produced by a wide range of cultures



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30
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking để đọc cấu trúc câu sau 48 college students were assigned to groups of four , with each group composed of two low-status members, who.... , and  two high-status members . Laughter was recored as each student took a turn at being teased by the others .

Bạn nào là fan của Linear có thể simplify cấu trúc 2 câu sau, để thực sự hiểu nghĩa trọn vẹn của nó và đoán được nghĩa của took a turn.

Còn thực tế nếu bạn nào giỏi từ vựng chỉ cần tìm được cụm took a turn at (thay phiên nhau) là có thể thấy được nó là paraphrase của đáp án B. exchange roles (đổi vai trò)

=> Đáp án: B. Participants exchanged roles



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31
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

1 by displaying more dominant laughter , low-status individuals may achieve higher status -> low-status individual could fake their status with their laugh 2 However , high-status individuals were rated as high-status whether they  produced dominant laugh or a submissive one . -> bằng từ nối However ở câu 2, ta có thể biết được : high-status individuals could NOT fake their status with their laugh = những người có địa vị cao KHÔNG thể giả mạo địa vị của họ bằng tiếng cười của họ

-> could NOT fake their status with their laugh = can always be identified by their way of laughing

=> Đáp án: D. High-status individuals can always be identified by their way of laughing.



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32
emotion
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Giải thích chi tiết

Đoạn này thông tin chính nằm cách nhau khá xa gây khó khăn cho thí sinh vì phải đọc quá nhiều. Tuy nhiên ta vẫn có thể locate info chính xác bằng: DOL's Linearthinking

Cấu trúc Passage: study ... of Australian National University ... students watch a video clip eliciting feelings

-> Nghiên cứu chỉ ra rằng xem video có thể bộc lộ cảm giác

So với câu hỏi: study at Australian National University , participants were shown one of three videos designed to generate a different kind of ______

-> nghiên cứu tại Đại học Quốc gia Úc, những người tham gia đã được xem một trong ba video được thiết kế để tạo ra một loại ______ khác

=> Đáp án: F. emotion



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33
amusing
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Giải thích chi tiết

Trong 3 loại cảm xúc, tương ứng với 3 thể loại video, ta cần gán cảm xúc phù hợp với video được nhắc tới trong question.

Video nhắc tới trong question khiến người tham gia “persisted with the task for longer and tried harder to accomplish the task than either of the other two groups.” ( = "ended up spending significantly more time working on the task" trong passage) -> so sánh với info trong passage thì ta biết video đó là Mr. Bean -> Mr. Bean đã được đề cập trước đó trong bài là một "comedy", là dạng video "eliciting humour"

=> Đáp án: H. amusing



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34
boring
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này khá đơn giản vì paraphrase dễ nhận biết + có ý chính trùng với các câu đã đọc trước đó. Bạn có thể locate info và xác định đáp án nhanh hơn nữa nếu biết từ "tedious"( trong passage) là synonym của boring.

=> Đáp án: C.boring



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35
anxiety
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Giải thích chi tiết

- Dùng tên riêng David Cheng and Lu Wang để locate info nhanh hơn - Nếu không biết "facilitate social relationships" là gì, có thể dựa vào read connection: Các đoạn trước nói về lợi ích của humour -> đoạn sau nói về việc dù humour có ích (relieve stress and facilitate social relationships), ta nên tránh loại humour làm xao nhãng... -> facilitate có ý tốt. => humour has been found to help [relieve stress] and [facilitate social relationships] = humour not only [ reduces _____________ ] and helps [build social connections]

=> Đáp án: D. anxiety



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36
stimulating
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Giải thích chi tiết

Cần chú ý word cần điền trong câu này là 1 tính từ.

Kể cả khi đáp án có thể là danh từ, các word pattern như “enjoyment effect” hay “emotion effect” hoàn toàn không có nghĩa.

Trong số các đáp án A-H, các tính từ “amusing”/ “boring” đều đã được chọn làm đáp án câu khác, nên đáp án chỉ thu gọn lại còn “stimulating”/ “relaxing”.

Tiếp theo, locate được info về ý kiến của Cheng&Wang, so sánh, ta có được đáp án 

=> Đáp án: E. stimulating



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37
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 Participants were asked whether they thought the people laughing were friends of strangers

 the results were consistent people's guesses were correct 60% of the time 

-> Passage nói “results were remarkably consistent” + "people’s guesses were correct approximately 60%" So với câu hỏi:  Participants were more accurate at identifying the laughs of friends than those of strangers.

-> Những người tham gia nghiên cứu đoán được tiếng cười của bạn chính xác hơn của người lạ

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38
True
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này khá đơn giản vì paraphrase dễ nhận diện. Có thể dùng tên riêng San Diego để giúp locate info nhanh chóng hơn.

  • high-status individuals produced more dominant laughs = the behaviour of the high-status individuals

  • as expected = were correct in their predictions

=> Đáp án: A. True



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39
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

The students were asked to guess the potential performance of employees based on provided profiles ... were allowed to quit the task at any point .

-> Main idea: Các sinh viên được yêu cầu đoán hiệu suất tiềm năng của nhân viên dựa trên hồ sơ được cung cấp và được phép bỏ nhiệm vụ bất cứ lúc nào. So với câu hỏi:  The participants were given a fixed amount of time to complete the task focusing on employee profiles . -> 2 cấu trúc có sự đối lập duy nhất ở: were allowed to quit the task at any point # were given a fixed amount of time -> "were given a fixed amount of time" tức : students could NOT leave before time ran out.

=>Đáp án: B. False



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40
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Although humour has been found to help relieve stress .... , traditional view of task performance implies that individuals should avoid...humour -> Mặc dù Cheng và Wang đã chứng minh humour giúp ích, view of task performance lại bảo nên "avoid humour" So với câu hỏi:  Cheng and Wang were in line with notions regarding task performance -> "were in line with" tức là Cheng và Wang đồng thuận với notions regarding task performance

=> Đáp án: False



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