Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 1 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 15 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 15 - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Nutmeg — a valuable spice
The nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans, is a large evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia. Until the late 18th century, it only grew in one place in the world: a small group of islands in the Banda Sea, part of the Moluccas — or Spice Islands — in northeastern Indonesia. The tree is thickly branched with dense foliage of tough, dark green oval leaves, and produces small, yellow, bell-shaped flowers and pale yellow pear-shaped fruits. The fruit is encased in a fleshy husk. When the fruit is ripe, this husk splits into two halves along a ridge running the length of the fruit. Inside is a purple-brown shiny seed, 2-3 cm long by about 2.cm across, surrounded by a lacy red or crimson covering called an ‘aril’. These are the sources of the two spices nutmeg and mace, the former being produced from the dried seed and the latter from the aril. Nutmeg was a highly prized and costly ingredient in European cuisine in the Middle Ages, and was used as a flavouring, medicinal, and preservative agent. Throughout this period, the Arabs were the exclusive importers of the spice to Europe. They sold nutmeg for high prices to merchants based in Venice, but they never revealed the exact location of the source of this extremely valuable commodity. The Arab- Venetian dominance of the trade finally ended in 1512, when the Portuguese reached the Banda Islands and began exploiting its precious resources. Always in danger of competition from neighbouring Spain, the Portuguese began subcontracting their spice distribution to Dutch traders. Profits began to flow into the Netherlands, and the Dutch commercial fleet swiftly grew into one of the largest in the world. The Dutch quietly gained control of most of the shipping and trading of spices in Northern Europe. Then, in 1580, Portugal fell under Spanish rule, and by the end of the 16th century the Dutch found themselves locked out of the market. As prices for pepper, nutmeg, and other spices soared across Europe, they decided to fight back. In 1602, Dutch merchants founded the VOC, a trading corporation better known as the Dutch East India Company. By 1617, the VOC was the richest commercial operation in the world. The company had 50,000 employees worldwide, with a private army of 30,000 men and a fleet of 200 ships. At the same time, thousands of people across Europe were dying of the plague, a highly contagious and deadly disease. Doctors were desperate for a way to stop the spread of this disease, and they decided nutmeg held the cure. Everybody wanted nutmeg, and many were willing to spare no expense to have it. Nutmeg bought for a few pennies in Indonesia could be sold for 68,000 times its original cost on the streets of London. The only problem was the short supply. And that’s where the Dutch found their opportunity. The Banda Islands were ruled by local sultans who insisted on maintaining a neutral trading policy towards foreign powers. This allowed them to avoid the presence of Portuguese or Spanish troops on their soil, but it also left them unprotected from other invaders. In 1621, the Dutch arrived and took over. Once securely in control of the Bandas, the Dutch went to work protecting their new investment. They concentrated all nutmeg production into a few easily guarded areas, uprooting and destroying any trees outside the plantation zones. Anyone caught growing a nutmeg seedling or carrying seeds without the proper authority was severely punished. In addition, all exported nutmeg was covered with lime to make sure there was no chance a fertile seed which could be grown elsewhere would leave the islands. There was only one obstacle to Dutch domination. One of the Banda Islands, a sliver of land called Run, only 3km long by less than 1km wide, was under the control of the British. After decades of fighting for control of this tiny island, the Dutch and British arrived at a compromise settlement, the Treaty of Breda, in 1667. Intent on securing their hold over every nutmeg-producing island, the Dutch offered a trade: if the British would give them the island of Run, they would in turn give Britain a distant and much less valuable island in North America. The British agreed. That other island was Manhattan, which is how New Amsterdam became New York. The Dutch now had a monopoly over the nutmeg trade which would last for another century. Then, in 1770, a Frenchman named Pierre Poivre successfully smuggled nutmeg plants to safety in Mauritius, an island off the coast of Africa. Some of these were later exported to the Caribbean where they thrived, especially on the island of Grenada. Next, in 1778, a volcanic eruption in the Banda region caused a tsunami that wiped out half the nutmeg groves. Finally, in 1809, the British returned to Indonesia and seized the Banda Islands by force. They returned the islands to the Dutch in 1817, but not before transplanting hundreds of nutmeg seedlings to plantations in several locations across southern Asia, The Dutch nutmeg monopoly was over. Today, nutmeg is grown in Indonesia, the Caribbean, India, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and Sri Lanka, and world nutmeg production is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes per year.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 4
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
The nutmeg tree and fruit
● the leaves of the tree are
1
in shape

● the
2
surrounds the fruit and breaks open when the fruit is ripe

● the
3
is used to produce the spice nutmeg

● the covering known as the aril is used to produce
4


● the tree has yellow flowers and fruit
Question 5 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
5
In the Middle Ages, most Europeans knew where nutmeg was grown.
6
The VOC was the world’s first major trading company.
7
Following the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch had control of all the islands where nutmeg grew.
Question 8 - 13
Answer the question below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
oval
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Cấu trúc Passage: The tree is thickly branched with dense foliage of tough, dark green oval leaves -> Ở đây liệt kê nhiều tính từ và có nhiều từ lạ "branched with", "dense", "foliage". Nếu đọc dịch sẽ rất rối.

-> Tuy nhiên nếu đọc theo cấu trúc sẽ xác định được tất cả những cụm đó đều chỉ bổ sung cho "oval leaves" -> Lý do không chọn tính từ tough (cứng), dark (đen), green (xanh) mặc dù nó bổ nghĩa cho "oval leaves" là vì 3 tính từ này không chỉ hình dáng (shape).

=> Đáp án: oval



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2
husk
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nhiều bạn sẽ bị rối và tìm không ra chữ surround, và có khả năng chọn từ ridge vì thấy ridge đi cặp với fruit.

Đọc dịch cũng sẽ rất khó khăn vì có từ lạ như "encased", "husk"
Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:


Cấu trúc đoạn thông tin: 

 The fruit is encased in a husk . When the fruit is ripe , this husk split into two halves 

- The fruit is encased in a husk = The husk encases the fruit - split into two halves = breaks open - Ta có thể trình bày lại đoạn thông tin như sau: => The husk encases the fruit and breaks open when the fruit is ripe

So sánh với cấu trúc câu hỏi: the _______ surrounds the fruit and breaks open when the fruit is ripe => Đáp án: husk



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3
seed
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking.



Cấu trúc đoạn văn spices nutmeg and mace , the former being produced from the seed 

-> spices nutmeg is produced from seed -> seed is used to produced spcies nutmeg So sánh với cấu trúc câu hỏi: The seed is used to produce the spice nutmeg (tương tự cấu trúc đoạn văn) => Đáp án: seed



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4
mace
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Cấu trúc đoạn văn two spices nutmeg and mace , the former being produced from the dried seed and the latter from the aril -> Nhờ tính chất parallel của "and" , ta có: the latter from the aril = the latter being produced from the aril (tương tự cấu trúc "the former" trước đó) -> the latter = mace => mace is produced from the aril / the aril is used to produce mace

So sánh với cấu trúc câu hỏi: The covering known as the aril is used to produce mace

=> Đáp án: mace



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5
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ dựa vào skim/scan keyword, thí sinh sẽ không locate info được vì câu này paraphrase dựa trên meaning.

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Cấu trúc Passage: Arabs were the exclusive importers of the spice to Europe .

 They sold nutmeg but they never revealed the exact location of the source of this commodity

->Nếu dựa vào đọc dịch sẽ không tìm thấy ý "Europeans knew" trong câu hỏi + kẹt ở từ "commodity". Tuy nhiên nếu dựa vào connection, ta có thể nhận ra commodity chính là "nutmeg". -> Arabs never told the European the source of the nutmeg -> Europeans did NOT know where nutmeg was grown

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6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Chỉ cần tránh nhầm lẫn giữa “richest” và “the first” thì bạn sẽ hoàn thành tốt câu này.

Ta biết vào năm 1617, VOC là doanh nghiệp giàu có bậc nhất - “by 1617, VOC was the richest corporation”. Bạn mắc bẫy khi thấy “giàu có nhất" nhưng không có phải “đầu tiên của thế giới", nên có thể vội vàng chọn FALSE ngay

.

Chú ý rằng

  • Question hỏi về A, 

  • Passage cung cấp thông tin về B



Nếu như B không phải là ngược lại, đối lập với A, “not A", thì Question này chỉ là NOT GIVEN, không phải FALSE
nhé.

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7
True
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Giải thích chi tiết

Cần xác định điểm nghi vấn chính yếu nhất là ở từ “all”, liệu có phải tất cả hòn đảo trồng nutmeg đều thuộc điều hành của the Dutch.

Vấn đề ở câu này chính là nếu bạn scan skim thì sẽ không locate được câu nào nói chính xác mối quan hệ giữa “the Dutch” và “all the islands where nutmeg grew”.



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

the Dutch and British arrived at a compromise settlement , the Treaty of Breda -> Dutch and British agreed on a trade called the Treaty of Breda Intent on securing their hold over every nutmeg-producing island , the Dutch offered a trade .... The British agreed . -> "Intent on securing their hold over every nutmeg-producing island" = The Dutch wanted to have control of all the islands where nutmeg grew. => The Dutch wanted to have control of all the islands where nutmeg grew, so they offered a trade, to which the British agreed.

=> Đáp án: A. True



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8
Arabs
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này tương đối dễ nếu bạn nhận diện được cụm "exclusive importers" .

Tuy nhiên, nếu thiếu từ vựng thì vẫn có thể đọc sang câu dưới: "...They never revealed the exact location of the source of this extremely valuable commodity" . Dựa vào đọc connection, bạn có thể suy ra được: 1. commodity = nutmeg 2. They never revealed ... = The Arabs were the only ones bringing the spice to Europe. => Đáp án: Arabs.



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9
plague
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Cấu trúc Passage : 1. people  were dying of the plague 2. they  decided nutmeg held the cure -> nutmeg held the cure to the plague = nutmeg was effective against the plague. -> it was decided that nutmeg was effective against the plague

-> người ta quyết định rằng hạt nhục đậu khấu có tác dụng chống lại bệnh dịch

So với câu hỏi: it was believed to be effective against the disease known as the ...........

=> Đáp án: plague



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10
lime
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Cấu trúc Passage: nutmeg was covered with lime to make sure there was no chance a seed could be grown elsewhere

-> nutmeg was covered with lime = put lime on nutmeg -> no chance a seed could be grown elsewhere = nutmeg can't be cultivated elsewhere => Put lime on nutmeg to make sure nutmeg can't be cultivated elsewhere (cultivated = grown)

-> Quét lime lên nhục đậu khấu để đảm bảo nhục đậu khấu không thể trồng ở nơi khác

So với câu hỏi: put lime on nutmeg to avoid it being cultivated outside the islands

=> Đáp án: lime



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11
Run
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan & skim từ khóa, thí sinh sẽ rất khó xác định được câu trả lời vì câu này paraphrase dựa trên meaning.

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



The Dutch - offered a trade: - if - the British give the Dutch - the island of Run

The British - agreed (agree on the trade)

=> the Dutch obtained the island of Run from the British

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12
Mauritius
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu mù quáng scan skim, bạn sẽ lựa chọn đáp án “safety”, vì “smuggled to safety” là cụm bạn bắt gặp ngay khi scan. Tuy nhiên, “were secretly taken to safety” không có ý nghĩa, câu hỏi cần là một danh từ - địa điểm, nơi chốn.



Bạn cũng có thể chọn “island” (vì only ONE word), thì sẽ sai ngữ pháp trong câu – ‘taken to island’ (phải là ‘taken to an island’ mới chính xác)



Nếu chọn “Africa” thì sai ý nghĩa, vì nutmeg không bị buôn tới Africa, mà là hòn đảo Mauritius ngoài khơi Africa.

=> Đáp án: Mauritius



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13
tsunami
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Bạn có thể nhầm lẫn chọn “eruption” hay “volcanic eruption”. Chú ý là “volcanic eruption” dẫn đến “a tsunami”, từ đó “tsunami” mới đi phá huỷ nutmeg.



Để tránh chọn sai đáp án, áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Cấu trúc Passage:

1778 a volcanic eruption caused a tsunami that wiped out half the nutmeg groves

-> một nửa khu vườn nhục đậu khấu đã bị sóng thần làm hư hại

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Driverless cars
A
A. The automotive sector is well used to adapting to automation in manufacturing. The implementation of robotic car manufacture from the 1970s onwards led to significant cost savings and improvements in the reliability and flexibility of vehicle mass production. A new challenge to vehicle production is now on the horizon and, again, it comes from automation. However, this time it is not to do with the manufacturing process, but with the vehicles themselves. Research projects on vehicle automation are not new. Vehicles with limited self-driving capabilities have been around for more than 50 years, resulting in significant contributions towards driver assistance systems. But since Google announced in 2010 that it had been trialling self-driving cars on the streets of California, progress in this field has quickly gathered pace.
B
B. There are many reasons why technology is advancing so fast. One frequently cited motive is safety; indeed, research at the UK’s Transport Research Laboratory has demonstrated that more than 90 percent of road collisions involve human error as a contributory factor, and it is the primary cause in the vast majority. Automation may help to reduce the incidence of this. Another aim is to free the time people spend driving for other purposes. If the vehicle can do some or all of the driving, it may be possible to be productive, to socialise or simply to relax while automation systems have responsibility for safe control of the vehicle. If the vehicle can do the driving, those who are challenged by existing mobility models — such as older or disabled travellers — may be able to enjoy significantly greater travel autonomy.
C
C. Beyond these direct benefits, we can consider the wider implications for transport and society, and how manufacturing processes might need to respond as a result. At present, the average car spends more than 90 percent of its life parked. Automation means that initiatives for car-sharing become much more viable, particularly in urban areas with significant travel demand. If a significant proportion of the population choose to use shared automated vehicles, mobility demand can be met by far fewer vehicles.
D
D. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology investigated automated mobility in Singapore, finding that fewer than 30 percent of the vehicles currently used would be required if fully automated car sharing could be implemented. If this is the case, it might mean that we need to manufacture far fewer vehicles to meet demand. However, the number of trips being taken would probably increase, partly because empty vehicles would have to be moved from one customer to the next. Modelling work by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute suggests automated vehicles might reduce vehicle ownership by 43 percent, but that vehicles’ average annual mileage would double as a result. As a consequence, each vehicle would be used more intensively, and might need replacing sooner. This faster rate of turnover may mean that vehicle production will not necessarily decrease.
E
E. Automation may prompt other changes in vehicle manufacture. If we move to a model where consumers are tending not to own a single vehicle but to purchase access to a range of vehicles through a mobility provider, drivers will have the freedom to select one that best suits their needs for a particular journey, rather than making a compromise across all their requirements. Since, for most of the time, most of the seats in most cars are unoccupied, this may boost production of a smaller, more efficient range of vehicles that suit the needs of individuals. Specialised vehicles may then be available for exceptional journeys, such as going on a family camping trip or helping a son or daughter move to university.
F
F. There are a number of hurdles to overcome in delivering automated vehicles to our roads. These include the technical difficulties in ensuring that the vehicle works reliably in the infinite range of traffic, weather and road situations it might encounter; the regulatory challenges in understanding how liability and enforcement might change when drivers are no longer essential for vehicle operation; and the societal changes that may be required for communities to trust and accept automated vehicles as being a valuable part of the mobility landscape.
G
G. It's clear that there are many challenges that need to be addressed but, through robust and targeted research, these can most probably be conquered within the next 10 years. Mobility will change in such potentially significant ways and in association with so many other technological developments, such as telepresence and virtual reality, that it is hard to make concrete predictions about the future. However, one thing is certain: change is coming, and the need to be flexible in response to this will be vital for those involved in manufacturing the vehicles that will deliver future mobility.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes on your answer sheet.
14
reference to the amount of time when a car is not in use
15
mention of several advantages of driverless vehicles for individual road-users
16
reference to the opportunity of choosing the most appropriate vehicle for each trip
17
an estimate of how long it will take to overcome a number of problems
18
a suggestion that the use of driverless cars may have no effect on the number of vehicles manufactured
Question 19 - 22
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
The impact of driverless cars
Figures from the Transport Research Laboratory indicate that most motor accidents are partly due to
19
so the introduction of driverless vehicles will result in greater safety. In addition to the direct benefits of automation, it may bring other advantages. For example, schemes for
20
will be more workable, especially in towns and cities, resulting in fewer cars on the road.
According to the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, there could be a 43 percent drop in
21
of cars. However, this would mean that the yearly
22
of each car would, on average, be twice as high as it currently is. this would lead to a higher turnover of vehicles, and therefore no reduction in automotive manufacturing.

Question 23 - 26
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes on your answer sheet.
Which TWO benefits of automated vehicles does the writer mention?
A
Car travellers could enjoy considerable cost savings.
B
It would be easier to find parking spaces in urban areas.
C
Travellers could spend journeys doing something other than driving.
D
People who find driving physically difficult could travel independently.
E
A reduction in the number of cars would mean a reduction in pollution.
Which TWO challenges to automated vehicle development does the writer mention?
A
making sure the general public has confidence in automated vehicles
B
managing the pace of transition from conventional to automated vehicles
C
deciding how to compensate professional drivers who become redundant
D
setting up the infrastructure to make roads suitable for automated vehicles
E
getting automated vehicles to adapt to various different driving conditions

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

=> Thông tin về một khoảng thời gian mà car không sử dụng

Imagine paraphrase:

the amount of time -> chỉ khoảng thời gian cụ thể

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15
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

=> Thông tin về những lợi ích của driverless vehicles

Imagine paraphrase:

driverless vehicles -> đây là cụm từ quan trọng, liên quan đển sự tự động

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16
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

=> Thông tin về cơ hội chọn vehicle thích hợp nhất cho chuyến đi

Imagine paraphrase:

the opportunity of choosing -> tự do chọn lựa

the most appropriate vehicle for each trip -> phương tiện thích hợp

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17
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

=> Thông tin về một khoảng thời gian định lượng có thể giải quyết vấn đề

Imagine paraphrase:

how long it will take -> chỉ khoảng thời gian cụ thể hoặc amount of time

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18
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Vấn đề của câu này là nếu bạn chỉ scan skim thì sẽ không tìm ra được đoạn thông tin paraphrasing chính xác đề - “driverless cars may have no effect on the number of vehicles manufactured”. Don’t worry, DOL has Linearthinking!

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

=> Thông tin về việc sử dụng xe ko người lái ko có ảnh hưởng đến việc sản xuất xe

Imagine paraphrase:

driverless car -> liên quan đến tự động

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19
human error
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



Cấu trúc passage:  motive is safety ; research at the UK’s Transport Research Laboratory has demonstrated that 90% road collisions involve human error as a contributory factor  

-> human error - contribute to - 90% road collisions

-> 90% road collisions - be due to - human error

So với câu hỏi: most motor accidents are partly due to ________

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20
car-sharing/car sharing
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase khá đơn giản với bạn nào biết từ vựng

  • initiatives = schemes

  • viable = workable

Nếu không biết thì bạn vẫn có thể dựa vào Connection để xác định đáp án

Đoạn B: Lý do tại sao automation phát triển và lợi ích của nó cho người dùng

Đoạn C:

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21
ownership
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này Paraphrase đơn giản + dựa trên con số “43 percent”, bạn sẽ dễ dàng locate được đoạn info.

Trong đoạn info này, bạn có thể sẽ cân nhắc giữa 2 danh từ “ownership” và “annual mileage” cho đáp án. Tuy nhiên, chú ý:

  • vehicle ownership là đang giảm

  • annual mileage (dù bạn không hiểu là gì) đang “double” có nghĩa là tăng gấp đôi – trái ngược với ý trong câu hỏi -> bỏ qua

=> Đáp án: ownership



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22
mileage
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Cấu trúc Passage: vehicles’ average annual mileage would double -> cars' yearly mileage, on average, would be twice as high.

-> trung bình số dặm hàng năm của ô tô sẽ cao gấp đôi. So với câu hỏi: the yearly _________ of each car would, on average , be twice as high as it currently is

=> Đáp án: mileage



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23
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking: Cấu trúc Passage: 1 aim (of automation) is to free the time people spend driving for other purposes -> With automation, people have time to do more things 2 If the vehicle can do the driving , it may be possible to be productive... while automation systems have responsibility for safe control -> Things we can do thanks to automation 3 If the vehicle can do the driving , those who are challenged by existing mobility models may be able to enjoy significantly greater travel autonomy -> Không hiểu "autonomy" cũng đoán được ý câu muốn nói là những người gặp khó khăn có thể tận hưởng việc du lịch hơn (vì flow đang liệt kê lợi ích automation)

=> Main idea: The benefits of automation: 1. Do things they normally can't with normal driving 2. People who find driving difficult can enjoy travel more

=> Đáp án: C - Travellers could spend journeys doing something other than driving.

D - People who find driving physically difficult could travel independently.


Các đáp án khác sai là vì:

AKhông có thông tin nào nhắc đến “cost savings” như là 1 lợi ích của automated vehicles

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24
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



Cấu trúc Passage:

 1 aim (of automation) is to free the time people spend driving for other purposes 

-> With automation, people have time to do more things

 2 If the vehicle can do the driving , it may be possible to be productive...  while

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25
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Cấu trúc Passage: 1 There are a number of hurdles to overcome in delivering automated vehicles to our roads -> Không hiểu từ này thì có thể dựa vào từ "overcome" để đoán nghĩa nó là "rắc rối", "thử thách" (hoặc đọc connection ở câu dưới) -> There are challenges to overcome before we can use automated vehicles 2 These include the difficulties in ensuring that the vehicle works reliably in the infinite range of traffic,... ; ........(liệt kê ý không liên quan) ; changes that may be required for communities to trust automated vehicles -> be required for N1 to trust and accept N2 = it’s important to make N1 trust N2

-> it’s important to make N1 have confidence in N2 ~ making sure N1 have confidence in N2

=> the challenges we need to overcome to use automated vehicles: 1. ensuring that automated vehicle works well under different driving conditions 2. making communities trust automated vehicles

=> Đáp án: A - making sure the general public has confidence in automated vehicles

E - getting automated vehicles to adapt to various different driving conditions



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26
E
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:


Cấu trúc Passage:

 1 There are a number of hurdles to overcome in delivering automated vehicles to our roads

-> Không hiểu từ này thì có thể dựa vào từ "overcome" để đoán nghĩa nó là "rắc rối", "thử thách" (hoặc đọc connection ở câu dưới) -> There are challenges to overcome before we can use automated vehicles

 2 These include the difficulties in ensuring that the vehicle works reliably in the infinite range of traffic,... ; ........(liệt kê ý không liên quan) ; changes that may be required for communities  to trust automated vehicles

-> be required for N1 to trust and accept N2 = it’s important to make N1 trust N2

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

What is exploration?
We are all explorers. Our desire to discover, and then share that new-found knowledge, is part of what makes us human — indeed, this has played an important part in our success as a species. Long before the first caveman slumped down beside the fire and grunted news that there were plenty of wildebeest over yonder, our ancestors had learnt the value of sending out scouts to investigate the unknown. This questing nature of ours undoubtedly helped our species spread around the globe, just as it nowadays no doubt helps the last nomadic Penan maintain their existence in the depleted forests of Borneo, and a visitor negotiate the subways of New York. Over the years, we’ve come to think of explorers as a peculiar breed — different from the rest of us, different from those of us who are merely ‘well travelled’, even; and perhaps there is a type of person more suited to seeking out the new, a type of caveman more inclined to risk venturing out. That, however, doesn’t take away from the fact that we all have this enquiring instinct, even today; and that in all sorts of professions — whether artist, marine biologist or astronomer — borders of the unknown are being tested each day. Thomas Hardy set some of his novels in Egdon Heath, a fictional area of uncultivated land, and used the landscape to suggest the desires and fears of his characters. He is delving into matters we all recognise because they are common to humanity. This is surely an act of exploration, and into a world as remote as the author chooses. Explorer and travel writer Peter Fleming talks of the moment when the explorer returns to the existence he has left behind with his loved ones. The traveller ‘who has for weeks or months seen himself only as a puny and irrelevant alien crawling laboriously over a country in which he has no roots and no background, suddenly encounters his other self, a relatively solid figure, with a place in the minds of certain people’. In this book about the exploration of the earth’s surface, I have confined myself to those whose travels were real and who also aimed at more than personal discovery. But that still left me with another problem: the word ‘explorer’ has become associated with a past era. We think back to a golden age, as if exploration peaked somehow in the 19th century — as if the process of discovery is now on the decline, though the truth is that we have named only one and a half million of this planet’s species, and there may be more than 10 million — and that’s not including bacteria. We have studied only 5 per cent of the species we know. We have scarcely mapped the ocean floors, and know even less about ourselves; we fully understand the workings of only 10 per cent of our brains. Here is how some of today’s ‘explorers’ define the word. Ran Fiennes, dubbed the ‘greatest lrving explorer’, said, ‘An explorer is someone who has done something that no human has done before — and also done something scientifically useful.’ Chris Bonington, a leading mountaineer, felt exploration was to be found in the act of physically touching the unknown: “You have to have gone somewhere new.’ Then Robin Hanbury-Tenison, a campaigner on behalf of remote so-called ‘tribal’ peoples, said, ‘A traveller simply records information about some far-off world, and reports back; but an explorer changes the world.’ Wilfred Thesiger, who crossed Arabia’s Empty Quarter in 1946, and belongs to an era of unmechanised travel now lost to the rest of us, told me, ‘If I'd gone across by camel when I could have gone by car, it would have been a stunt.’ To him, exploration meant bringing back information from a remote place regardless of any great self-discovery. Each definition is slightly different — and tends to reflect the field of endeavour of each pioneer. It was the same whoever I asked: the prominent historian would say exploration was a thing of the past, the cutting-edge scientist would say it was of the present. And so on. They each set their own particular criteria; the common factor in their approach being that they all had, unlike many of us who simply enjoy travel or discovering new things, both a very definite objective from the outset and also a desire to record their findings. I'd best declare my own bias. As a writer, I’m interested in the exploration of ideas. I’ve done a great many expeditions and each one was unique. I’ve lived for months alone with isolated groups of people all around the world, even two ‘uncontacted tribes’. But none of these things is of the slightest interest to anyone unless, through my books, I’ve found a new slant, explored anew idea. Why? Because the world has moved on. The time has long passed for the great continental voyages — another walk to the poles, another crossing of the Empty Quarter. We know how the land surface of our planet lies; exploration of it is now down to the details — the habits of microbes, say, or the grazing behaviour of buffalo. Aside from the deep sea and deep underground, it’s the era of specialists. However, this is to disregard the role the human mind has in conveying remote places; and this is what interests me: how a fresh interpretation, even of a well-travelled route, can give its readers new insights.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes on your answer sheet.
27
The writer refers to visitors to New York to illustrate the point that
A
exploration is an intrinsic element of being human.
B
most people are enthusiastic about exploring.
C
exploration can lead to surprising results.
D
most people find exploration daunting.
28
According to the second paragraph, what is the writer’s view of explorers?
A
Their discoveries have brought both benefits and disadvantages.
B
Their main value is in teaching others.
C
They act on an urge that is common to everyone.
D
They tend to be more attracted to certain professions than to others.
29
The writer refers to a description of Egdon Heath to suggest that
A
Hardy was writing about his own experience of exploration.
B
Hardy was mistaken about the nature of exploration.
C
Hardy’s aim was to investigate people’s emotional states.
D
Hardy’s aim was to show the attraction of isolation.
30
In the fourth paragraph, the writer refers to ‘a golden age’ to suggest that
A
the amount of useful information produced by exploration has decreased.
B
fewer people are interested in exploring than in the 19th century.
C
recent developments have made exploration less exciting.
D
we are wrong to think that exploration is no longer necessary.
31
In the sixth paragraph, when discussing the definition of exploration, the writer argues that
A
people tend to relate exploration to their own professional interests.
B
certain people are likely to misunderstand the nature of exploration.
C
the generally accepted definition has changed over time.
D
historians and scientists have more valid definitions than the general public.
32
In the last paragraph, the writer explains that he is interested in
A
how someone’s personality is reflected in their choice of places to visit.
B
the human ability to cast new light on places that may be familiar.
C
how travel writing has evolved to meet changing demands.
D
the feelings that writers develop about the places that they explore.
Question 33 - 37
Look at the following statements and the list of explorers below.
Match each statement with the correct explorer, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
List of Findings
A
Peter Fleming
B
Ran Fiennes
C
Chris Bonington
D
Robin Hanbury-Tenison
E
Wilfred Thesiger
33
He referred to the relevance of the form of transport used.
34
He described feelings on coming back home after a long journey.
35
He worked for the benefit of specific groups of people.
36
He did not consider learning about oneself an essential part of the exploration.
37
He defined exploration as being both unique and of value to others.
Question 38 - 40
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
The writer’s own bias
The writer has experience of a large number of
38
, and was the first stranger that certain previously
39
people had encountered. He believes there is no need for further exploration of Earth’s
40
, except to answer specific questions such as how buffalo eat.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
A
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Đề hỏi đề cập đến “visitors to NY" để minh hoạ cái gì -> visitors to NY là example của cái point đằng trước nó. -> tìm và đọc câu đằng trước câu chưa visitor to NY.

Đọc theo Linearthinking



 1 We are  explorers 

 2 Our desire to discover is part of what makes us human .

 3 Long before …. , our ancestors had learnt the value of sending out to investigate .

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28
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Đọc theo Linearthinking:



 1 . We think explorer different from the rest of us ; there is a type of person are more suited to seeking out the new to risk venturing out .

 2 . However , we all have this enquiring instinct

→ Main idea: Everyone has the same instinct as explorers, which is to seek out the new

→ Explorers are not different from us, and all have a common urge like everyone else

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29
C
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:

Cấu trúc Passage:  Hardy set some of his novels in Egdon Heath , and used the landscape to suggest the desires and fears of his characters 

=> Hardy aimed to use Egdon Heath to investigae people's emotional states.

=> Đáp án: C. Hardy’s aim was to investigate people’s emotional states.





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30
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

as if’ là cấu trúc ngữ pháp “như thể”, có ý nghĩa phủ định đoạn thông tin theo sau -> “as if the process of discovery is now on the decline” là “như thể” là các hành trình khám phá đang suy giảm, nhưng thực tế không phải như vậy. Nếu muốn rõ ràng hơn, bạn có thể đọc tiếp "though the truth is that S-V". Nhờ vào "though" (tuy nhiên), ta biết sự thật được trình bày ở S-V chắc chắn trái ngược với cái được nêu ở "as if"

-> trái ngược với cái được nêu ở "as if" -> we are wrong...

=> Đáp án: D. we are wrong to think that exploration is no longer necessary.



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31
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Read in structure để phân tích cấu trúc câu như sau: 

 1 Each definition is different and tends to reflect endeavor of each pioneer 

 2 the historian would say exploration was a thing of the past , scientist would say it was of the present 

 4 they each set their own particular criteria 

Ta thấy connection như sau:

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32
B
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này đơn giản vì paraphrase dễ nhận diện. Bạn nào là fan của Linearthinking thì vẫn có thể đọc cấu trúc câu để nắm chắc main idea



 this is what interests me: how a fresh interpretation , even of a well-travelled route , can give its readers new insights.

-> Những gì làm cho tác giả hứng thú là: các diễn giải mới lạ mang lại cho độc giả hiểu biết mới (cast new light on sth), thậm chí là với cả tuyến đường đã đi nhiều (places that may be familiar)

-> Bạn có thể đoán nghĩa cụm "cast new light on places" thông qua từ new -> new = mới -> new light = ánh sáng mới = khai sáng, cung cấp kiến thức mới về địa điểm nào đó

=> Đáp án: B the human ability to cast new light on places that may be familiar.



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33
E
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names:

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài



Về Wilfred Thesiger: Đọc theo Linearthinking: Wilfred Thesiger belongs to an era of unmechanised travel said  " ‘If I'd gone across by camel when I could have gone by car, it would have been a stunt" -> Wilfred Thesiger refered to some forms of transport: camel, car

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34
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names:

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Vấn đề bạn có thể gặp phải là locate được đoạn info mà paraphrase “coming back home after a long journey”. Nhất định áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để đọc liên kết và main idea, khi bạn cảm thấy lost giữa lô lốc những từ vựng mới nha.



Cấu trúc câu về Peter Flemming: 1 explorer talks of the moment when the explorer returns to his loved ones. 2 traveller who has for weeks or months seen himself only as a puny and an alien over a country  in which no roots and no background suddenly encounter himself… -> Câu 2 diễn tả chi tiết hơn về việc explorer returns to loved ones. => Main idea: explorer been in a foreign land for a long time, then came back to his loved ones

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35
D
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names:

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Câu này khá dễ vì paraphrase dễ nhận diện.

 Robin Hanbury-Tenison , a campaigner on behalf of remote so-called ‘tribal’ peoples , said....

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36
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names:

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Sử dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để đọc structure và main idea về Wilfred Thesiger:



1/ Cấu trúc passage: 

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37
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Cách làm dạng Matching Names:

  • Dò tìm name + đọc kĩ thông tin trong bài gắn với name này

  • Nhìn lại danh sách statement đề cho --> xem statement nào giống với thông tin vừa đọc trong bài

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking để phân tích lời của Ran Fiennes Ran Fiennes - said: An explorer is someone who has done something that no human has done before and done something scientifically useful 

-> According to Ran Fiennes, an explorer does unique and valuable things.

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38
expeditions/unique expeditions
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này paraphrase đơn giản, dễ nhận biết. Vì đề là No more than two words, nên cả 2 đáp án “expeditions" và “unique expeditions" đều được chấp nhận.



Chú ý rằng tuy trong bài không có trực tiếp cụm “unique expeditions" nhưng 2 từ tách biệt “unique" và “expeditions" có tại khu vực locate info, nên được chấp nhận (chú ý phải là word có trong passage nhé).

=> Đáp án: (unique) expedition



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39
uncontacted/isolated
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking:



 I’ve lived for months alone with isolated groups of people - even two ‘uncontacted tribes’

-> I was the first stranger that some isolated/ uncontacted people'd met.

So với câu hỏi: ...and was the first stranger that certain previously  ________ people had encountered

=> Đáp án: uncontacted/ isolated



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40
surface/land surface
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Giải thích chi tiết

Chỉ scan skim bạn sẽ không tìm ra được phrase nào mà paraphrase chính xác cụm “there is no need for further exploration of Earth’s ______” đâu! 

Don’t worry, DOL has Linearthinking!

Bạn cần đọc hiểu main idea của đoạn.

Cấu trúc passage We know land surface ; exploration is now down to the details 

→ we already know land surface, now we need exploration in the details

→ there’s no need for further exploration of land surface, except the details

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