Cambridge IELTS 14 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

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Cambridge IELTS 14 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

The secret of staying young
Pheidole dentata, a native ant of the south-eastern U.S., isn't immortal. But scientists have found that it doesn't seem to show any signs of aging. Old worker ants can do everything just as well as the youngsters, and their brains appear just as sharp. 'We get a picture that these ants really don' t decline,' says Ysabel Giraldo, who studied the ants for her doctoral thesis at Boston University. Such age-defying feats are rare in the animal kingdom. Naked mole rats can live for almost 30 years and stay fit for nearly their entire lives. They can still reproduce even when old, and they never get cancer. But the vast majority of animals deteriorate with age just like people do. Like the naked mole rat, ants are social creatures that usually live in highly organised colonies. 'It's this social complexity that makes P. dentata useful for studying aging in people,' says Giraldo, now at the California Institute of Technology. Humans are also highly social, a trait that has been connected to healthier aging. By contrast, most animal studies of aging use mice, worms or fruit flies, which all lead much more isolated lives. In the lab, P. dentata worker ants typically live for around 140 days. Giraldo focused on ants at four age ranges: 20 to 22 days, 45 to 47 days, 95 to 97 days and 120 to 122 days. Unlike all previous studies, which only estimated how old the ants were, her work tracked the ants from the time the pupae became adults, so she knew their exact ages. Then she put them through a range of tests. Giraldo watched how well the ants took care of the young of the colony, recording how often each ant attended to, carried and fed them. She compared how well 20-day-old and 95-day-old ants followed the telltale scent that the insects usually leave to mark a trail to food. She tested how ants responded to light and also measured how active they were by counting how often ants in a small dish walked across a line. And she experimented with how ants react to live prey: a tethered fruit fly. Giraldo expected the older ants to perform poorly in all these tasks. But the elderly insects were all good caretakers and trail-followers-the 95-day-old ants could track the scent even longer than their younger counterparts. They all responded to light well, and the older ants were more active. And when it came to reacting to prey, the older ants attacked the poor fruit fly just as aggressively as the young ones did, flaring their mandibles or pulling at the fly's legs. Then Giraldo compared the brains of 20-day-old and 95-day-old ants, identifying any cells that were close to death. She saw no major differences with age, nor was there any difference in the location of the dying cells, showing that age didn't seem to affect specific brain functions. Ants and other insects have structures in their brains called mushroom bodies, which are important for 82 processing information, learning and memory. She also wanted to see if aging affects the density of synaptic complexes within these structures-regions where neurons come together. Again, the answer was no. What was more, the old ants didn't experience any drop in the levels of either serotonin or dopamine-brain chemicals whose decline often coincides with aging. In humans, for example, a decrease in serotonin has been linked to Alzheimer's disease. 'This is the first time anyone has looked at both behavioral and neural changes in these ants so thoroughly,' says Giraldo, who recently published the findings in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Scientists have looked at some similar aspects in bees, but the results of recent bee studies were mixed-some studies showed age-related declines, which biologists call senescence, and others didn't. 'For now, the study raises more questions than it answers,' Giraldo says, 'including how P. dentata stays in such good shape.' Also, if the ants don't deteriorate with age, why do they die at all? Out in the wild, the ants probably don't live for a full 140 days thanks to predators, disease and just being in an environment that's much harsher than the comforts of the lab. 'The lucky ants that do live into old age may suffer a steep decline just before dying,' Giraldo says, but she can't say for sure because her study wasn't designed to follow an ant's final moments. 'It will be important to extend these findings to other species of social insects,' says Gene E. Robinson, an entomologist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This ant might be unique, or it might represent a broader pattern among other social bugs with possible clues to the science of aging in larger animals. Either way, it seems that for these ants, age really doesn't matter.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 8
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer
Write your answer in boxes on your answer sheet.
Ysabel Giraldo's research
Focused on a total of
1
different age groups of ants, analyzing

Behaviour:
• how well ants looked after their
2

• their ability to locate
3
using a scent trail
• the effect that
4
had on them
• how
5
they attacked prey

Brains:
• comparison between age and the
6
of dying cells in the brains of ants
• condition of synaptic complexes (areas in which
7
meet) in the brain's 'mushroom bodies'
• level of two
8
in the brain associated with ageing

Question 9 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
9
Pheidole dentata ants are the only known animals which remain active for almost their whole lives.
10
Ysabel Giraldo was the first person to study Pheidole dentata ants using precise data about the insects' ages.
11
The ants in Giraldo's experiments behaved as she had predicted that they would.
12
The recent studies of bees used different methods of measuring age-related decline.
13
Pheidole dentata ants kept in laboratory conditions tend to live longer lives.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
four / 4
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Từ located info ở đoạn 3 cho biết: Giraldo focused on ants at four age ranges ...

Từ phần paraphrase: age range (phạm vi độ tuổi) = age group (nhóm tuổi)

=> ants at four age ranges = four age groups of ants

=> có tổng cộng 4 age groups của ants trong nghiên cứu của Giraldo 

=> Đáp án là four / 4



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2
young
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Giải thích chi tiết

Từ located info ta thấy: Giraldo watched how well the ants took care of the young of the colony 

=> Thứ được loài kiến looked after là “the young of the colony”

Nếu ko hiểu cụm này nghĩa là gì, vẫn có thể suy ra đáp án nhờ cấu trúc câu: 

=> “the young” mới là đối tượng chính được “looked after”, còn “of the colony” chỉ cho thêm thông tin (“the young” thuộc về “the colony”)

-> So với câu hỏi: how well ants looked after their................................. = how well the ants took care of the young

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3
food
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu trên cho thông tin rằng: ants followed the telltale scent to mark a trail to food. 

=> Loài ants đi theo telltale scent để đánh dấu trail dẫn đến food

=> Loài ants sử dụng scent để tìm đến food

=> Food chính là thứ ants dùng scent để locate vị trí

-> So với câu hỏi: their ability to locate .............. using a scent trail = followed the telltale scent… to mark a trail to food.

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4
light
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Giải thích chi tiết

Cấu trúc: the effect that A has on B = how B responds to A 

=> sự ảnh hưởng của A lên B = cách mà B phản ứng với A

=> A: thứ có sức ảnh hưởng – B: thứ chịu sự ảnh hưởng

=> the effect that light had on ants = how ants responded to light

=> Đáp án là light



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5
aggressively
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nói đến việc ants “reacting to prey” và “attacked the poor fruit fly”. Trước đó, ở câu 4 đoạn 4 đã đề cập fruit fly là prey của ants 

=> Câu này đang miêu tả “how ants attacked prey” ta cần tìm.

Câu này cho info: the older ants attacked the poor fruit fly just as aggressively as the young ones 

=> Cả older ants và young ants đều attacked their prey aggressively

=> aggressively là adverb dùng để miêu tả how ants attacked prey

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6
location
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Giải thích chi tiết

Located info trên “compared the brains” giữa 2 nhóm ants; và đưa ra kết luận là “ no major differences with age , nor was there any difference in the location of the dying cells

=> Thứ được compare là age (đã được mention trong đề) và “the location of the dying cells”

-> So với câu hỏi: comparison between age and the ............of dying cells in the brains of ants

=> Quá rõ ràng đáp án là location



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7
neurons
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Giải thích chi tiết

Read in structure để phân tích cấu trúc câu như sau: 

 1 Ants and other insects have structures in their brains called mushroom bodies ...

 2 She also wanted to see if aging affects the density of synaptic complexes within these structures - regions where neurons come together. 

=> Có detail rằng synaptic complexes chính là regions where neurons come together

=> neurons sẽ tụ lại với nhau (come together = meet) ở tại synaptic complexes

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8
chemicals
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu trên có list ra tên 2 loại “brain chemicals” (serotonin & dopamine). Đồng thời cũng cho biết decline (suy giảm) trong level của 2 loại brain chemicals này coincides with aging.

=> Thứ liên quan đến ageing ta cần tìm chính là 2 loại brain chemicals trên.

-> So với câu hỏi: level of two ...............in the brain associated with ageing = levels of either serotonin or dopamine-brain chemicals whose decline often coincides with aging.

=> Đáp án là chemicals (do đề yêu cầu điền ONE WORD).



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9
False
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

Scan trong bài ko thấy được cụm “the only known animals” và “remain active” => Vội chọn NOT GIVEN



Câu 1 đoạn 2: “Such age-defying feats are rare in the animal kingdom”

=> Thấy từ “rare” là hiếm, nên chắc có lẽ là Pheidole dentata ants là “the only known animals” => Vội chọn TRUE



2. Với Linearthinking



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10
True
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Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



 Unlike all previous studies which only estimated how old the ants were .... her work tracked the ants from the time the pupae became adults , so she knew their exact ages. 

=> “Unlike all previous studies” = Nghiên cứu của Ysabel Giraldo khác biệt so với những nghiên cứu trước đây.

Đồng thời câu này đưa ra điểm khác biệt là => previous studies chỉ ước chừng age của ants

  • Ysabel Giraldo: she knew their exact ages => Ysabel Giraldo biết age chính xác của ants

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11
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



Giraldo expect (=predict) rằng: older ants sẽ ko thể thực hiện task tốt

Nhưng thực tế là: But older ants là good caretakers and trail-followers + và có thể track the scent even longer khi so với younger ants.

=> Từ nối “but” cho thấy sự khác biệt giữa thực tếnhững gì Giraldo expect từ trước

=> Trong khi Giraldo nghĩ rằng older ants ko thể thực hiện task tốt, thì thực tế là older ants còn thực hiện tốt hơn cả younger ants.

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12
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

Scan được ở đoạn 6 có các keyword y như trong câu hỏi như “recent studies of bees” và “age-related decline”. Đồng thời thấy từ “mixed” giống với “different” => Vội chọn TRUE



Scan thấy trong located info có từ “similar” ngược nghĩa với “different” trong câu hỏi => Vội chọn FALSE



2. Với Linearthinking



Câu này chỉ đưa thông tin rằng: có sự khác nhau trong results của recent bee studies: 1 số cho thấy age-related declines, còn 1 số thì ko

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13
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Từ located info ta thấy:

  • Đoạn 3: ants trong lab sống được 140 ngày

  • Đoạn 7: ants in the wild (trong tự nhiên) ko sống tới 140 ngày (Lý do là do: predators, disease, harsher environment)

=> Suy ra ants ở trong lab sống lâu hơn

=> Giống với câu hỏi

=> Chọn TRUE



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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Why zoos are good
Scientist David Hone makes the case for zoos
A
A. In my view, it is perfectly possible for many species of animals living in zoos or wildlife parks to have a quality of life as high as, or higher than, in the wild. Animals in good zoos get a varied and high-quality diet with all the supplements required, and any illnesses they might have will be treated. Their movement might be somewhat restricted, but they have a safe environment in which to live, and they are spared bullying and social ostracism by others of their kind. They do not suffer from the threat or stress of predators, or the irritation and pain of parasites or injuries. The average captive animal will have a greater life expectancy compared with its wild counterpart, and will not die of drought, of starvation or in the jaws of a predator. A lot of very nasty things happen to truly 'wild' animals that simply don't happen in good zoos, and to view a life that is 'free' as one that is automatically 'good' is, I think, an error. Furthermore, zoos serve several key purposes.
B
B. Firstly, zoos aid conservation. Colossal numbers of species are becoming extinct across the world, and many more are increasingly threatened and therefore risk extinction. Moreover, some of these collapses have been sudden, dramatic and unexpected, or were simply discovered very late in the day. A species protected in captivity can be bred up to provide a reservoir population against a population crash or extinction in the wild. A good number of species only exist in captivity, with many of these living in zoos. Still more only exist in the wild because they have been reintroduced from zoos, or have wild populations that have been boosted by captive bred animals. Without these efforts there would be fewer species alive today. Although reintroduction successes are few and far between, the numbers are increasing, and the very fact that species have been saved or reintroduced as a result of captive breeding proves the value of such initiatives.
C
C. Zoos also provide education. Many children and adults, especially those in cities, will never see a wild animal beyond a fox or pigeon. While it is true that television documentaries are becoming ever more detailed and impressive, and many natural history specimens are on display in museums, there really is nothing to compare with seeing a living creature in the flesh, hearing it, smelling it, watching what it does and having the time to absorb details. That alone will bring a greater understanding and perspective to many, and hopefully give them a greater appreciation for wildlife, conservation efforts and how they can contribute.
D
D. In addition to this, there is also the education that can take place in zoos through signs, talks and presentations which directly communicate information to visitors about the animals they are seeing and their place in the world. This was an area where zoos used to be lacking, but they are now increasingly sophisticated in their communication and outreach work. Many zoos also work directly to educate conservation workers in other countries, or send their animal keepers abroad to contribute their knowledge and skills to those working in zoos and reserves, thereby helping to improve conditions and reintroductions all over the world.
E
E. Zoos also play a key role in research. If we are to save wild species and restore and repair ecosystems we need to know about how key species live, act and react. Being able to undertake research on animals in zoos where there is less risk and fewer variables means real changes can be effected on wild populations. Finding out about, for example, the oestrus cycle of an animal or its breeding rate helps us manage wild populations. Procedures such as capturing and moving at-risk or dangerous individuals are bolstered by knowledge gained in zoos about doses for anesthetics, and by experience in handling and transporting animals. This can make a real difference to conservation efforts and to the reduction of human-animal conflicts, and can provide a knowledge base for helping with the increasing threats of habitat destruction and other problems.
F
F. In conclusion, considering the many ongoing global threats to the environment, it is hard for me to see zoos as anything other than essential to the long-term survival of numerous species. They are vital not just in terms of protecting animals, but as a means of learning about them to aid those still in the wild, as well as educating and informing the general population about these animals and their world so that they can assist or at least accept the need to be more environmentally conscious. Without them, the world would be, and would increasingly become, a much poorer place.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 17
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes on your answer sheet.
14
a reference to how quickly animal species can die out
15
reasons why it is preferable to study animals in captivity rather than in the wild
16
mention of two ways of learning about animals other than visiting them in zoos
17
reasons why animals in zoos may be healthier than those in the wild
Question 18 - 22
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
18
An animal is likely to live longer in a zoo than in the wild.
19
There are some species in zoos which can no longer be found in the wild.
20
Improvements in the quality of TV wildlife documentaries have resulted in increased numbers of zoo visitors.
21
Zoos have always excelled at transmitting information about animals to the public.
22
Studying animals in zoos is less stressful for the animals than studying them in the wild.
Question 23 - 24
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following are stated about zoo staff in the text?
A
Some take part in television documentaries about animals.
B
Some travel to overseas locations to join teams in zoos.
C
Some get experience with species in the wild before taking up zoo jobs.
D
Some teach people who are involved with conservation projects.
E
Some specialise in caring for species which are under threat.
Question 25 - 26
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of these beliefs about zoos does the writer mention in the text?
A
They can help children overcome their fears of wild animals.
B
They can increase public awareness of environmental issues.
C
They can provide employment for a range of professional people.
D
They can generate income to support wildlife conservation projects.
E
They can raise animals which can later be released into the wild.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
B
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking





Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

a reference to …: sự đề cập đến ….

  • die out: (tuyệt chủng) stop existing -> có thể bài sẽ dùng các từ đồng nghĩa

  • how quickly: có thể sẽ miêu tả độ nhanh => chú ý tìm các từ ngữ nói về tốc độ nhanh/chậm

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15
E
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Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking





Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

  • reasons why it is preferable to study animals in captivity… => tìm các reasons vì sao việc study animals in captivity có advantages 

  • Bài đọc có thể sẽ paraphrase lại cụm “study animals in captivity” => tìm từ đồng nghĩa

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16
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

2 cách để learn about animals ngoài việc visiting them in zoos

Imagine: Bài đọc sẽ liệt kê cụ thể 2 cách khác để learn about animals bên cạnh việc visiting them in zoos.

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine & so sánh

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17
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Lý do vì sao animals in zoos healthy hơn animals in the wild (= in nature)

  • reasons why: khả năng cao đề ko lặp lại cụm này mà sẽ liệt kê các lý do cụ thể

  • animals in zoos may be healthier than those in the wild: tìm những advantages về sức khỏe của animals in zoos so với in the wild

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18
True
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Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

Khó tìm từ đồng nghĩa của câu hỏi, một số bạn thấy trong đoạn A có cụm: “to view a life that is 'free' as one that is automatically 'good' is, I think, an error” => error là lỗi, là xấu, trái với live longer.

=> Vội chọn FALSE



2. Với Linearthinking



Hiểu câu hỏi: an animal is likely to live longer in a zoo than in the wild 

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19
True
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Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking

để nắm main idea:

 A good number of species only exist in captivity with many of these living in zoos

=> Rất nhiều species chỉ còn tồn tại in captivity

=> Trong số những species chỉ còn tồn tại in captivity, nhiều species hiện đang living in zoos

=> Suy ra: có một số species chỉ còn tồn tại in zoos, nghĩa là đã biến mất trong tự nhiên

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20
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking

để nắm main idea:

 While television documentaries are becoming more detailed and impressive , there really is nothing to compare with seeing a living creature in the flesh , hearing it , smelling it , watching what it does and having the time to absorb details .

=> Việc “seeing a living creature in the flesh, hearing it, smelling it, watching what it does” ám chỉ việc visiting animals in zoos

=> Tóm lại ý cả câu là: mặc dù quality của television documentaries được improve, nhưng ko thể so sánh với việc visiting animals in zoos

=> Câu này hoàn toàn ko đề cập đến television documentaries có dẫn đến số lượng zoo visitors tăng hay ko

Xem full giải thích
21
False
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Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



=> Nếu ko hiểu cụm “excel at” có thể suy đoán từ 1 tính từ quen thuộc là excellent (xuất sắc) => excel (v): (thực hiện xuất sắc) to be extremely good at something

 1 there is also the education that can take place in zoos through signs, talks and presentations which directly communicate information to visitors about the animals they are seeing and their place in the world. 

 2 This was an area where zoos used to be lacking , but ...

=> “this” là việc “transmitting information about animals to the public” đã nhắc ở câu trên

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22
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết

Từ located info ta thấy:

-> Nghiên cứu về animals in zoos thì sẽ ít stressful cho animals hơn là nghiên cứu về chúng in the wild (=in nature)

-> Vậy để trả lời được câu này, cần tìm trong bài đoạn miêu tả về việc nghiên cứu về animals in zoos. Từ đó tìm được đoạn E.

Đoạn này đề cập đến việc “undertake research on animals in zoos” (=study animals in zoos); và cho biết điều này sẽ mang lại “less risk and fewer variables” => Ít nguy cơ và ít biến số hơn

=> Tuy nhiên lại ko đề cập đến khía cạnh nó có “less stressful for the animals” hay ko

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23
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Từ located info ta thấy: vế sau - câu cuối đoạn D: “Many zoos … send their animal keepers abroad to contribute their knowledge and skills to those working in zoos and reserves”

  • animal keepers (người trông coi animals) chính là 1 dạng zoo staff

  • Cấu trúc: send sb abroad (cho ai đó đi nước ngoài) = to travel to overseas locations (overseas = abroad)

=> Many zoos … send their animal keepers abroad = zoo staff travel to overseas locations

  • to contribute their knowledge to those working in zoos (đóng góp knowledge cho những người working in zoos) chính là đang giúp đỡ other zoo staff = join teams in zoos

=> Tóm lại, ý này trùng với option B

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24
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Từ located info ta thấy: vế đầu - câu cuối đoạn D: Many zoos also work directly to educate conservation workers in other countries or.... 

=> Dựa vào các cặp từ đồng nghĩa, dễ dàng nhận ra ý này trùng với option D

=> Chọn D





Incorrect options:

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25
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm 2 niềm tin về zoos được tác giả đề cập

Step 2: Phân tích info 

Câu kế cuối đoạn F: They are vital as a means of informing the general population so that they can be more environmentally conscious. 

=> zoos giúp mọi người be more environmentally conscious (conscious = aware: có ý thức) 

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26
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Tìm 2 niềm tin về zoos được tác giả đề cập

Step 2: Phân tích info 

 Still more only exist in the wild because they have been reintroduced from zoos… 

=> Câu này tiếp nối câu trước nói về số lượng species (=animals) => 1 số species được reintroduced into the wild from zoos

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3


Chelsea Rochman, an ecologist at the University of California, Davis, has been trying to answer a dismal question: Is everything terrible, or are things just very, very bad? Rochman is a member of the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis's marine-debris working group, a collection of scientists who study, among other things, the growing problem of marine debris, also known as ocean trash. Plenty of studies have sounded alarm bells about the state of marine debris; in a recent paper published in the journal Ecology, Rochman and her colleagues set out to determine how many of those perceived risks are real. Often, Rochman says, scientists will end a paper by speculating about the broader impacts of what they've found. For example, a study could show that certain seabirds eat plastic bags, and go on to warn that whole bird populations are at risk of dying out. 'But the truth was that nobody had yet tested those perceived threats,' Rochman says. 'There wasn't a lot of information.' Rochman and her colleagues examined more than a hundred papers on the impacts of marine debris that were published through 2013. Within each paper, they asked what threats scientists had studied- 366 perceived threats in all - and what they'd actually found. In 83 percent of cases, the perceived dangers of ocean trash were proven true. In the remaining cases, the working group found the studies had weaknesses in design and content which affected the validity of their conclusions - they lacked a control group, for example, or used faulty statistics. Strikingly, Rochman says, only one well-designed study failed to find the effect it was looking for, an investigation of mussels ingesting microscopic plastic bits. The plastic moved from the mussels' stomachs to their bloodstreams, scientists found, and stayed there for weeks - but didn't seem to stress out the shellfish. While mussels may be fine eating trash, though, the analysis also gave a clearer picture of the many ways that ocean debris is bothersome. Within the studies they looked at, most of the proven threats came from plastic debris, rather than other materials like metal or wood. Most of the dangers also involved large pieces of debris - animals getting entangled in trash, for example, or eating it and severely injuring themselves. But a lot of ocean debris is 'microplastic', or pieces smaller than five millimeters. These may be ingredients used in cosmetics and toiletries, fibers shed by synthetic clothing in the wash, or eroded remnants of larger debris. Compared to the number of studies investigating large-scale debris, Rochman's group found little research on the effects of these tiny bits. 'There are a lot of open questions still for microplastic,' Rochman says, though she notes that more papers on the subject have been published since 2013, the cutoff point for the group's analysis. There are also, she adds, a lot of open questions about the ways that ocean debris can lead to sea creature death. Many studies have looked at how plastic affects an individual animal, or that animal's tissues or cells, rather than whole populations. And in the lab, scientists often use higher concentrations of plastic than what's really in the ocean. None of that tells us how many birds or fish or sea turtles could die from plastic pollution - or how deaths in one species could affect that animal's predators, or the rest of the ecosystem. 'We need to be asking more ecologically relevant questions,' Rochman says. Usually, scientists don't know exactly how disasters such as a tanker accidentally spilling its whole cargo of oil and polluting huge areas of the ocean will affect the environment until after they've happened. 'We don't ask the right questions early enough,' she says. But if ecologists can understand how the slow-moving effect of ocean trash is damaging ecosystems, they might be able to prevent things from getting worse. Asking the right questions can help policy makers, and the public, figure out where to focus their attention. The problems that look or sound most dramatic may not be the best places to start. For example, the name of the 'Great Pacific Garbage Patch' - a collection of marine debris in the northern Pacific Ocean - might conjure up a vast, :floating trash island. In reality though, much of the debris is tiny or below the surface; a person could sail through the area without seeing any trash at all. A Dutch group called 'The Ocean Cleanup' is currently working on plans to put mechanical devices in the Pacific Garbage Patch and similar areas to suck up plastic. But a recent paper used simulations to show that strategically positioning the cleanup devices closer to shore would more effectively reduce pollution over the long term. 'I think clearing up some of these misperceptions is really important,' Rochman says. Among scientists as well as in the media, she says, 'A lot of the images about strandings and entanglement and all of that cause the perception that plastic debris is killing everything in the ocean.' Interrogating the existing scientific literature can help ecologists figure out which problems really need addressing, and which ones they'd be better off - like the mussels - absorbing and ignoring.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 33
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
27
Rochman and her colleagues were the first people to research the problem of marine debris.
28
The creatures most in danger from ocean trash are certain seabirds.
29
The studies Rochman has reviewed have already proved that populations of some birds will soon become extinct.
30
Rochman analysed papers on the different kinds of danger caused by ocean trash.
31
Most of the research analysed by Rochman and her colleagues was badly designed.
32
One study examined by Rochman was expecting to find that mussels were harmed by eating plastic.
33
Some mussels choose to eat plastic in preference to their natural diet.
Question 34 - 39
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Findings related to marine debris
Studies of marine debris found the biggest threats were
• plastic (not metal or wood)
• bits of debris that were
34
(harmful to animals)
There was little research into
35
e.g. from synthetic fibres.

Drawbacks of the studies examined
most of them focused on individual animals, not entire
36
.
• the
37
of plastic used in the lab did not always reflect those
in the ocean.
• there was insufficient information on
numbers of animals which could be affected
the impact of a reduction in numbers on the
38
of that species
the impact on the ecosystem.

Rochman says more information is needed on the possible impact
of future
39
(e.g. involving oil).

Question 40
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in box on your answer sheet.
40
What would be the best title for this passage?
A
Assessing the threat of marine debris
B
Marine debris: who is to blame
C
A new solution to the problem of marine debris
D
Marine debris: the need for international action

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



 Plenty of studies have sounded alarm bells about the state of marine debris ; in a recent paper published in the journal Ecology , Rochman and her colleagues set out to determine how many of those perceived risks are real. 

-> Đã có nhiều studies cảnh báo về vấn đề marine debris

=> Bên cạnh đó: Rochman and her colleagues chỉ xác định trong những studies ở trên thì how many risks are real 

=> Suy ra, Rochman and her colleagues chỉ nghiên cứu dựa trên những studies có sẵn về marine debris; họ ko phải những người đầu tiên research về marine debris 

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28
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

Scan được ở đoạn 2 có các cặp từ đồng nghĩa với keyword trong câu hỏi như: certain seabirds, plastic bags (=trash), at risk of dying out (= in danger)

-> Vội chọn TRUE



2. Với Linearthinking



Câu này đưa ra 2 thông tin:

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29
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



 1 For example , a study could show that certain seabirds eat plastic bags , and go on to warn that whole bird populations are at risk of dying out .

=> “whole bird populations are at risk of dying out” giống với “populations of some birds will soon become extinct” trong câu hỏi (become extinct = die out).

=> Tuy nhiên đây chỉ là 1 lời cảnh báo “a study could…warn that”

 2 ' But the truth was that nobody had yet tested those perceived threats ,' Rochman says.

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30
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta thấy rõ thông tin locate rằng: Rochman examined papers về chủ đề the impacts of marine debris, và trong số đó có tổng cộng 366 threats.

-> Các paper đó bao gồm 366 threats (=danger) thuộc tác động của marine debris (=ocean trash)

-> Rochman tìm đc từ papers các loại danger khác nhau đc gây ra bởi ocean trash.

-> Giống ý trong câu hỏi

-> Chọn TRUE



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31
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



 In the remaining cases , the working group found the studies had weaknesses in design and content which affected the validity of their conclusions - they lacked a control group , for example , or used faulty statistics. 

-> remaining cases là những case còn lại ngoài “83% of cases” đã nhắc ở câu trước – tức là chỉ 17%. 

-> Đây chỉ là thiểu số, ko phải most of (hầu hết). 

-> Chỉ có 1 vài cases là bị badly designed

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32
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



 1 only one well-designed study failed to find the effect it was looking for , an investigation of mussels ingesting microscopic plastic bits. 

 2 The plastic moved from the mussels' stomachs to their bloodstreams , and stayed there for weeks - but didn't seem to stress out the shellfish. 

-> Sự thật là: plastic didn’t harm mussels.

Ngoài ra: one study (về chủ đề mussels eat plastic) failed to find the effect it was looking for

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33
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta thấy cấu trúc trong câu hỏi được dùng là:

  • A in preference to B = prefer A to B: thích A hơn B

Tuy nhiên, khi nói về việc “mussels ingesting plastic”, bài đọc chỉ cho biết:

  • The plastic moved from stomachs to bloodstreams, and stayed there for weeks 

  • The plastic didn't seem to stress out the shellfish.

  • Mussels may be fine eating trash

-> Plastic sẽ ở trong bloodstreams của mussels trong vài tuần + mussels ko bị stressed out và vẫn fine sau khi ăn

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34
large
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta có thông tin được located như sau:

 Most of the dangers also involved large pieces of debris - animals getting entangled in trash , for example , or eating it and severely injuring themselves. 

Đoạn văn cho biết: most of the dangers liên quan đến large pieces of debris và đưa ra dẫn chứng là “animals getting entangled in trash or eating it and severely injuring themselves” (= harmful to animals).

-> câu này khớp với info trong câu hỏi.

-> Đáp án chính là tính từ large miêu tả cho pieces of debris 

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35
microplastic
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

1. Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

Scan được câu trong bài đọc chứa keyword synthetic fibres có danh từ “ingredients” -> Vội chọn đáp án là ingredients



-> Tuy nhiên, đáp án phải là thứ gì đó có nguồn gốc từ synthetic fibres, còn ingredients thì ko liên quan. 

-> Ngoài ra ingredients chỉ có nghĩa là “những thành phần”🡪 Điền vào chỗ trống sẽ là: little research into ingredients (có ít nghiên cứu về những thành phần) 🡪 rất chung chung nên ko thể là đáp án

2. Với Linearthinking



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36
populations
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta thấy thông tin từ đoạn văn located rằng:

 Many studies have looked at how plastic affects an individual animal , or that animal's tissues or cells , rather than whole populations 

-> many studies nhìn vào ảnh hưởng của plastic lên “an individual animal, or that animal's tissues or cells, rather than whole populations”

-> rather than = instead of (thay vì)

-> many studies chỉ nhìn vào an individual animal, hoặc tissues or cells, thay vì focus vào whole populations

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37
concentrations
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta thấy thông tin từ đoạn văn located rằng: in the lab , scientists often use higher concentrations of plastic  than what's really in the ocean. 

-> higher = not equal -> cao hơn = ko bằng -> ko phản ánh đúng (=did not always reflect)

-> Vậy: concentrations of plastic in the lab did not always reflect those in the ocean

-> Đáp án cần tìm là concentrations.



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38
predators
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



 None of that tells us how many birds or fish or sea turtles  could die from plastic pollution - or how deaths in one species could affect that animal's predators or the rest of the ecosystem. 

  • how deaths in one species could affect that animal's predators -> Đáp án nằm trong cụm này.

how deaths in one species could affect that animal's predators -> Cấu trúc: A affects B – A tác động lên B

-> deaths (reduction in numbers) in one species tác động lên predators của chúng

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39
disasters
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking



 1 We need to be asking more ecologically relevant questions ,' Rochman says.

-> Cần ask more questions có nghĩa là chưa có đủ info -> tương tự với more information is needed.

 2 scientists don't know exactly how disasters such as a tanker accidentally spilling its whole cargo of oil and...

-> chưa biết disasters sẽ affect the environment như thế nào 

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40
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Ta áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

(simplify + read connections) để đọc đoạn đầu + đoạn cuối:

Đoạn đầu:

 1 + 2 : Giới thiệu về the problem of marine debris; và team của Rochman muốn tìm ra trong số đó có bao nhiêu là thật.

Đoạn cuối:

 1 + 2 : “plastic debris is killing everything in the ocean” là một misconception (quan điểm sai lệch) => the problem of marine debris là một misconception

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