Cambridge IELTS 13 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 13 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 13 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 13 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Cutty Sark: The Fastest Sailing Ship Of All Time
A
A. The nineteenth century was a period of great technological development in Britain, and for shipping the major changes were from wind to steam power, and from wood to iron and steel. The fastest commercial sailing vessels of all time were clippers, three-masted ships built to transport goods around the world, although some also took passengers. From the l 840s until 1869, when the Suez Canal opened and steam propulsion was replacing sail, clippers dominated world trade. Although many were built, only one has survived more or less intact: Cutty’ Sark. now on display in Greenwich, southeast London.
B
B. Cutty Sark’s unusual name comes from the poem Tam O'Shanter by the Scottish poet Robert Bums. Tam, a farmer, is chased by a witch called Nannie, who is wearing a ‘cutty sark’ – an old Scottish name for a short nightdress. The witch is depicted in Cutty Sark’s figurehead – the carving of a woman typically at the front of old sailing ships. In legend, and in Bums’s poem, witches cannot cross water, so this was a rather strange choice of name for a ship.
C
C. Cutty Sark was built in Dumbarton. Scotland, in 1869 for a shipping company owned by John Willis. To carry out construction, Willis chose a new shipbuilding firm, Scott & Linton, and ensured that the contract with them put him in a very strong position. In the end. the firm was forced out of business, and the ship was finished by a competitor.
D
D. Willis’s company was active in the tea trade between China and Britain, where speed could bring ship owners both profits and prestige, so Cutty Sark was designed to make the journey more quickly than any other ship. On her maiden voyage, in 1870. she set sail from London, carrying large amounts of goods to China. She returned laden with tea, making the journey back to London in four months. However, Cutty Sark never lived up to the high expectations of her owner, as a result of bad winds and various misfortunes. On one occasion, in 1872. the ship and a rival clipper, Thermopylae, left port in China on the same day. Crossing the Indian Ocean, Cutty Sark gained a lead of over 400 miles, but then her rudder was severely damaged in stormy seas, making her impossible to steer. The ship’s crew had the daunting task of repairing the rudder at sea. and only succeeded at the second attempt. Cutty Sark reached London a week after Thermopylae.
E
E. Steam ships posed a growing threat to clippers, as their speed and cargo capacity increased. In addition, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. the same year that Cutty Sark was launched, had a serious impact. While steam ships could make use of the quick, direct route between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, the canal was of no use to sailing ships, which needed the much stronger winds of the oceans, and so had to sail a far greater distance. Steam ships reduced the journey time between Britain and China by approximately two months.
F
F. By 1878, tea traders weren’t interested in Cutty Sark, and instead, she took on the much less prestigious work of carrying any cargo between any two ports in the world. In 1880, violence aboard the ship led ultimately to the replacement of the captain with an incompetent drunkard who stole the crew’s wages. He was suspended from service, and a new captain appointed. This marked a turnaround and the beginning of the most successful period in Cutty Sark’s working life, transporting wool from Australia to Britain. One such journey took just under 12 weeks, beating every other ship sailing that year by around a month.
G
G. The ship’s next captain, Richard Woodget. was an excellent navigator, who got the best out of both his ship and his crew. As a sailing ship, Cutty Sark depended on the strong trade winds of the southern hemisphere, and Woodget took her further south than any previous captain, bringing her dangerously close to icebergs off the southern tip of South America. His gamble paid off, though, and the ship was the fastest vessel in the wool trade for ten years.
H
H. As competition from steam ships increased in the 1890s. and Cutty Sark approached the end of her life expectancy, she became less profitable. She was sold to a Portuguese firm, which renamed her Ferreira. For the next 25 years, she again carried miscellaneous cargoes around the world.
I
I. Badly damaged in a gale in 1922, she was put into Falmouth harbour in southwest England, for repairs. Wilfred Dowman, a retired sea captain who owned a training vessel, recognised her and tried to buy her, but without success. She returned to Portugal and was sold to another Portuguese company. Dowman was determined, however, and offered a high price: this was accepted, and the ship returned to Falmouth the following year and had her original name restored.
J
J. Dowman used Cutty Sark as a training ship, and she continued in this role after his death. When she was no longer required, in 1954, she was transferred to dry dock at Greenwich to go on public display. The ship suffered from fire in 2007, and again, less seriously, in 2014. But now Cutty Sark attracts a quarter of a million visitors a year.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 8
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Clippers were originally intended to be used as passenger ships.
2
Cutty Sark was given the name of a character in a poem.
3
The contract between John Willis and Scott & Linton favoured Willis.
4
John Willis wanted Cutty Sark to be the fastest tea clipper travelling between the UK and China.
5
Despite storm damage, Cutty Sark beat Thermopylae back to London.
6
The opening of the Suez Canal meant that steam ships could travel between Britain and China faster than clippers.
7
Steam ships sometimes used the ocean route to travel between London and China.
8
Captain Woodget put Cutty Sark at risk of hitting an iceberg.
Question 9 - 13
Complete the sentences below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
9
After 1880, Cutty Sark carried
…………………………
as its main cargo during its most successful time.
10
As a captain and
………………………….,
Woodget was very skilled
11
Ferreira went to Falmouth to repair damage that a
………………………….
had caused.
12
Between 1923 and 1954, Cutty Sark was used for
………………………..

13
Cutty Sark has twice been damaged by
…………………………
in the 21st century.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

- Scan trong bài đọc ko thấy được cụm “originally intended to be used as…”

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN



=> Tuy nhiên, có thể bài đọc sẽ paraphrase lại cụm trên



Xem full giải thích
2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

- Scan trong bài đọc thấy cụm: “Cutty Sark’s unusual name comes from the poem Tam O’Shanter” – info này có chứa các từ khóa “name” và “poem” như trong câu hỏi.

=> Vội chọn TRUE



=> Tuy nhiên cần đọc hiểu main idea cả câu thay vì chỉ bắt keyword --> Sai



 

Xem full giải thích
3
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

- Scan trong bài đọc ko thấy keyword “favoured”

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN



=> Tuy nhiên, có thể bài đọc sẽ paraphrase lại từ trên 

        

 

Xem full giải thích
4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Bẫy thường gặp nếu chỉ scan skim:

- Scan trong bài đọc ko thấy cụm “the fastest tea clipper”

=> Vội chọn NOT GIVEN



=> Tuy nhiên, có thể bài đọc sẽ paraphrase lại từ trên          

 

Xem full giải thích
5
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



  •  Cutty Sark and Thermopylae   left China on the same day => 2 con tàu rời khỏi China cùng 1 ngày.

  •  Cutty Sark gained a lead of over 400 miles , but then her rudder was severely damaged in stormy seas => Cutty Sark dẫn trước 400 miles nhưng sau đó bị damaged bởi stormy seas.

  •  Cutty Sark reached London a week after Thermopylae => Cutty Sark đến London sau Thermopylae 1 tuần.

=> Tóm lại, Cutty Sark và Thermopylae cùng khởi hành - lúc đầu Cutty Sark dẫn trước - nhưng do bị damaged bởi storm nên cuối cùng Cutty Sark đến London sau Thermopylae.

=> So sánh với câu hỏi: Tuy bị damaged bởi storm, Cutty Sark vẫn vượt mặt Thermopylae trong hành trình trở về London.

=> Suy ra, info trong bài ngược với ý trong câu hỏi

Xem full giải thích
6
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dùng Linearthinking để simplify thông tin trong bài:

Câu 1 : the opening of the Suez Canal had a serious impact 

Câu 2 : While steam ships could make use of the quick, direct route , the canal was of no use to sailing ships , and so  had to sail a far greater distance.

Câu 3 : Steam ships reduced the journey time between Britain and China by approximately two months.

=> 1 + 2 : Trong khi steam ships sử dụng con đường quick và direct là Suez Canal, còn sailing ships thì ko thể, nên phải đi khoảng cách xa hơn.

Xem full giải thích
7
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



  •  Steam ships could make use of the quick, direct route … 

  •  Steam ships reduced the journey time between Britain and China by approximately two months 

=> Đoạn 6 chỉ nói rằng steam ships có thể sử dụng con đường quick và direct (chính là Suez Canal), từ đó giảm bớt 2 tháng hành trình từ Britain tới China.

=> Ko có info về việc steam ships có sử dụng the ocean route hay ko (ocean route là con đường khác với Suez Canal mà steam ships sử dụng)

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
8
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 …Woodget took her further south than any previous captain , bringing her dangerously close to icebergs 

-> Woodget đưa Cutty Sark ra further south, từ đó khiến Cutty Sark dangerously close to icebergs.

=> Suy ra, Woodget khiến Cutty Sark gặp phải rủi ro đụng phải iceberg.

=> Dễ dàng nhận ra info này trùng với câu hỏi

Xem full giải thích
9
wool
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc

  • Sau 1880, a new captain được bổ nhiệm cho con tàu

  • Việc này dẫn đến sự bắt đầu của the most successful period in Cutty Sark’s working life (= most successful time); khi đó Cutty Sark transported wool từ Australia đến Britain.

=> Tóm lại: Sau 1880, Cutty Sark đạt đến the most successful time, lúc này Cutty Sark transported wool.

=> wool là thứ được Cutty Sark transported (=carried) trong suốt its most successful time sau 1880.

=> Đáp án cần tìm là wool.



Xem full giải thích
10
navigator
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: Câu 1 đoạn 8 cho biết: captain Richard Woodget was  an excellent navigator… 

=> Dễ dàng nhận ra excellent = skilled

=> Woodget là 1 navigator giỏi

=> Đáp án là navigator.



Xem full giải thích
11
gale
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Đoạn 9 cho biết: “She” ám chỉ “Ferreira” – là tên mới của Cutty Sark.

Đoạn 10: Cụm “badly damaged in a gale” miêu tả về chủ ngữ của câu “she” (=Ferreira)

=> Ferreira bị damaged in a gale và được mang tới Falmouth harbour để repair

=> Thứ caused damage cho Ferreira và khiến nó phải went to Falmouth to repair chính là a gale

Xem full giải thích
12
training
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Simplify đoạn 10:

  •  in 1922 , she was put into Falmouth harbour…  

  •  The ship returned to Falmouth the following year…  

=> Sau năm 1922 – tức năm 1923, con tàu được trở về Falmouth.

Simplify đoạn 11:

Xem full giải thích
13
fire
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 The ship suffered from fire in 2007 , and again, less seriously, in 2014… 

=> Con tàu suffered from fire vào năm 2007, và 1 lần nữa vào năm 2014

=> Con tàu suffered from fire 2 lần trong TK 21

=> Thứ damage (gây tổn hại) cho Cutter Sark 2 lần trong TK 21 chính là fire

Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Saving The Soil
A
A. More than a third of the world’s soil is endangered, according to a recent UN report. If we don’t slow the decline, all farmable soil could be gone in 60 years. Since soil grows 95% of our food, and sustains human life in other more surprising ways, that is a huge problem.
B
B. Peter Groffman, from the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in New York, points out that soil scientists have been warning about the degradation of the world’s soil for decades. At the same time, our understanding of its importance to humans has grown. A single gram of healthy soil might contain 100 million bacteria, as well as other microorganisms such as viruses and fungi, living amid decomposing plants and various minerals. That means soils do not just grow our food, but are the source of nearly all our existing antibiotics, and could be our best hope in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Soil is also an ally against climate change: as microorganisms within soil digest dead animals and plants, they lock in their carbon content, holding three times the amount of carbon as does the entire atmosphere. Soils also store water, preventing flood damage: in the UK, damage to buildings, roads and bridges from floods caused by soil degradation costs £233 million every year.
C
C. If the soil loses its ability to perform these functions, the human race could be in big trouble. The danger is not that the soil will disappear completely, but that the microorganisms that give it its special properties will be lost. And once this has happened, it may take the soil thousands of years to recover. Agriculture is by far the biggest problem. In the wild, when plants grow they remove nutrients from the soil, but then when the plants die and decay these nutrients are returned directly to the soil. Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile. In the past we developed strategies to get around the problem, such as regularly varying the types of crops grown, or leaving fields uncultivated for a season.
D
D. But these practices became inconvenient as populations grew and agriculture had to be run on more commercial lines. A solution came in the early 20th century with the Haber-Bosch process for manufacturing ammonium nitrate. Farmers have been putting this synthetic fertiliser on their fields ever since. But over the past few decades, it wasn’t such a bright idea. Chemical fertilisers can release polluting nitrous oxide into the atmosphere and excess is often washed away with the rain, releasing nitrogen into rivers. More recently, we have found that indiscriminate use of fertilizers the soil itself, turning it acidic and salty, and degrading the soil they supposed to nourish.
E
E. One of the people looking for a solution to this problem is Pius Floris, who started out running a tree-care business in the Netherlands and now advises some of the world’s top-soil scientists. He came to realise that the best way to ensure his trees flourished was to take care of the soil, and has developed a cocktail of beneficial bacteria, fungi and humus* to do this. Researchers at the University of Valladolid in Spain recently used this cocktail on soils destroyed by years of fertiliser overuse. When they applied Floris’s mix to the desert-like test plots, a good crop of plants emerged that were not just healthy at the surface, but had roots strong enough to pierce dirt as hard as rock. The few plants that grew in the control plots, fed with traditional fertilisers, were small and weak.
F
F. However, measures like this are not enough to solve the global soil degradation problem. To assess our options on a global scale we first need an accurate picture of what types of soil are out there, and the problems they face. That’s not easy. For one thing, there is no agreed international system for classifying soil. In an attempt to unify the different approaches, the UN has created the Global Soil Map project. Researchers from nine countries are working together to create a map linked to a database that can be fed measurements from field surveys, drone surveys, satellite imagery, lab analyses and so on to provide real-time data on the state of the soil. Within the next four years, they aim to have mapped soils worldwide to a depth of 100 metres, with the results freely accessible to all.
G
G. But this is only a first step. We need ways of presenting the problem that bring it home to governments and the wider public, says Pamela Chasek at the International Institute for Sustainable Development, in Winnipeg, Canada. ‘Most scientists don’t speak language that policy-makers can understand and vice versa.’ Chasek and her colleagues have proposed a goal of ‘zero net land’degradation’. Like the idea of carbon neutrality, it is an easily understood target that can help shape expectations and encourage action. For soils on the brink, that may be too late. Several researchers are agitating for the immediate creation of protected zones for endangered soils. One difficulty here is defining what these areas should conserve: areas where the greatest soil diversity is present? Or areas of unspoilt soils that could act as a future benchmark of quality. Whatever we do, if we want our soils to survive, we need to take action now

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 17
Complete the summary below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Why soil degradation could be a disaster for humans
Healthy soil contains a large variety of bacteria and other microorganisms, as well as plant remains and
14
It provides us with food and also with antibiotics, and its function in storing
15
has a signicant eect on the climate. In addition, it prevents damage to property and infrastructure because it holds
16
If these microorganisms are lost, soil may lose its special properties. The main factor contributing to soil degradation is the
17
carried out by humans.
Question 18 - 21
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes on your answer sheet.
List of Endings
A
may improve the number and quality of plants growing there.
B
may contain data from up to nine countries.
C
may not be put back into the soil.
D
may help governments to be more aware of soil-related issues.
E
may cause damage to different aspects of the environment.
F
may be better for use at a global level.
Nutrients contained in the unused parts of harvested crops
18
Synthetic fertilisers produced with Haber-Bosch process
19
Addition of a mixture developed by Pius Floris to the soil
20
The idea of zero net soil degradation
21
Question 22 - 26
Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
22
a reference to one person’s motivation for a soil-improvement project
23
an explanation of how soil stayed healthy before the development of farming
24
examples of dierent ways of collecting information on soil degradation
25
a suggestion for a way of keeping some types of soil safe in the near future
26
a reason why it is dicult to provide an overview of soil degradation

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
minerals
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Đoạn B liệt kê ra những thứ được contain trong healthy soil: A single gram of healthy soil might contain:

  • 100 million bacteria = a large variety of bacteria

  • other microorganisms such as viruses and fungi = other microorganisms

  • living amid decomposing plants = plant remains

  • various minerals = minerals

=> Vậy suy ra đáp án là minerals (lưu ý đề yêu cầu điền ONE WORD).



Xem full giải thích
15
carbon
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



Soil is also an ally against climate change as microorganisms within soil digest dead animals and plants , they lock in their carbon content , holding three times the amount of carbon as does the entire atmosphere. 

-> Nếu ko hiểu ally là gì, vẫn có thể dựa vào từ against (chống lại) để đoán rằng câu này có nghĩa: soil giúp chống lại climate change

=> Điều này cũng đồng nghĩa là: soil có ảnh hưởng lớn đến climate

=> Trong đoạn info sau có sử dụng các từ đồng nghĩa với store bao gồm: lock in + hold

Xem full giải thích
16
water
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



  •  damage to buildings, roads and bridges from floods costs £233 million every year. 

-> flood damage đối với property and infrastructure làm tiêu tốn nhiều tiền

  •  Soils also store water , preventing flood damage 

-> soils trữ water, do đó prevent flood damage

Xem full giải thích
17
agriculture
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



  •  Agriculture is by far the biggest problem.  

  •  Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it , meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile 

=> Ta nhận ra ý 2 tiếp nối và giải thích cho ý 1: Hành động humans thực hiện trong agriculture (not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil) dẫn đến (meaning that = resulting in) the soil gradually becomes less fertile (=soil degradation).

=> điều này khiến cho agriculture trở thành biggest problem (=main factor) gây ra soil degradation

=> Vậy suy ra việc được thực hiện bởi humans - main factor dẫn đến soil degradation chính là agriculture.

Xem full giải thích
18
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng bài matching sentence endings, để tránh bị rối thì trước khi đọc bài, bạn khoan hãy đọc những options sentence endings mà hãy chỉ đọc câu hỏi (phần sentence beginnings).



Thông tin trong bài đọc

  •  when plants grow they remove nutrients from the soil 

  •  Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil 

Xem full giải thích
19
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng bài matching sentence endings, để tránh bị rối thì trước khi đọc bài, bạn khoan hãy đọc những options sentence endings mà hãy chỉ đọc câu hỏi (phần sentence beginnings).



Thông tin trong bài đọc

1 A solution came in the early 20th century with the Haber-Bosch process for manufacturing ammonium nitrate .

 2 Farmers have been putting this synthetic fertiliser on their fields ever since .

Xem full giải thích
20
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng bài matching sentence endings, để tránh bị rối thì trước khi đọc bài, bạn khoan hãy đọc những options sentence endings mà hãy chỉ đọc câu hỏi (phần sentence beginnings).



Thông tin trong bài đọc

Đoạn E mô tả 1 thí nghiệm trên 2 mẫu đất: test plots và control plots 

  • test plots được thêm vào Pius Floris's mix: plants được trồng ở mẫu đất này healthy và had strong roots 

  • control plots sử dụng traditional fertilisers: chỉ có few plants (rất ít plants) và small and weak 

Xem full giải thích
21
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng bài matching sentence endings, để tránh bị rối thì trước khi đọc bài, bạn khoan hãy đọc những options sentence endings mà hãy chỉ đọc câu hỏi (phần sentence beginnings).



Thông tin trong bài đọc

 We need ways of presenting the problem that bring it home to governments 

=> Cần phải có những cách khiến governments hiểu rõ hơn về problem (of soil degradation) 

Xem full giải thích
22
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi  & imagine paraphrase

=> Tìm sự đề cập về: 1 người có 1 động lực phát triển 1 project để improve soil

  • one person: tìm 1 tên người cụ thể

  • a soil-improvement project: tìm phần mô tả về 1 project nào đó để improve chất lượng của soil

  • motivation: tìm động lực (nguyên nhân) của project này 

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
23
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi  & imagine paraphrase

=> Tìm phần miêu tả về: cách mà soil stayed healthy trước khi farming được developed

  • an explanation of how soil stayed healthy: bài đọc sẽ ko lặp lại từ “explanation” mà sẽ là 1 đoạn mô tả thật về cách mà soil stayed healthy

  • before the development of farming: tìm sự đề cập về thời gian (Lưu ý: câu hỏi dùng thì qua khứ “stayed” => tìm 1 period trong quá khứ)

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
24
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi  & imagine paraphrase

Tìm examples về: những cách thức khác nhau để collect information về soil degradation

  • examples of different ways of collecting information: bài đọc sẽ liệt kê cụ thể những cách thức đó là gì 

  • soil degradation: bài đọc có thể paraphrase lại cụm này

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
25
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi  & imagine paraphrase

Một đề xuất về cách giữ an toàn cho vài loại soil trong tương lai gần

  • a suggestion for a way of keeping safe = creation of protected zones

  • some types of soil: tìm loại soil cụ thể nào đó

  • in the near future: tìm sự đề cập về thời gian gần

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích
26
F
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi  & imagine paraphrase

Lý do vì sao khó có được cái nhìn tổng quát về soil degradation 

  • it is difficult: tìm sự khó khăn

  • an overview of soil degradation: bài đọc có thể sẽ paraphrase cụm này

  • a reason why: tìm 1 lý do giải thích

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine

Xem full giải thích

Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Book Review
The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being By William Davies
A
A. Happiness is the ultimate goal because it is self-evidently good. If we are asked why happiness matters we can give no further external reason. It just obviously does matter.’ This pronouncement by Richard Layard, an economist and advocate of ‘positive psychology’ summarises the beliefs of many people today. For Layard and others like him, it is obvious that the purpose of government is to promote a state of collective well-being. The only question is how to achieve it, and here positive psychology a supposed science that not only identifies what makes people happy but also allows their happiness to be measured can show the way. Equipped with this science, they say, governments can secure happiness in society in a way they never could in the past.
B
B. It is an astonishingly crude and simple-minded way of thinking, and for that very reason increasingly popular. Those who think in this way are oblivious to the vast philosophical literature in which the meaning and value of happiness have been explored and questioned, and write as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to their attention. It was the philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748—1832) who was more than anyone else responsible for the development of this way of thinking. For Bentham it was obvious that the human good consists of pleasure and the absence of pain. The Greek philosopher Aristotle may have identified happiness with self-realisation in the 4th century BC, and thinkers throughout the ages may have struggled to reconcile the pursuit of happiness with other human values, but for Bentham all this was mere metaphysics or fiction. Without knowing anything much of him or the school of moral theory he established — since they are by education and intellectual conviction illiterate in the history of ideas — our advocates of positive psychology follow in his tracks in rejecting as outmoded and irrelevant pretty much the entirety of ethical reflection on human happiness to date.
C
C. But as William Davies notes in his recent book The Happiness Industry, the view that happiness is the only self-evident good is actually a way of limiting moral inquiry. One of the virtues of this rich, lucid and arresting book is that it places the current cult of happiness in a well-defined historical framework. Rightly, Davies begins his story with Bentham, noting that he was far more than a philosopher. Davies writes, ‘Bentham’s activities were those which we might now associate with a public sector management consultant’. In the 1790s, he wrote to the Home Office suggesting that the departments of government be linked together through a set of ‘conversation tubes’, and to the Bank of England with a design for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknotes. He drew up plans for a “frigidarium” to keep provisions such as meat, fish, fruit and vegetables fresh. He celebrated design for a prison to be known as “panoptican”, in which prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visible at all time to the guards, was very nearly adopted. (Surprisingly, Davies does not discuss the fact that Bentham meant his Panoptican not just as a model prison but also as an instrument of control that could be applied to schools and factories.)
D
D. Bentham was also a pioneer of the “science of hapiness”. If hapiness is to be regared as a science, it has to be measured, and Bentham suggested two ways in which it might be done. Viewing hapiness as a complex of pleasurable sensations, he suggested that it might be quantified by measuring the human pulse rate. Alternatively, money could be used as the standard for quantification: if two different goods have the same price, it can be claimed that they produce the same quantity of pleasure in the consumer. Bentham was more attracted by the latter measure. By associating the money so closely to inner experience, Davies writes, Bentham “set the stage for the entangling of psychological research and capitalism that would shape the business practices of the twentieth century”.
E
E. The Happiness Industry describes how the project of a science of happiness has become integral to capitalism. We learn much that is interesting about how economic problems are being redefined and treated as psychological maladies. In addition, Davies shows how the belief that the inner states of pleasure and displeasure can be objectively measured has informed managment studies and advertising. The tendency of thinkers such as J B Watson, the founder of behaviourism*, was that human beings can be shaped, or manipulated, by policymakers or managers. Watson has no factual basis for his view of human action. When he became the president of the American Psychological Association in 1915, he “had never even studied a single human being”: his research had been confined to experiments on white rats. Yet Watson’s reductive model now is widely applied, with “behaviour change” becoming the goal of governments: in Britain, a “Behaviour Insights Team” has been established by the government to study how people can be encouraged, in minimum cost to the public purse, to live in what are considered socially desirable ways.
F
F. Modern industrial societies appear to need the possibility of ever-increasing happiness to motivate them in their labour. But whatever its intellectual pedigree, the ideal that the governments should be responsible for promoting happiness is always a threat to human freedom.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 29
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes on your answer sheet.
27
What is the reviewer’s attitude to advocates of positive psychology?
A
They are wrong to reject the ideas of Bentham
B
They are over-inuenced by their study of Bentham’s theories
C
They have a fresh new approach to ideas on human happiness
D
They are ignorant about the ideas they should be considering
28
The reviewer refers to the Greek philosopher Aristotle in order to suggest that happiness
A
may not be just pleasure and the absence of pain.
B
should not be the main goal of humans
C
is not something that should be fought for.
D
is not just an abstract concept.
29
According to Davies, Bentham’s suggestion for linking the price of goods to happiness was signicant because
A
it was the rst successful way of assessing happiness.
B
it established a connection between work and psychology.
C
it was the rst successful example of psychological research
D
it involved consideration of the rights of consumers.
Question 30 - 34
Complete the summary using the list of words A-G below.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes on your answer sheet.
Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham was active in other areas besides philosophy. In the 1970s he suggested a type of technology to improve
30
for different Government departments. He developed a new way of printing banknotes to increase
31
and also designed a method for the
32
of food. He also drew up plans for a prison which allowed the
33
of prisoners at al times, and believed the same design could be used for other institutions as well. When researching happiness, he investigated possibilities for its
34
, and suggested some methods of doing this.
A
measurement
B
security
C
implementation
D
prots
E
observation
F
communication
G
preservation
Question 35 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
35
One strength of The Happiness Industry is its discussion of the relationship between psychology and economics.
36
It is more dicult to measure some emotions than others.
37
Watson’s ideas on behaviourism were supported by research on humans he carried out before 1915.
38
Watson’s ideas have been most inuential on governments outside America.
39
The need for happiness is linked to industrialisation.
40
A main aim of government should be to increase the happiness of the population.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc

 an economist and advocate of ‘positive psychology’ summarises the beliefs of many people today...

 It (= positive psychology) is an astonishingly crude and simple-minded way of thinking 

=> Nếu ko có vốn vocab rộng vẫn có thể đoán rằng: tác giả cho rằng positive psychology là 1 cách nghĩ simple - đơn giản, ko bao hàm nhiều thứ.

 Those (= advocates of positive psychology) who think in this way are oblivious to the vast philosophical literature

Xem full giải thích
28
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc

Đoạn 2 đặt Aristotle và Bentham cạnh nhau để nêu bật lên sự đối lập giữa quan điểm của 2 người này:

  • Bentham cho rằng: the human good (=human’s happiness) bao gồm pleasure and the absence of pain

  • Aristotle cho rằng: happiness liên quan đến self-realisation

=> Suy ra, tác giả nhắc đến Aristotle với dụng ý cho thấy happiness ko chỉ gồm pleasure and the absence of pain mà sẽ có những values khác nữa, ví dụ như là self-realisation

=> Ý này trùng với option A. may not be just pleasure and the absence of pain.

Xem full giải thích
29
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc

Đoạn 4 đề cập đến 2 suggestions của Bentham, và một trong số đó là: “ if two different goods have the same price , it can be claimed that they produce the same quantity of pleasure in the consumer 

=> Hiểu đại ý: same price of goods dẫn đến same pleasure (pleasure = happiness)

=> Đây chính là suggestion của Bentham về sự liên kết giữa the price of goods và happiness

Davies cho rằng khi liên kết giữa the price of goods và happiness thì Bentham đang “set the stage for the entangling of psychological research and capitalism that would shape the business practices”

Xem full giải thích
30
communication
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đoạn 3 cho biết: vào những năm 1790s, Betham suggest rằng “ the departments of government be linked together through a set of ‘conversation tubes’…” 

=> Betham suggest 1 loại thiết bị gọi là “conversation tubes” để liên kết (link together) các departments of government

=> Liên kết có liên quan đến conversation (hội thoại) đồng nghĩa với liên kết về mặt communication (giao tiếp)

So với câu hỏi: In the 1970s he suggested a type of technology to improve  ............................for different Government departments.

=> Chọn F - communication



Xem full giải thích
31
security
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: Vào những năm 1790s, Bentham đề xuất “ a design for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknotes”  

=> Đây là 1 loại printing device dùng để produce banknotes (=a new way of printing banknotes)

=> Điểm đặc biệt là những banknotes này “unforgeable” – nghĩa là cannot be forged – ko thể bị làm giả

=> Suy ra device của Bentham giúp tăng an ninh (=increase security) cho banknotes

=> Ý này trùng với option B. security

Xem full giải thích
32
preservation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: Vào những năm 1790s, Bentham “ drew up plans for a ‘frigidarium’ to keep provisions such as meat, fish, fruit and vegetables fresh.” 

=> Betham thiết kế ra 1 thứ gọi là ‘frigidarium’ để keep fresh cho meat, fish, fruit and vegetables

=> Thiết kế của Betham giúp bảo quản (preserve) các loại food

=> Ý này trùng với option G - preservation

=> Chọn G



Xem full giải thích
33
observation
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: Vào những năm 1790s, Bentham đưa ra một design for a prison mà trong đó “ prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visible at all times to the guards

=> Design này cho phép prisoners be visible at all times to the guards – nghĩa là the guards có thể observe (quan sát) prisoners at all times

=> Design của Betham cho phép sự quan sát (observation) prisoners at all times

=> Ý này trùng với option E. observation

=> Chọn E



Xem full giải thích
34
measurement
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: If happiness is to be regarded as a science , it has to be measured , and Bentham suggested two ways in which this might be done. 

=> Happiness cần được measured và Bentham suggested 2 ways để thực hiện việc này

=> Bentham suggested methods để measure happiness

=> Ý này trùng với option A. measurement

=> Chọn A



Xem full giải thích
35
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: Trong The Happiness Industry, chúng ta được biết về cách mà “ economic problems are being redefined and treated as psychological maladies

=> Tuy câu này có 1 số từ lạ như “maladies”, “redefined”, “treated”, nhưng vẫn có thể hiểu đại ý câu này đưa ra mối liên hệ giữa economic problems và psychological maladies. 

=> The Happiness Industry đưa ra relationship giữa economic problems (=economics) và psychological maladies (=psychology).

=> Ý này trùng với câu hỏi: One strength of The Happiness Industry is its discussion of the relationship between psychology and economics.

=> Chọn YES.



Xem full giải thích
36
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: inner states of pleasure and displeasure can be objectively measured 

=> Những inner states (=emotions) như pleasure and displeasure có thể được measured một cách khách quan

=> Ngoài ra, ko có thông tin so sánh giữa việc measure những emotions khác nhau

=> Vì vậy chưa thể khẳng định có emotion nào khó measure hơn các loại khác ko

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
37
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



  •  Watson had no factual basis for his view of human action (=behaviourism, xem phần paraphrasing)

  •  in 1915 , he ‘had never ever studied a single human being : his research had been confined to experiments on white rats 

=> Từ đó ta biết rằng Watson ko có căn cứ dựa trên facts (factual basis) cho thuyết behaviourism của mình, bởi vì trước 1915 thì ông ấy chưa từng nghiên cứu human mà chỉ mới thí nghiệm trên white rats

=> Ý này hoàn toàn mâu thuẫn với câu hỏi: Watson's ideas on behaviourism were supported by research on humans he carried out before 1915.

=> Chọn NO



Xem full giải thích
38
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: Mô hình của Watson được widely applied (được áp dụng rộng rãi) bởi nhiều governments, trong đó có Britain.

=> Tuy nhiên đoạn này ko cho thông tin mô hình của Watson có ảnh hưởng nhiều nhất (most influential) ở đâu

=> Suy ra ko thể kết luận có phải nó most influential ở government ngoài America hay ko

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
39
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc: Industrial societies need happiness 

=> Industrial societies (=industrialisation) cần có happiness 

=> Nghĩa là: industrialisation có mối liên hệ với nhu cầu về happiness = industrialisation is linked to the need for happiness

=> Ý này trùng với câu hỏi: The need for happiness is linked to industrialisation.

=> Chọn YES



Xem full giải thích
40
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 The idea that governments should be responsible for promoting happiness is always a threat to human freedom. 

=> Hiểu cả câu: (Ý tưởng rằng governments nên chịu trách nhiêm cho việc promoting happiness) (luôn là 1 sự đe dọa đối với human freedom)

=> Nghĩa là: Nếu governments chịu trách nhiêm cho việc promoting happiness thì human freedom sẽ ko còn nữa

=> Rõ ràng câu này cho thấy sự phản đối của tác giả đối với chuyện governments chịu trách nhiêm cho việc promoting happiness

Xem full giải thích

Download PDF

Bạn có thể tải bản đẹp của đề và đáp án CAM13 - Reading Test 4 tại đây