Cambridge IELTS 12 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 12 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 12 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 12 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

The history of glass
From our earliest origins, man has been making use of glass. Historians have discovered that a type of natural glass - obsidian - formed in places such as the mouth of a volcano as a result of the intense heat of an eruption melting sand - was first used as tips for spears. Archaeologists have even found evidence of man-made glass which dates back to 4000 BC; this took the form of glazes used for coating stone beads. It was not until 1500 BC, however, that the first hollow glass container was made by covering a sand core with a layer of molten glass. Glass blowing became the most common way to make glass containers from the first century BC. The glass made during this time was highly coloured due to the impurities of the raw material. In the first century AD, methods of creating colourless glass were developed, which was then tinted by the addition of colouring materials. The secret of glass making was taken across Europe by the Romans during this century. However, they guarded the skills and technology required to make glass very closely, and it was not until their empire collapsed in 476 AD that glass-making knowledge became widespread throughout Europe and the Middle East. From the 10th century onwards, the Venetians gained a reputation for technical skill and artistic ability in the making of glass bottles, and many of the city’s craftsmen left Italy to set up glassworks throughout Europe. A major milestone in the history of glass occurred with the invention of lead crystal glass by the English glass manufacturer George Ravenscroft (1632 - 1683). He attempted to counter the effect of clouding that sometimes occurred in blown glass by introducing lead to the raw materials used in the process. The new glass he created was softer and easier to decorate, and had a higher refractive index, adding to its brilliance and beauty, and it proved invaluable to the optical industry. It is thanks to Ravenscroft’s invention that optical lenses, astronomical telescopes, microscopes and the like became possible. In Britain, the modem glass industry only really started to develop after the repeal of the Excise Act in 1845. Before that time, heavy taxes had been placed on the amount of glass melted in a glasshouse, and were levied continuously from 1745 to 1845. Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace at London’s Great Exhibition of 1851 marked the beginning of glass as a material used in the building industry. This revolutionary new building encouraged the use of glass in public, domestic and horticultural architecture. Glass manufacturing techniques also improved with the advancement of science and the development of better technology. From 1887 onwards, glass making developed from traditional mouth-blowing to a semi- automatic process, after factory- owner HM Ashley introduced a machine capable of producing 200 bottles per hour in Castleford, Yorkshire, England - more than three times quicker than any previous production method. Then in 1907, the first fully automated machine was developed in the USA by Michael Owens - founder of the Owens Bottle Machine Company (later the major manufacturers Owens- Illinois) - and installed in its factory. Owens’ invention could produce an impressive 2,500 bottles per hour Other developments followed rapidly, but it | was not until the First World War when Britain became cut off from essential glass suppliers, that glass became part of the scientific sector. Previous to this, glass had been seen as a craft rather than a precise science. Today, glass making is big business. It has become a modem, hi-tech industry operating in a fiercely competitive global market where quality, design and service levels are critical to maintaining market share. Modem glass plants are capable of making millions of glass containers a day in many different colours, with green, brown and clear remaining the most popular. Few of us can imagine modem life without glass. It features in almost every aspect of our lives - in our homes, our cars and whenever we sit down to eat or drink. Glass packaging is used for many products, many beverages are sold in glass, as are numerous foodstuffs, as well as medicines and cosmetics. Glass is an ideal material for recycling, and with growing consumer concern for green issues, glass bottles and jars are becoming ever more popular. Glass recycling is good news for the environment. It saves used glass containers being sent to landfill. As less energy is needed to melt recycled glass than to melt down raw materials, this also saves fuel and production costs. Recycling also reduces the need for raw materials to be quarried, thus saving precious resources.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 8
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet
The History of Glass
• Early humans used a material called
1
to make the sharp points of their

2

• 4000 BC:
3
made of stone were covered in a coating of man-made
glass.
• First century BC: glass was coloured because of the
4
in the material.
• Until 476 AD: Only the
5
knew how to make glass.
• From 10th century: Venetians became famous for making bottles out of glass.
• 17th century: George Ravenscroft developed a process using
6
to avoid
the occurrence of
7
in blown glass.
• Mid-19th century: British glass production developed after changes to laws
concerning
8

Question 9 - 13
In boxes on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
9
In 1887, HM Ashley had the fastest bottle-producing machine that existed at the time.
10
Michael Owens was hired by a large US company to design a fully- automated bottle manufacturing machine for them.
11
Nowadays, most glass is produced by large international manufacturers.
12
Concern for the environment is leading to an increased demand for glass containers.
13
It is more expensive to produce recycled glass than to manufacture new glass. 

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
obsidian
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này có chứa một số từ lạ như “spears”, “sharp”, “obsidian”, “intense”, “eruption”,…



Nếu ko có vốn từ vựng rộng thì đừng lo bạn vẫn có thể áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để giải quyết câu này.

Simplify info:

 1 From our earliest origins , man has been making use of glass 

 2 a type of natural glass - obsidian was used as tips for spears 

Xem full giải thích
2
spears
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này có chứa một số từ lạ như “spears”, “sharp”, “obsidian”, “intense”, “eruption”,…



Nếu ko có vốn từ vựng rộng thì đừng lo bạn vẫn có thể áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để giải quyết câu này.

Simplify info:

 1 From our earliest origins , man has been making use of glass 

 2 a type of natural glass - obsidian was used as tips for spears 

Xem full giải thích
3
beads
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này có chứa một số từ lạ như “stone beads”, “glazes”, “coating”,…



Nếu ko có vốn từ vựng rộng thì đừng lo bạn vẫn có thể áp dụng cấu trúc như DOL’s Linearthinking để giải quyết câu này.

 1 Archaeologists have even found evidence of man-made glass which dates back to 4000 BC 

 2 this took the form of glazes used for coating stone beads 

"this" ở vế 2 là referencing cho man-made glass ở vế 1 

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4
impurities
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

1. Glass blowing became the most common way to make glass containers from the first century BC 

2. The glass made  during this time was highly coloured due to the impurities of the raw material 

“this time” câu 2 ám chỉ 1 thời điểm ở câu 1 - đó là first century BC.

=> Main idea: In the first century BC, glass was highly coloured due to (=because of) the impurities of the raw material

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5
Romans
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 3 The secret of glass making was taken by the Romans 

 4.1 They guarded the skills to make glass closely 

 4.2 it was not until 476 AD that glass-making knowledge became widespread 

=> 3 “The Romans” là người nắm giữ bí mật về việc làm kính = The Romans là những người duy nhất biết cách làm kính

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6
lead
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 He attempted to counter the effect of clouding that sometimes occurred in blown glass by introducing lead to the raw materials used in the process 

Nếu ko hiểu được những từ khó trong câu thì ta hiểu đại loại là:

Ông ấy cố gắng giải quyết 1 vấn đề gì đó của “blown glass” bằng việc “introducing lead to the raw materials used in the process”

=> “introduce” (giới thiệu 1 thứ mới mẻ) = “develop” (phát triển ra 1 thứ mới)

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7
clouding
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 He attempted to counter the effect of clouding that sometimes occurred in blown glass 



Câu này chứa 1 số từ lạ như “counter”, “attempt”, “clouding” hay “occur” => Nhưng vẫn có thể dựa vào cấu trúc câu để tìm đáp án mà ko cần hiểu tất cả vocab




Lưu ý rằng: Đáp án là 1 danh từ - là thứ gì đó ko mong muốn -> Đáp án là danh từ mang nghĩa negative. 

Trong câu located info ở bài đọc chỉ có 2 danh từ là effect và clouding.

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8
taxes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



Simplify located info:

 1 the modern glass industry started to develop after the repeal of the Excise Act 

 2 Before that time , heavy taxes had been placed on glass in a glasshouse 

=> 1 + 2 : Thời gian trước thì “heavy taxes” được áp dụng cho “glass in a glasshouse” -> Nhưng sau the repeal of the Excise Act, thì glass industry mới phát triển

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9
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu trong bài cho biết HM Ashley phát triển ra 1 loại máy “capable of producing 200 bottles per hour” => Đây là máy sản xuất chai = “bottle-producing machine

Ngoài ra, câu này còn cho biết loại máy này “more than three times quicker than any previous production method” 

=> quicker than any previous method = the fastest 

(nhanh hơn tất cả những cách khác = cách nhanh nhất)

=> Từ thông tin bài đọc ta biết máy của HM Ashley là máy sản xuất chai nhanh nhất thời bấy giờ

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10
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nếu chỉ scan skim theo keyword thì sẽ dễ chọn NOT GIVEN

vì ko tìm được từ “hired”; hoặc nếu ko đọc kĩ main idea sẽ chọn TRUE
vì thấy cùng có từ “company”.



So sánh main idea câu hỏi và bài đọc:

  • Câu hỏi: Michael Owens was hired by a large US company

=> Câu hỏi: Michael Owens được tuyển dụng vào công ty --> Suy ra: ông ấy là nhân viên

  • Bài đọc: Michael Owens founder of the Owens Bottle Machine Company 

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11
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 1 . Today , glass making is big business 

 2 . It has become a modern, hi-tech industry 

 3 . Modern glass plants are capable of making millions of glass containers a day 

 4 . Few of us can imagine modem life without glass 

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12
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này nếu chỉ scan skim theo keyword thì sẽ dễ chọn NOT GIVEN
vì ko tìm được từ khóa “environment”, “demand” và “containers”

Tuy nhiên đoạn cuối bài đọc đã paraphrase các từ khóa trong câu hỏi:

 with growing consumer concern for green issues , glass bottles and jars are becoming ever more popular 

=> Main idea: với sự quan tâm về môi trường tăng cao, vật đựng bằng glass trở nên phổ bieeng --> Đồng nghĩa với việc nhu cầu cho vật đựng bằng glass tăng lên ( X are becoming more popular = an increased demand for X )

=> Vậy tóm lại, ý ở câu hỏi và bài đọc giống nhau

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13
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này nếu chỉ scan skim theo keyword thì sẽ dễ chọn NOT GIVEN
vì ko tìm được từ khóa “new glass” và “expensive”

Phân tích info:

 As  less energy is needed to melt recycled glass than to melt down raw materials , this also saves fuel and production costs => Vì việc melt recycled glass cần ít năng lượng hơn là melt raw materials (nguyên liệu thô), cho nên nó tiết kiệm fuel và production costs

=> Main idea: melt recylced glass tiết kiệm nhiên liệu và tiền sản xuất hơn melt raw materials.

=> Mấu chốt vấn đề là: cần nhận ra việc melt raw materials (nung chảy nguyên liệu thô) là để sản xuất glass mới (=manufacture new glass)

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Bring back the big cats
It's time to start returning vanished native animals to Britain, says John Vesty There is a poem, written around 598 AD, which describes hunting a mystery animal called a llewyn. But what was it? Nothing seemed to fit, until 2006, when an animal bone, dating from around the same period, was found in the Kinsey Cave in northern England. Until this discovery, the lynx - a large spotted cat with tassel led ears - was presumed to have died out in Britain at least 6,000 years ago, before the inhabitants of these islands took up farming. But the 2006 find, together with three others in Yorkshire and Scotland, is compelling evidence that the lynx and the mysterious llewyn were in fact one and the same animal. If this is so, it would bring forward the tassel-eared cat's estimated extinction date by roughly 5,000 years. However, this is not quite the last glimpse of the animal in British culture. A 9th- century stone cross from the Isle of Eigg shows, alongside the deer, boar and aurochs pursued by a mounted hunter, a speckled cat with tasselled ears. Were it not for the animal's backside having worn away with time, we could have been certain, as the lynx's stubby tail is unmistakable. But even without this key feature, it's hard to see what else the creature could have been. The lynx is now becoming the totemic animal of a movement that is transforming British environmentalism: rewilding. Rewilding means the mass restoration of damaged ecosystems. It involves letting trees return to places that have been denuded, allowing parts of the seabed to recover from trawling and dredging, permitting rivers to flow freely again. Above all, it means bringing back missing species. One of the most striking findings of modern ecology is that ecosystems without large predators behave in completely different ways from those that retain them. Some of them drive dynamic processes that resonate through the whole food chain, creating niches for hundreds of species that might otherwise struggle to survive. The killers turn out to be bringers of life. Such findings present a big challenge to British conservation, which has often selected arbitrary assemblages of plants and animals and sought, at great effort and expense, to prevent them from changing. It has tried to preserve the living world as if it were a jar of pickles, letting nothing in and nothing out, keeping nature in a state of arrested development. But ecosystems are not merely collections of species; they are also the dynamic and ever-shifting relationships between them. And this dynamism often depends on large predators. At sea the potential is even greater: by protecting large areas from commercial fishing, we could once more see what 18th-century literature describes: vast shoals of fish being chased by fin and sperm whales, within sight of the English shore. This policy would also greatly boost catches in the surrounding seas; the fishing industry's insistence on scouring every inch of seabed, leaving no breeding reserves, could not be more damaging to its own interests. Rewilding is a rare example of an environmental movement in which campaigners articulate what they are for rather than only what they are against. One of the reasons why the enthusiasm for rewilding is spreading so quickly in Britain is that it helps to create a more inspiring vision than the green movement's usual promise of 'Follow us and the world will be slightly less awful than it would otherwise have been. The lynx presents no threat to human beings: there is no known instance of one preying on people. It is a specialist predator of roe deer, a species that has exploded in Britain in recent decades, holding back, by intensive browsing, attempts to re-establish forests. It will also winkle out sika deer: an exotic species that is almost impossible for human beings to control, as it hides in impenetrable plantations of young trees. The attempt to reintroduce this predator marries well with the aim of bringing forests back to parts of our bare and barren uplands. The lynx requires deep cover, and as such presents little risk to sheep and other livestock, which are supposed, as a condition of farm subsidies, to be kept out of the woods. On a recent trip to the Cairngorm Mountains, I heard several conservationists suggest that the lynx could be reintroduced there within 20 years. If trees return to the bare hills elsewhere in Britain, the big cats could soon follow. There is nothing extraordinary about these proposals, seen from the perspective of anywhere else in Europe. The lynx has now been reintroduced to the Jura Mountains, the Alps, the Vosges in eastern France and the Harz mountains in Germany, and has re-established itself in many more places. The European population has tripled since 1970 to roughly 10,000. As with wolves, bears, beavers, boar, bison, moose and many other species, the lynx has been able to spread as farming has,left the hills and people discover that it is more lucrative to protect charismatic wildlife than to hunt it, as tourists will pay for the chance to see it. Large-scale rewilding is happening almost everywhere - except Britain. Here, attitudes are just beginning to change. Conservationists are starting to accept that the old preservation-jar model is failing, even on its own terms. Already, projects such as Trees for Life in the Highlands provide a hint of what might be coming. An organisation is being set up that will seek to catalyse the rewilding of land and sea across Britain, its aim being to reintroduce that rarest of species to British ecosystems: hope.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes on your answer sheet.
14
What did the 2006 discovery of the animal bone reveal about the lynx?
A
Its physical appearance was very distinctive.
B
Its extinction was linked to the spread of farming.
C
It vanished from Britain several thousand years ago
D
It survived in Britain longer than was previously thought.
15
What point does the writer make about large predators in the third paragraph?
A
Their presence can increase biodiversity
B
They may cause damage to local ecosystems
C
Their behaviour can alter according to the environment
D
They should be reintroduced only to areas where they were native.
16
What does the writer suggest about British conservation in the fourth paragraph?
A
It has failed to achieve its aims
B
It is beginning to change direction
C
It has taken a misguided approach
D
It has focused on the most widespread species
17
Protecting large areas of the sea from commercial fishing would result in
A
practical benefits for the finishing industry
B
some short-term losses to the fishing industry
C
widespread opposition from the fishing industry
D
certain changes to techniques within to fishing industry
18
According to the author, what distinguishes rewilding from other environmental campaigns?
A
Its objective is more achievable
B
Its supporters are more articulate
C
Its positive message is more appealing
D
It is based on sounder scientific principles
Question 19 - 22
Complete the summary using the list of words and phrases A-F below.
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes on your answer sheet.
Reintroducing the lynx to Britain
There would be many advantages to reintroducing the lynx to Britain. While there is no evidence that the lynx has ever put
19
in danger, it would reduce the numbers of certain
20
whose populations have increased enormously in recent decades. It would present only a minimal threat to
21
, provided these were kept away from lynx habitats. Furthermore, the reintroduction programme would also link efficiently with initiatives to return native
22
to certain areas of the country.
A
trees
B
endangered species
C
hillsides
D
wild animals
E
humans
F
farm animals
Question 23 - 26
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
In boxes on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
23
Britain could become the first European country to reintroduce the lynx.
24
The large growth in the European lynx population since 1970 has exceeded conservationists’ expectations.
25
Changes in agricultural practices have extended the habitat of the lynx in Europe.
26
It has become apparent that species reintroduction has commercial advantages.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để đọc hiểu main idea của đoạn 1:

 1 . There is a poem which describes a mystery animal called a Ilewyn 

 2 . But what was it? 

 3 . Nothing seemed to fit , until 2006 , when an animal bone was found in England 

 4 . Until this discovery , the lynx was presumed to have died out in Britain 6,000 years ago 

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15
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dùng DOL’s Linearthinking để simplify câu 4 + 5 + 6 :

 4 . Ecosystems without large predators behave different from those that retain them 

 5 . Some of them drive dynamic processes... , creating niches for hundreds of species that might otherwise struggle to survive 

 6 . The killers turn out to be bringers of life 

=> 4 Ecosystems có large predators khác với ecosystems ko có large predators

Xem full giải thích
16
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan/skim tìm keyword thì có khả năng sẽ chọn câu D

do trong đoạn có từ khóa “species”; hoặc câu B
do trong đoạn có “dynamic and ever-shifting” gần giống với thay đổi “change direction”

=> Tuy nhiên đây đều chỉ là những keyword nhỏ, ko nói lên ý nghĩa cả đoạn





Để trả lời câu hỏi này cần áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để đọc hiểu main idea.

 1 . Such findings present a big challenge to British conservation , which has often selected plants and animals and sought to prevent them from changing 

 2 : It has tried to preserve the living world... => tiếp nối ý trước, cho thêm info về British conservation

Xem full giải thích
17
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan skim tìm keyword thì có khả năng sẽ chọn câu B

do trong bài có từ khóa “damaging” có nghĩa tiêu cực gần giống với “losses”.

=> Tuy nhiên đây đều chỉ là những keyword nhỏ ko nói lên ý nghĩa cả câu





Cần áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để đọc main idea của đoạn

 1 By protecting large areas from commercial fishing , we could once more see vast shoals of fish being chased by fin and sperm whales 

 2 This policy would boost catches in the surrounding seas ; the fishing industry‘s insistence on scouring every inch of seabed  could not be more damaging  

Xem full giải thích
18
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 1 Rewilding is a rare example of an environmental movement 

 2 reasons why rewilding is spreading so quickly is that it create a more inspiring vision than the green movement’s usual promise 

=> 1 Từ rare cho thấy rewilding khác biệt với các environmental movement khác

=> 2 rewilding sẽ mang lại more inspiring vision (= more appealing positive message) khi so sánh với các environmental movement khác 

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19
humans
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Locate thông tin theo từ “danger” --> tìm được câu 1 đoạn 7 (do có từ đồng nghĩa là threat).

 The lynx presents no threat to human beings : there is no known instance of one preying on people 

=> lynx ko là mối nguy hại cho human beings + chưa từng có trường hợp loài lynx săn mồi/làm hại đến con người.

=> Chọn E -  humans



Xem full giải thích
20
wild animals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Để hiểu rõ hơn ta áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking 



 It is a specialist predator of roe deer , a species that has exploded in Britain in recent decades 

=> lynx là predator (loài săn mồi) của roe deer --> lynx sẽ làm giảm số lượng roe deer 

=> Bài đọc cho biết thêm roe deer bùng nổ về số lượng trong recent decades 

=> Roe deer là loài khớp với đáp án cần tìm.

Xem full giải thích
21
farm animals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Locate thông tin theo cụm “present only a minimal threat to” thì sẽ tìm được câu cuối đoạn 7:

 The lynx presents little risk to sheep and other livestock 

=> presents little risk to = present only a minimal threat to (minimal = little và threat = risk)

=> Vậy lynx sẽ ít khi gây nguy hại cho “sheep and other livestock”



Tuy livestock (vật nuôi) là 1 từ lạ, nhưng vẫn có thể dựa vào từ sheep quen thuộc để xác định đây là ví dụ về farm animals

Xem full giải thích
22
trees
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu kế cuối đoạn 7 paraphrase lại “reintroduction programme” bằng “the attempt to reintroduce this predator”:

 The attempt to reintroduce this predator marries well with  the aim of bringing forests back to parts of our bare and barren uplands 

=> Câu này cho thấy mối quan hệ giữa việc reintroduce lynxbringing forests back to parts of our bare and barren uplands

=> Nếu ko hiểu từ vựng vẫn có thể thấy cấu trúc: bring X back to Y = return X to Y

=> Vậy forests sẽ được bring back (=return) về cho bare and barren uplands (=1 loại địa hình/ khu vực)

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23
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nếu chỉ scan/skim thông thường sẽ dễ chọn NOT GIVEN

vì trong bài ko có cụm “the first European country”.



Đọc theo DOL’s Linearthinking để nắm main idea, ta có:

 1 The lynx could be reintroduced there (=Cairngorm Mountains) within 20 years 

 2 If trees return to Britain , the big cats could soon follow => câu này giải thích cho câu 1 => Cairngorm Mountains là 1 địa danh ở Britain.

 3 The lynx has now been reintroduced to France and Germany 

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24
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Khi cần tìm thông tin trong bài thì nên tìm theo từ khóa là tên riêng, thời gian hoặc 1 con số, vì đây là những cụm từ khó bị paraphrase.

=> Tìm theo 1970 --> locate được info ở câu 5 đoạn 8.

Trong câu này có cụm “the European population has tripled” (số lượng tăng gấp 3), trùng với ý trong câu hỏi “the large growth in the European lynx population” (sự tăng mạnh trong số lượng) 



Đến đây nếu vội vàng chọn YES, bạn sẽ mắc bẫy đề bài

Trong câu hỏi còn 1 vế nữa là “exceeded conservationists' expectations

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25
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này nếu chỉ scan skim theo keyword thì sẽ dễ chọn NOT GIVEN
vì ko tìm được từ khóa “agricultural practices” và “extended the habitat”



Đầu tiên cần khoanh vùng phần located info. Dạng YES-NO-NOT GIVEN là dạng bài đi theo thứ tự --> info cho câu 12 sẽ nằm sau info cho câu 11 trong bài --> Cần đọc từ câu 6 đoạn 8 trở đi:

 the lynx has been able to spread as  farming has left the hills 

=> lynx lan rộng vì các vùng đồi ko còn được dùng cho farming (trồng trọt) nữa

=> Info này đồng nghĩa với: Do thay đổi trong nông nghiệp (=changes in agricultural practices) nên môi trường sống của lynx được mở rộng (=extended the habitat of the lynx)

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26
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đầu tiên cần khoanh vùng phần located info -> Dạng YES-NO-NOT GIVEN là dạng bài đi theo thứ tự --> info trong bài cho câu 13 này sẽ nằm sau info cho câu 12.

=> Đọc từ vế 2 câu 6 đoạn 8 trở đi:

 people discover that it is more lucrative to protect wildlife , as tourists will pay for the chance to see it 

Trong câu này, bài đọc miêu tả việc “protect wildlife” là “lucrative” (có lãi, sinh lời) = has commercial advantages --> chọn YES



Nếu ko biết nghĩa từ này thì bạn đừng lo, hãy đọc tiếp, vì có thể vế sau sẽ có thông tin support cho ý này.

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

UK COMPANIES NEED MORE EFFECTIVE BOARDS OF DIRECTORS
A
A. After a number of serious failures of governance (that is, how they are managed at the highest level), companies in Britain, as well as elsewhere, should consider radical changes to their directors’ roles. It is clear that the role of a board director today is not an easy one. Following the 2008 financial meltdown, which resulted in a deeper and more prolonged period of economic downturn than anyone expected, the search for explanations in the many post-mortems of the crisis has meant blame has been spread far and wide. Governments, regulators, central banks and auditors have all been in the frame. The role of bank directors and management and their widely publicised failures have been extensively picked over and examined in reports, inquiries and commentaries.
B
B. The knock-on effect of this scrutiny has been to make the governance of companies in general an issue of intense public debate and has significantly increased the pressures on, and the responsibilities of, directors. At the simplest and most practical level, the time involved in fulfilling the demands of a board directorship has increased significantly, calling into question the effectiveness of the classic model of corporate governance by part-time, independent non-executive directors. Where once a board schedule may have consisted of between eight and ten meetings a year, in many companies the number of events requiring board input and decisions has dramatically risen. Furthermore, the amount of reading and preparation required for each meeting is increasing. Agendas can become overloaded and this can mean the time for constructive debate must necessarily be restricted in favour of getting through the business.
C
C. Often, board business is devolved to committees in order to cope with the workload, which may be more efficient but can mean that the board as a whole is less involved in fully addressing some of the most important issues. It is not uncommon for the audit committee meeting to last longer than the main board meeting itself. Process may take the place of discussion and be at the expense of real collaboration, so that boxes are ticked rather than issues tackled.
D
D. A radical solution, which may work for some very large companies whose businesses are extensive and complex, is the professional board, whose members would work up to three or four days a week, supported by their own dedicated staff and advisers. There are obvious risks to this and it would be important to establish clear guidelines for such a board to ensure that it did not step on the toes of management by becoming too engaged in the day-to-day running of the company. Problems of recruitment, remuneration and independence could also arise and this structure would not be appropriate for all companies. However, more professional and better-informed boards would have been particularly appropriate for banks where the executives had access to information that parttime non-executive directors lacked, leaving the latter unable to comprehend or anticipate the 2008 crash.
E
E. One of the main criticisms of boards and their directors is that they do not focus sufficiently on longer-term matters of strategy, sustainability and governance, but instead concentrate too much on short-term financial metrics. Regulatory requirements and the structure of the market encourage this behaviour. The tyranny of quarterly reporting can distort board decision-making, as directors have to ‘make the numbers’ every four months to meet the insatiable appetite of the market for more data. This serves to encourage the trading methodology of a certain kind of investor who moves in and out of a stock without engaging in constructive dialogue with the company about strategy or performance, and is simply seeking a short¬ term financial gain. This effect has been made worse by the changing profile of investors due to the globalisation of capital and the increasing use of automated trading systems. Corporate culture adapts and management teams are largely incentivised to meet financial goals.
F
F. Compensation for chief executives has become a combat zone where pitched battles between investors, management and board members are fought, often behind closed doors but increasingly frequently in the full glare of press attention. Many would argue that this is in the interest of transparency and good governance as shareholders use their muscle in the area of pay to pressure boards to remove underperforming chief executives. Their powers to vote down executive remuneration policies increased when binding votes came into force. The chair of the remuneration committee can be an exposed and lonely role, as Alison Carnwath, chair of Barclays Bank’s remuneration committee, found when she had to resign, having been roundly criticised for trying to defend the enormous bonus to be paid to the chief executive; the irony being that she was widely understood to have spoken out against it in the privacy of the committee.
G
G. The financial crisis stimulated a debate about the role and purpose of the company and a heightened awareness of corporate ethics. Trust in the corporation has been eroded and academics such as Michael Sandel, in his thoughtful and bestselling book What Money Can’t Buy, are questioning the morality of capitalism and the market economy. Boards of companies in all sectors will need to widen their perspective to encompass these issues and this may involve a realignment of corporate goals. We live in challenging times.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 33
Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-viii.
List of Headings
I
Disputes over financial arrangements regarding senior managers
II
The impact on companies of being subjected to close examination
III
The possible need for fundamental change in every area of business
IV
Many external bodies being held responsible for problems
V
The falling number of board members with broad enough experience
VI
A risk that not all directors take part in solving major problems
VII
Boards not looking far enough ahead
VIII
A proposal to change the way the board operates
27
Paragraph A
28
Paragraph B
29
Paragraph C
30
Paragraph D
31
Paragraph E
32
Paragraph F
33
Paragraph G
Question 34 - 37
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
In boxes on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
34
Close scrutiny of the behaviour of boards has increased since the economic downturn.
35
Banks have been mismanaged to a greater extent than other businesses.
36
Board meetings normally continue for as long as necessary to debate matters in full.
37
Using a committee structure would ensure that board members are fully informed about significant issues.
Question 38 - 40
Complete the sentences below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
38
Before 2008, non-executive directors were at a disadvantage because of theirlack of


39
Boards tend to place too much emphasis on

considerations that are only of short-term relevance.
40
On certain matters, such as pay, the board may have to accept the views of



🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
IV
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan skim mà không hiểu main idea thì dễ chọn ii. The impact on companies of being subjected to close examination

(do trong đoạn có keyword “companies” và “examined”) hoặc vi. A risk that not all directors take part in solving major problems
(do trong đoạn lặp lại keyword “directors” nhiều lần). Tuy nhiên, đây chỉ là những chi tiết nhỏ chứ ko nói lên ý chính của đoạn.



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Mình đã đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. Sau đây mình sẽ giảng để các bạn hiểu rõ hơn đoạn văn.

Câu 1 : sau thất bại, cân nhắc vai trò giám đốc

=> Nghĩa là giám đốc bị cho rằng là nguyên nhân gây thất bại

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28
II
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu SCAN, SKIM thì nhiều khả năng mình sẽ phân vân giữa nhiều đáp án và chọn đại 1 heading.



Theo Linearthinking, bạn có thể hiểu ý câu đầu đoạn B, bằng sự liên kết vs câu cuối đoạn A. Cụ thể, this scrutiny = cái nhắc đến ở câu cuối đoạn A = be examined >>> this scrutiny = this examination.

Câu 1 : Ảnh hưởng của sự kiểm tra này - làm tăng trách nhiệm của ban giám đốc.

Câu 2 : Ví dụ về the time tăng

Câu 3 : Số events tăng

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29
VI
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Có thể đọc các vế sau trong câu 1 để đoán nghĩa devolved: công việc của board được devolved to committees  nhằm mục đích giải quyết workload và dẫn đến việc board ko còn tham gia nhiều vào important issues => có thể đoán devolved to nghĩa là giao cho, ủy thác cho

Câu 1 : công việc của board được ủy thác bớt cho committees

Câu 2 : là ví dụ tiếp nối câu 1 : meeting của committee tốn thời gian hơn meeting của board

Câu 3 là kết quả cho câu 1 + 2 : board chia việc cho committees => board bớt giải quyết important issues => từ đó process thay thế cho discussion => và cái giá phải trả (=at the expense of) là mất đi sự hợp tác => vì vậy (=so that) boxes are ticked thay vì issues được giải quyết.

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30
VIII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nếu chỉ scan skim or đọc keyword: có khả năng chọn sai đáp án v. The falling number of board members with broad enough experience
=> do câu cuối của đoạn có nhắc “more professional and better-informed boards”, gần giống với “board members with broad enough experience”. Tuy nhiên đây chỉ là 1 chi tiết nhỏ chứ chưa nói lên được main idea cả đoạn.



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Câu 1: Đưa ra 1 solution đối với cách hoạt động của board

Câu 2+3: Có những rủi ro và vấn đề khi sử dụng solution này, vì vậy cần có những guidelines đi kèm

Câu 4: Tuy nhiên nó sẽ phù hợp với các ngân hàng

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31
VII
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan skim keyword mà ko hiểu sâu main idea thì có khả năng chọn sai đáp án i. Disputes over financial arrangements regarding senior managers, do đoạn có nhắc nhiều đến từ khóa “financial”. Tuy nhiên đoạn này ko nói đến những tranh cãi (disputes) về vấn đề này, nên chọn heading I là chưa hợp lý 



Do đó cần áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để đọc đoạn:



Câu 1 : Problem của board: quá tập trung vào các vấn đề tài chính ngắn hạn (=short-term financial metrics)

Câu 2 + 3 : Đưa ra nguyên nhân của problem trên: do behavior của board chịu ảnh hưởng từ market

Câu 4 + 5 + 6 : Đưa ra các hệ quả từ problem trên: thu hút investors cần short-term financial gain + văn hóa của tập đoàn (= Corporate culture) bị thay đổi

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32
I
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



Câu 1 : Tranh cãi về tiền lương dành cho chief executives

Câu 2 + 3 : Nguyên nhân là shareholders có tầm ảnh hưởng lên lương của executives

Câu 4: Ví dụ cụ thể về 1 người thuộc executive remuneration committee phải từ chức vì support khoản lương lớn cho chief executive

=> Tóm lại đoạn này nói về những tranh cãi (=disputes) xoay quanh vấn đề chi trả (=financial arrangements) cho chief executives (=senior managers)

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33
III
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu chỉ scan skim keyword mà ko hiểu sâu main idea thì có khả năng chọn sai đáp án i. Disputes over financial arrangements regarding senior managers, do đoạn có từ khóa debate = disputes . Tuy nhiên đoạn này ko nói đến financial arrangements, nên chọn heading i là chưa hợp lý.



Do đó cần áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking để đọc đoạn văn



Câu 1 + 2 : Người ta mất dần niềm tin vào vấn đề đạo đức trong kinh doanh

Câu 3 Nêu 1 cách để khắc phục vấn đề câu 1 + 2 : Hội đồng quản trị ở mọi lĩnh vực cần mở rộng tầm nhìn => dẫn đến sự thay đổi đối với mục tiêu công ty

Câu 4 : Bình luận thêm: chúng ta sống ở 1 thời kỳ đầy khó khăn

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34
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nếu chỉ SCAN SKIM theo keyword thì sẽ dễ chọn NOT GIVEN

vì ko tìm được từ khóa “boards” và “close scrutiny” trong bài đọc.




Đọc theo Linearthinking để nắm ý chính, ta có:

Câu 1 After 2008 meltdown, blame spread wide and far + câu 3 the role of directors and their failures have been extensively examined.

- Hai câu này đồng nghĩa với the scrutiny (examination) of board behaviors has increased since (after) the downturn.

=> chọn YES



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35
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Trong câu hỏi, đối tượng được nhắc đến chính là “banks”, nên ta cần locate thông tin theo từ khóa này ==> Từ đó tìm được câu kế cuối đoạn A.



Trong câu này, ngoài “banks”, 1 số đơn vị khác được nhắc đến như là “governments, regulators, and auditors”.

Tuy nhiên, bài đọc chỉ cho biết các đơn vị này đều bị kiểm tra xem xét “have all been in the frame”.

Việc này ko nói lên liệu banks có chịu sự quản lý tồi tệ nhiều hơn các tổ chức khác hay ko (be mismanaged to a greater extent)

=> Chưa thể xác định câu hỏi đúng hay sai

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36
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking



 1 . he number of events requiring board decisions has risen 

 2 . Furthermore , the amount of preparation for each meeting is increasing 

 3 . Agendas can become overloaded and this can mean the time for constructive debate must be restricted 

=> Do câu 3 đang nhắc đến các sự kiện liên quan đến boards, nên meeting ở câu 4 ám chỉ board meetings và agendas câu 5 chính là các việc cần làm trong board meeting.

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37
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Simplify câu này:

 Board business is devolved to committees , which can mean that the board is less involved in addressing important issues. 

=> Công việc của board được devolved cho committees, và dẫn đến kết quả là “the board is less involved in addressing important issues” (nếu ko hiểu nghĩa của devolve là ủy thác thì có thể hiểu sơ rằng committees có liên quan gì đó đến công việc của board)

=> Vì vậy: Khi có sự tham gia của committees, board ko còn liên hệ nhiều đến những important issues.

Quá rõ ràng ý này trái ngược với câu hỏi

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38
information
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu cuối đoạn D: ...the executives had access to information that part-time non-executive directors lacked , leaving the latter unable to comprehend or anticipate the2008 crash. 

==> executives có information trong khi part-time non-executive directors thì ko, vì vậy the latter (=part-time non-executive directors) ko thể comprehend or anticipate the2008 crash.

==> Nghĩa là: part-time non-executive directors có 1 bất lợi (= at a disadvantage) so với executives vì họ ko có information

==> Thứ non-executive directors thiếu là information

==> Đáp án là information



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39
financial
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đáp án cho câu này là 1 từ (noun or adj) nói về vấn đề mà hội đồng quản trị quan tâm quá nhiều.

 Boards and their directors do not focus on longer-term matters but instead concentrate too much on short-term financial metrics 

=> Cấu trúc: S + do not V1 but instead V2 ( S ko thực hiện V1 mà thay vào đó là V2 => Nghĩa là: S chỉ thực hiện V2)

=> Thứ mà boards quan tâm quá nhiều chính là “short-term financial metrics”

=> short-term đã được nhắc đến trong câu hỏi, và metrics = considerations.

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40
shareholder/investors
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Simplify located info: shareholders pressure boards to remove underperforming chief executives 

=> Đảo cấu trúc:

Boards are pressured (to remove underperforming chief executives) by shareholders = boards have to accept the views of shareholders

=> boards bị áp lực bởi shareholders = boards phải chấp nhận ý kiến của shareholders

=> Đáp án là shareholders (=investors)



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