Cambridge IELTS 11 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 11 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 11 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 11 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Research using twins
To biomedical researchers all over the world, twins offer a precious opportunity to untangle the influence of genes and the environment - of nature and nurture. Because identical twins come from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, they share virtually the same genetic code. Any differences between them -one twin having younger looking skin, for example - must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent in the sun. Alternatively, by comparing the experiences of identical twins with those of fraternal twins, who come from separate eggs and share on average half their DNA, researchers can quantify the extent to which our genes affect our lives. If identical twins are more similar to each other with respect to an ailment than fraternal twins are, then vulnerability to the disease must be rooted at least in part in heredity. These two lines of research - studying the differences between identical twins to pinpoint the influence of environment, and comparing identical twins with fraternal ones to measure the role of inheritance - have been crucial to understanding the interplay of nature and nurture in determining our personalities, behavior, and vulnerability to disease. The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase 'nature and nurture'). But twin studies took a surprising twist in the 1980s, with the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard's lab in what became known as the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Numerous tests were carried out on the twins, and they were each asked more than 15,000 questions. Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept called heritability. in broad terms, the heritability of a trait measures the extent to which differences among members of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics. And wherever Bouchard and other scientists looked, it seemed, they found the invisible hand of genetic influence helping to shape our lives. Lately, however, twin studies have helped lead scientists to a radical new conclusion: that nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes, and in others operates on its own to shape who we are. Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions tied to neither nature nor nurture but representing what researchers have called a 'third component'. These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned on or off, to build our bones, brains and all the other parts of our bodies. If you think of our DNA as an immense piano keyboard and our genes as the keys - each key symbolizing a segment of DNA responsible for a particular note, or trait, and all the keys combining to make us who we are - then epigenetic processes determine when and how each key can be struck, changing the tune being played. One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts on genes. Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up. Other epigenetic processes appear to occur randomly, while others are normal, such as those that guide embryonic cells as they become heart, brain, or liver cells, for example. Geneticist Danielle Reed has worked with many twins over the years and thought deeply about what twin studies have taught us. 'It's very clear when you look at twins that much of what they share is hardwired,' she says. 'Many things about them are absolutely the same and unalterable. But it's also clear, when you get to know them, that other things about them are different. Epigenetics is the origin of a lot of those differences, in my view.' Reed credits Thomas Bouchard's work for today's surge in twin studies. 'He was the trailblazer,' she says. 'We forget that 50 years ago things like heart disease were thought to be caused entirely by lifestyle. Schizophrenia was thought to be due to poor mothering. Twin studies have allowed us to be more reflective about what people are actually born with and what's caused by experience.' Having said that, Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further. 'What I like to say is that nature writes some things in pencil and some things in pen,' she says. 'Things written in pen you can't change. That's DNA. But things written in pencil you can. That's epigenetics. Now that we're actually able to look at the DNA and see where the pencil writings are, it's sort of a whole new world.'

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 4
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.
2
Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins
3
Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.
4
Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes.
Question 5 - 9
Look at the following statements and the list of researchers below.
Match each statement with the correct researcher, A, B or C.
List of Findings
A
Francis Galton
B
Thomas Bouchard
C
Danielie Reed
5
invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics
6
expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge
7
developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences
8
pioneered research into genetics using twins
9
carried out research into twins who had lived apart
Question 10 - 13
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-F, below.
Epigenetic processes
In epigenetic processes,
10
influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal
11
. The study of epigenetic processes is uncovering a way in which our genes can be affected by our
12
. One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may later show problems in its
13

A
nurture
B
organs
C
code
D
chemicals
E
environment
F
behaviour

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nếu chỉ SCAN - SKIM theo keywords thì dễ chọn TRUE

vì tìm thấy từ khóa ''identical twins'' , ''differences between them'' , ''genetic code'' trong bài đọc




Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 1 Because identical twins come from a single egg that splits into two , they share the same genetic code 

 2 Any differences between them - one twin having younger looking skin, for example - is due to environment factors  

Main idea: Vì identical twins giống/share genetic code, nên any differences - ví dụ về skin - là do yếu tố môi trường.

Xem full giải thích
2
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Bạn nào ẩu, đọc lướt, sẽ dễ chọn TRUE

vì tìm thấy từ khóa ''twins'' , ''risk of developing certain illnesses'' trong bài đọc

Mình đọc bài đọc



 if identical twins are more similar to each other than fraternal twins are , then vulnerability to the disease be rooted in part in heredity 

so sánh giữa 2 loại twins là identical twins và fraternal twins về khả năng nhiễm disease

không có sự so sánh giữa identical twinsnon-twins như trong câu hỏi

Xem full giải thích
3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Khi thông tin nằm trong 2 câu, cấu trúc câu lại phức tạp, bạn nên dùng Linearthinking để đọc structure của nó



 1 But twin studies took a surprising twist in 1980s with studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth 

 2 Over 2 decades 137 sets of twins visited Bouchard’s lab 

Không có thông tin gì đề cập tới Bouchard advertised in newspaper

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
4
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này nếu chỉ SCAN - SKIM theo keywords thì sẽ dễ chọn NOT GIVEN

vì không tìm được từ khóa "different from both genetic and environmental processes"




Đọc theo Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính, ta có:

 Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions tied to neither nature nor nurture but representing what researchers have called a 'third component'.

--> Main idea: Epigenetic processes là phản ứng hóa học, không liên quan tới nature nor nurture (genes and environment) 1 



Note: ta có thể tìm nghĩa của nature, nurture qua câu sau

Xem full giải thích
5
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước



Linear works perfectly in this case

 The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875 when Francis

 first suggested the approach and coined the phrase ‘nature and nurture’ 

Đoán được nghĩa của coin dựa vào V1: Francis đưa ra approach đầu tiên và (coined - đoán là đặt tên) cho nó là "nature and nurture".

Xem full giải thích
6
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước  

 Having said that , Reed adds the latest work in epigenetics promised to take our understanding even further  

Main idea: nghiên cứu về epigenetics hứa hẹn sẽ give us a better understanding of it

So sánh với câu hỏi: Expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge

=> Answer: C - Danielle Reed



Xem full giải thích
7
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers và sau đó áp dụng Linearthinking
để nắm ý chính và chọn đáp án. 

 1 . Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identity how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup 

 2 . The key to their approach was a statistical concept  

Main idea: Bouchard and his colleagues sử dụng statistical concept để đo lường genetic influences on twins 

Vậy đây chính là sử dụng phương pháp toán học để đo lường về sự ảnh hưởng của genes lên twins

Xem full giải thích
8
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước. 

 The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875 when Francis first suggested the approach 

→ Francis là người đầu tiên (pioneer) đưa ra suggestion về sử dụng twins để nghiên cứu về tính cách di truyền

=> Answer: A - Francis Galton



Xem full giải thích
9
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để làm dạng bài tập này nhanh, bạn nên locate tên của các researchers trước.

Thông tin nằm ở 2 câu, nên mình áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh main idea và chọn đáp án. 

 1 . Twin studies  took a surprising twist with studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults  

 2 . Over 2 decades 137 sets of twins visited Thomas Bouchard’s lab  

Main idea: Thomas Bouchard tiến hành nghiên cứu về twins mà bị separated at birth và sau 2 decades, 137 cặp này quay lại thăm Bouchard

Xem full giải thích
10
chemicals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking để phân tích sự liên kết của 2 câu:

1 Epigenetic processes are   chemical reactions 

2 These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed : how each gene is strengthened or weakened to build our bones, brains and other parts of our bodies

--> Main idea: Epigenetic processes là các phản ứng hóa học (chemical reactions) -> và Các "Chemical reactions" này ảnh hưởng tới hoạt động của genes

-> So với câu hỏi: ..................influence the activity of our genes = These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed

Xem full giải thích
11
organs
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 1 Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions  

 2 These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed : how each gene is strengthened or weakened to build  our bones, brains and other parts of our bodies 

Main idea: ''Bones and brains '' là những ví dụ cụ thể cho những bộ phận của cơ thể được tạo ra trong quá trình Epigenetic processes

Vậy: Bones and brains ' chính là "internal organs of the body"

Xem full giải thích
12
environment
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Cấu trúc câu này hơi khó nên mình áp dụng Linearthinking (Read in structure) để nắm ý chính:

One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionising our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment impacts our genes 

Main idea: Nghiên cứu epigenetics chỉ ra rằng the environment affects our genes

-> So với câu hỏi: our genes can be affected by our .............= environment directly impacts on genes.

Vậy environment có ảnh hưởng tới our genes

Xem full giải thích
13
behaviour
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Cấu trúc câu này phức tạp nên mình áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm ý chính:

 For example studies of animals have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy , it cause changes in a fetus that lead to behavioural problems as the rodent grows up 

Main idea: Rat chịu áp lực trong thời kỳ mang thai, nó sẽ gây thay đổi trong fetus - cụ thể: thay đổi này dẫn tới các behavioural problems khi baby rat lớn lên

-> So với câu hỏi: Show problems in its .............= lead to behavioural problems

=> So sánh đáp án và chọn F - behaviour



Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

An Introduction to Film Sound
Though we might think of film as an essentially visual experience, we really cannot afford to underestimate the importance of film sound. A meaningful sound track is often as complicated as the image on the screen, and is ultimately just as much the responsibility of the director. The entire sound track consists of three essential ingredients: the human voice, sound effects and music. These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects. Topics which essentially refer to the three previously mentioned tracks are discussed below. They include dialogue, synchronous and asynchronous sound effects, and music. Let us start with dialogue. As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. Thus, for example, the actor Humphrey Bogart is the character Sam Spade; film personality and life personality seem to merge. Perhaps this is because the very texture of a performer's voice supplies an element of character. When voice textures fit the performer's physiognomy and gestures, a whole and very realistic persona emerges. The viewer sees not an actor working at his craft, but another human being struggling with life. It is interesting to note that how dialogue is used and the very amount of dialogue used varies widely among films. For example, in the highly successful science-fiction film 2001, little dialogue was evident, and most of it was banal and of little intrinsic interest. In this way the film-maker was able to portray what Thomas Sobochack and Vivian Sobochack call, in An Introduction to Film, the 'inadequacy of human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe'. The comedy Bringing Up Baby, on the other hand, presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at breakneck speed. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character played by Katherine Hepburn, but also the absurdity of the film itself and thus its humor. The audience is bounced from gag to gag and conversation to conversation; there is no time for audience reflection. The audience is caught up in a whirlwind of activity in simply managing to follow the plot. This film presents pure escapism - largely due to its frenetic dialogue. Synchronous sound effects are those sounds which are synchronized or matched with what is viewed. For example, if the film portrays a character playing the piano, the sounds of the piano are projected. Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example, the 'click' of a door being opened may simply serve to convince the audience that the image portrayed is real, and the audience may only subconsciously note the expected sound. However, if the 'click' of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary, the sound mixer may call attention to the 'click' with an increase in volume; this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense. Asynchronous sound effects, on the other hand, are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen. Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate emotional nuance, and they may also add to the realism of the film. For example, a film-maker might opt to include the background sound of an ambulance's siren while the foreground sound and image portrays an arguing couple. The asynchronous ambulance siren underscores the psychic injury incurred in the argument; at the same time the noise of the siren adds to the realism of the film by acknowledging the film's city setting. We are probably all familiar with background music in films, which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence. We are aware that it is used to add emotion and rhythm. Usually not meant to be noticeable, it often provides a tone or an emotional attitude toward the story and /or the characters depicted. In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster. Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes. For example, a particular musical theme associated with an individual character or situation may be repeated at various points in a film in order to remind the audience of salient motifs or ideas. Film sound comprises conventions and innovations. We have come to expect an acceleration of music during car chases and creaky doors in horror films. Yet, it is important to note as well that sound is often brilliantly conceived. The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds. We need to foster an awareness of film sound as well as film space so as to truly appreciate an art form that sprang to life during the twentieth century - the modern film.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
14
In the first paragraph, the writer makes a point that
A
the director should plan the sound track at an early stage in filming
B
it would be wrong to overlook the contribution of sound to the artistry of films
C
the music industry can have a beneficial influence on sound in film.
D
it is important for those working on the sound in a film to have sole responsibility for it
15
One reason that the writer refers to Humphrey Bogart is to exemplify
A
the importance of the actor and the character appearing to have similar personalities
B
the audience’s wish that actors are visually appropriate for their roles
C
the value of the actor having had similar feelings to the character.
D
the audience’s preference for dialogue to be as authentic as possible
16
In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that
A
audiences are likely to be critical of film dialogue that does not reflect their own experience
B
film dialogue that appears to be dull may have a specific purpose
C
filmmakers vary considerably in the skill with which they handle dialogue
D
the most successful films are those with dialogue of a high Quality.
17
What does the writer suggest about Bringing Up
A
The plot suffers from the filmmaker’s wish to focus on humorous dialogue
B
The dialogue helps to make it one of the best comedy films ever produced
C
There is a mismatch between the speed of the dialogue and the speed of actions
D
The nature of the dialogue emphasises key elements of the film.
18
The writer refers to the ‘click’ of a door to make the point that realistic sounds
A
are often used to give the audience a false impression of events in the film
B
may be interpreted in different ways by different members of the audience
C
may be modified in order to manipulate the audience’s response to the film
D
tend to be more significant in films presenting realistic situations
Question 19 - 23
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
19
Audiences are likely to be surprised if a film lacks background music
20
Background music may anticipate a development in a film
21
Background music has more effect on some people than on others
22
Background music may help the audience to make certain connections within the film.
23
Audiences tend to be aware of how the background music is affecting them
Question 24 - 26
Complete each sentence with the correct letter below. 
Write the correct letter, A-E.
List of Endings
A
when the audience listens to the dialogue
B
if the film reflects the audience’s own concerns
C
if voice, sound and music are combined appropriately
D
when the director is aware of how the audience will respond
E
when the actor s appearance, voice and moves are consistent with each other
The audience’s response to different parts of a film can be controlled
24
The feelings and motivations of characters become clear
25
A character seems to be a real person rather than an actor
26

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
B
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Các câu trong đoạn văn đã được đơn giản hóa ở trên. Bạn tham khảo ý chính của từng câu được phân tích ở dưới để hiểu rõ được đoạn văn nha.

 1 Phim là một trải nghiệm về hình ảnh, nhưng film sound cũng đóng vai trò rất quan trọng

 2 A meaningful sound track rất phức tạp

 3 Một sound track bao gồm 3 yếu tố quan trọng

Xem full giải thích
15
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu hỏi có đề cập đến tên riêng, nên bạn locate tên riêng trước, sau đó áp dụng Linearthinking để hiểu liên kết giữa hai câu:

 1 Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor  

 2 Thus for example the actor Humphrey Bogart is the character Sam Spade ; film personality and life personality seem to merge 

Main idea: Actor Humphrey Bogart là ví dụ cho there is little or no difference between the character and the actor

-> Cụ thể: film personality + life personality bị hòa vào nhau (merge) 

Xem full giải thích
16
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL's Linearthinking

Các câu trong đoạn văn đã được đơn giản hóa ở trên. Bạn tham khảo ý chính của từng câu được phân tích ở dưới để hiểu rõ được đoạn văn nha.

 1 Khi voice textures ăn khớp với cử chỉ của diễn viên, hình mẫu thật hiện ra

 2 Đưa ví dụ

 3 Cách dialogue được sử dụng thú vị

Xem full giải thích
17
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu hỏi có đề cập đến tên riêng, nên bạn locate tên riêng trước nha, sau đó đọc hiểu thông tin:

 The comedy Bringing Up Baby , on the other hand , presents practically non-stop dialogue  

This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character , but also the absurdity of the film itself and thus its humor

-> Main idea: Bringing Up Baby sử dụng non-stop dialogue - việc sử dụng non-stop dialogue nhấn mạnh được 3 features (the dizzy quality of the character + the absurdity of the film itself + its humor ) của bộ phim

Answer: D - The nature of the dialogue emphasises key elements of the film



Xem full giải thích
18
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu hỏi có đề cập đến ''the click of the open door'', nên bạn locate thông tin trước nha, sau đó đọc hiểu thông tin với Linearthinking nắm ý chính:

 1 2 ứng dụng của Synchronous sound: đóng góp phần làm bộ phim chân thật hơntạo không khí

 2 Ví dụ: Âm thanh''the click'' of a door being opened, thuyết phục người xem hình ảnh mô tả là thật

--> Đưa ví dụ cho ứng dụng của Synchronous sound: đóng góp phần làm bộ phim chân thật hơn

 3 Tuy nhiên, nếu ''the 'click' of an opening door'' liên quan tới hàng động xấu , giúp khán giả hòa vào bầu không khí hồi hộp

Xem full giải thích
19
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 We are all familiar with background music in films , which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence 

Note: become so ubiquitous (as to be noticeable in its absence) được hiểu như sau:

** become so ubiquitous nghĩa là quá thân thuộc với việc có background music, nên nếu không thấy có background music thì mọi người sẽ bị ngạc nhiên

Main idea: if there is no background music, audiences tend to be surprised 

Xem full giải thích
20
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 In addition , background music often foreshadows a change in mood

--> Main idea: Background music báo hiệu sự thay đổi trong cảm xúc

Hay nói cách khác: background music can make the audience understand what changes are going to happen in the film

So sánh với câu hỏi:

Xem full giải thích
21
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 1 In addition , background music often foreshadows a change in mood.  

 2 For example dissonant music used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster.

--> Câu 2 đưa ví dụ cho câu 1 

 3 Background music aid viewer understanding by linking scenes

Xem full giải thích
22
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes  

-> Main idea: Bằng liên kết cảnh phim, background music giúp người xem hiểu hơn

So sánh với câu hỏi: Background music may help the audience to make certain connections within the film

-> same meaning: aid viewer understanding by linking scenes = help the audience to make certain connections within the film

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23
False
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds  

-> Main idea: Chỉ có tiềm thức mới nhận diện được ảnh hưởng của âm thanh

Hay nói cách khác: Audiences không có xu hướng nhận biết về background music, mà chỉ có tiềm thức thôi

So sánh thông tin trong bài đọc: audience tend to be aware of # noted by only our subconscious minds

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24
C
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Thông tin nằm trong 2 câu và có cấu trúc câu lạ, nên mình áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm ý chính nha:

 The entire soundtrack consists of three essential ingredients  

 These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects 

Main idea:  Để tạo ra hiệu ứng mong muốn thì 3 yếu tố của the tracks cần được cân bằng và hòa hợp

-> the soundtrack must be mixed and balanced = voice, sound and music are combined appropriately

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25
A
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 As is the case with stage drama , dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well 

Main idea: Sử dụng dialogue với mục đích là tell the story và diễn đạt feelings and motivations of characters

=> Vậy khán giả khi nghe kể chuyện thì feelings and motivations of characters trở nên rõ ràng hơn

=> Answer: A - when the audience listens to the dialogue



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26
E
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Đọc thông tin trong bài đọc:

 When voice textures fit the performer's physiognomy and gestures , a whole and very realistic persona emerges 

-> Main idea: voice textures hòa nhập với gestures, con người thật trỗi dậy

-> Vậy trong tất cả đáp án, chỉ có đáp án E vừa đề cập tới voice và gestures/movements 

=> Answer: E - when the actor's appearance, voice and moves are consistent with each other



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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

This Marvellous Invention
A
A. Of all mankinds manifold creations, language must take pride of place. Other inventions - the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread - may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it. Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.
B
B. But language is foremost not just because it came first. In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: ‘this marvellous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expressions which, whilst having in themselves no likeness to what is in our mind, allow us to disclose to others its whole secret, and to make known to those who cannot penetrate it all that we imagine, and all the various stirrings of our soul’ This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement. Even so, there is just one flaw in all these hymns of praise, for the homage to languages unique accomplishment conceals a simple yet critical incongruity. Language is mankind s greatest invention - except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.
C
C. Language often seems so skillfully drafted that one can hardly imagine it as anything other than the perfected handiwork of a master craftsman. How else could this instrument make so much out of barely three dozen measly morsels of sound? In themselves, these configurations of mouth p,f,b,v,t,d,k,g,sh,a,e and so on - amount to nothing more than a few haphazard spits and splutters, random noises with no meaning, no ability to express, no power to explain. But run them through the cogs and wheels of the language machine, let it arrange them in some very special orders, and there is nothing that these meaningless streams of air cannot do: from sighing the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.
D
D. the most extraordinary thing about language, however, is that one doesn’t have to be a genius to set its wheels in motion. The language machine allows just about everybody from pre-modern foragers in the subtropical savannah, to post-modern philosophers in the suburban sprawl - to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without the slightest exertion. Yet it is precisely this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success, since in everyday life its triumphs are usually taken for granted. The wheels of language run so smoothly that one rarely bothers to stop and think about all the resourcefulness and expertise that must have gone into making it tick. Language conceals art.
E
E. Often, it is only the estrangement of foreign tongues, with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of languages design. One of the showiest stunts that some languages can pull off is an ability to build up words of breath-breaking length, and thus express in one word what English takes a whole sentence to say. The Turkish word çehirliliçtiremediklerimizdensiniz, to take one example, means nothing less than ‘you are one of those whom we can’t turn into a town-dweller’. (In case you were wondering, this monstrosity really is one word, not merely many different words squashed together - most of its components cannot even stand up on their own.)
F
F. And if that sounds like some one-off freak, then consider Sumerian, the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates some 5,000 years ago by the people who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history. A Sumerian word like munintuma'a (‘when he had made it suitable for her’) might seem rather trim compared to the Turkish colossus above. What is so impressive about it, however, is not its lengthiness but rather the reverse - the thrifty compactness of its construction. The word is made up of different slots, each corresponding to a particular portion of meaning. This sleek design allows single sounds to convey useful information, and in fact even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific. If you were to ask which bit in the Sumerian word corresponds to the pronoun ‘it’ in the English translation ‘when he had made it suitable for her’, then the answer would have to be nothing. Mind you, a very particular kind of nothing: the nothing that stands in the empty slot in the middle. The technology is so fine-tuned then that even a non-sound, when carefully placed in a particular position, has been invested with a specific function. Who could possibly have come up with such a nifty contraption?

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F. 
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-vii
List of Headings
I
Differences between languages highlight their impressiveness
II
The way in which a few sounds are organised to convey a huge range of meaning
III
Why the sounds used in different languages are not identical
IV
Apparently incompatible characteristics of language
V
Even silence can be meaningful
VI
Why language is the most important invention of all
VII
The universal ability to use language
27
Paragraph A
28
Paragraph B
29
Paragraph C
30
Paragraph D
31
Paragraph E
32
Paragraph F
Question 33 - 36
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-G, below.
The importance of language
The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on
33
aspects of life, but no impact has been as
34
as that of language.
Language is very
35
, yet composed of just a small number of sounds.
Language appears to be
36
to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.
A
difficult
B
complex
C
original
D
admired
E
material
F
easy
G
fundamental
Question 37 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
37
Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.
38
The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language
39
A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word
40
The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
VI
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

Mình đã đơn giản các câu ở trên để hiểu ý chính và xác định được mỗi quan hệ các câu. Sau đây mình sẽ giải thích rõ ý chính của các câu để các bạn hiểu rõ hơn đoạn văn:

 1 Trong tất cả các creations, language là quan trọng nhất

 2 Other inventions thay đổi sự hiện diện của chúng ta, nhưng language tạo nên con người

 3 All other inventions bị mờ nhạt khi so sánh với language

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28
IV
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Theo Linearthinking, bạn có thể hiểu ý câu đầu đoạn B, bằng sự liên kết với ý chính của đoạn A về việc language rất quan trọng

 1 Language quan trọng không phải chỉ bởi vì nó có đầu tiên

 2 Language còn là a tool of extraordinary sophistication

 3 Đây là cách French grammarians hiểu được giá trị của language

 4 Tuy vậy, có 1 lỗi

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29
II
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Áp dụng Linearthinking:

 1 Language được phác thảo rất điêu luyện

 2 Language có thể tạo ra được rất nhiều thứ với chỉ 3 sounds

 3 Nếu riêng biệt, 3 dozens of sounds này chỉ là những random noises mà không có ý nghĩa

 4 Nhưng nếu qua 1 cái máy và sắp xếp các âm này theo 1 thứ tự đặc biệt, không có gì mà tất cả các âm này không thể làm được

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30
VII
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking:

 1 2 Language cho phép tất cả mọi người sử dụng nó (từ normal people đến genius)

 3 4 Bởi vì lợi ích này từ language, nên mọi người không dừng lại để suy nghĩ

 5 Language che phủ nghê thuật

Main idea:  tất cả mọi người đều có thể sử dụng language

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31
I
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng Linearthinking

 1 Ngôn ngữ nước ngoài có những đặc điểm đặc biệt

 2 Khả năng xây 1 từ rất dài và một từ này có thể diễn tả ý nghĩa của 1 câu trong tiếng anh

 3 Đưa ví dụ của 1 từ dài trong tiếng Turkish

Main idea: Đoạn văn nêu ra sự khác biệt giữa 2 ngôn ngữ là Turkish và English 

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32
V
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Theo Linearthinking, bạn có thể hiểu ý câu đầu đoạn F, bằng sự liên kết với câu cuối đoạn E. Cụ thể, mở đầu đoạn F sử dụng từ nối "and" và đưa ra thêm 1 ví dụ về ngôn ngữ khác.

 1 Nếu Turkish nghe lạ, thì nên xem xét về ngôn ngữ Sumerian

 2 Một từ trong Sumerian - munintuma'a - thì ngắn hơn Turkish

 3 Điều đặc biệt về từ này: không phải là độ dài - mà là cách cấu tạo

 4 Từ này được kết hợp từ nhiều phần, và mỗi phần có mỗi meaning riêng biệt

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33
material
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Vì câu hỏi đề cập tới the wheel - invention nên các bạn locate thông tin trước và sau đó đọc thông tin:

 the wheel have transformed our material existence but the advent of language is what made us human

--> Main idea: The wheel thay đổi những giá trị vật chất (material existence), nhưng language vẫn là yếu tố giúp chúng ta trở thành con người.

Vậy "the wheel'' có ảnh hưởng lên material aspects of life

=> Chọn E - material



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34
fundamental
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 compared to language all other inventions pale in significance since everything we have achieve  depends on language and originates from it

--> Main idea: Các phát minh khác - bao gồm the wheel - tầm quan trọng của nó bị mờ nhạt khi so sánh với language, bởi vì tất cả thành tựu chúng ta đạt được phụ thuộc và bắt nguồn từ language.

Vì pale in significant = no impact has been as fundamental as that of language

=> Chọn G - Fundamental

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35
complex
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Giải thích chi tiết



Vì câu thông tin trong bài đọc dài và phức tạp, nên bạn áp dụng Linearthinking đọc nha:

 it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication yet based on an idea of simplicity : this invention of twenty-five sounds that infinite variety of expressions 

--> Bạn có thể suy ra ý chính của câu dựa vào cấu trúc tương phản: Language là 1 công cụ phức tạp nhưng dựa trên ý tưởng đơn giản

(a tool of extraordinary sophistication # an idea of simplicity)

So sánh với đáp án: Language is a tool of extraordinary sophistication = Language is very complex

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36
easy
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Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 yet it is this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success since its triumphs are taken for granted

--> Main idea: Language dễ sử dụng nên biến chính nó thành nạn nhân của sự thành công, bởi vì sự vĩ đại của language bị xem thường

-> easy to use = this deceptive ease

=> Chọn đáp án F - easy



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37
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking

 Without language we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals and even over nature itself. 

=> Main idea: Không có language, chúng ta sẽ không bao giờ bắt đầu trở nên mạnh hơn những animals khác 

→ Điều này trái ngược hoàn toàn với ''we can achieve … without language''

→ Answer: NO



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38
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Nếu như câu này bạn hiểu sai từ justice thành công lý trong câu hỏi → thì chắc chắn bạn sẽ trả lời sai
nên bạn lưu ý điểm này nha:

do justice to sth: treat sth in a way that shows how good and attractive they are (đánh giá đúng / biết thưởng thức gì đó)



Áp dụng kiến thức trên và đọc nội dung thông tin:

 French grammarians distilled the essence of language and no one has celebrated the magnitude of its achievement

Main idea: French grammarians get the essential meanings of the language 

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39
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking



 1 One of the stunts is an ability to build up words of length and thus express in one word what takes English a whole sentence to say

Main idea: Khả năng build a long word và diễn tả nó thành one word, 

-> Không có sự so sánh giữa 1 complex idea và 1 từ 

→ Answer: NOT GIVEN



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40
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc thông tin trong bài đọc:

 And if that sounds like some one-off freak , then consider Sumerian , the language spoken by the people who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history

Main idea: Người Sumerians là sáng tạo ra ngôn ngữ viết và giúp ghi lại các tài liệu lịch sử

So sánh với câu hỏi: The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events

→ Answer: YES



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