Cambridge IELTS 11 - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 11 - Reading Test 3 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 11 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 11 - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

The story of silk
The history of the world’s most luxurious fabric, from ancient China to the present day
Silk is a fine, smooth material produced from the cocoons - soft protective shells - that are made by mulberry silkworms (insect larvae). Legend has it that it was Lei Tzu, wife of the Yellow Emperor, ruler of China in about 3000 BC, who discovered silkworms. One account of the story goes that as she was taking a walk in her husband’s gardens, she discovered that silkworms were responsible for the destruction of several mulberry trees. She collected a number of cocoons and sat down to have a rest. It just so happened that while she was sipping some tea, one of the cocoons that she had collected landed in the hot tea and started to unravel into a fine thread. Lei Tzu found that she could wind this thread around her fingers. Subsequently, she persuaded her husband to allow her to rear silkworms on a grove of mulberry trees. She also devised a special reel to draw the fibres from the cocoon into a single thread so that they would be strong enough to be woven into fabric. While it is unknown just how much of this is true, it is certainly known that silk cultivation has existed in China for several millennia. Originally, silkworm farming was solely restricted to women, and it was they who were responsible for the growing, harvesting and weaving. Silk quickly grew into a symbol of status, and originally, only royalty were entitled to have clothes made of silk. The rules were gradually relaxed over the years until finally during the Qing Dynasty (1644—1911 AD), even peasants, the lowest caste, were also entitled to wear silk. Sometime during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), silk was so prized that it was also used as a unit of currency. Government officials were paid their salary in silk, and farmers paid their taxes in grain and silk. Silk was also used as diplomatic gifts by the emperor. Fishing lines, bowstrings, musical instruments and paper were all made using silk. The earliest indication of silk paper being used was discovered in the tomb of a noble who is estimated to have died around 168 AD. Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now known as the Silk Road, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and wool to the East. It was named the Silk Road after its most precious commodity, which was considered to be worth more than gold. The Silk Road stretched over 6,000 kilometres from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea, following the Great Wall of China, climbing the Pamir mountain range, crossing modern-day Afghanistan and going on to the Middle East, with a major trading market in Damascus. From there, the merchandise was shipped across the Mediterranean Sea. Few merchants travelled the entire route; goods were handled mostly by a series of middlemen. With the mulberry silkworm being native to China, the country was the world’s sole producer of silk for many hundreds of years. The secret of silk-making eventually reached the rest of the world via the Byzantine Empire, which ruled over the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East during the period 330—1453 AD. According to another legend, monks working for the Byzantine emperor Justinian smuggle silkworm eggs to Constantinople (Istanbul in modern-day Turkey) in 550 AD, concealed inside hollow bamboo walking canes. The Byzantines were as secretive as the Chinese, however, and for many centuries the weaving and trading of silk fabric was a strict imperial monopoly. Then in the seventh century, the Arabs conquered Persia, capturing their magnificent silks in the process. Silk production thus spread through Africa, Sicily and Spain as the Arabs swept, through these lands. Andalusia in southern Spain was Europe’s main silk-producing centre in the tenth century. By the thirteenth century, however, Italy had become Europe’s leader in silk production and export. Venetian merchants traded extensively in silk and encouraged silk growers to settle in Italy. Even now, silk processed in the province of Como in northern Italy enjoys an esteemed reputation. The nineteenth century and industrialisation saw the downfall of the European silk industry. Cheaper Japanese silk, trade in which was greatly facilitated by the opening of the Suez Canal, was one of the many factors driving the trend. Then in the twentieth century, new manmade fibres, such as nylon, started to be used in what had traditionally been silk products, such as stockings and parachutes. The two world wars, which interrupted the supply of raw material from Japan, also stifled the European silk industry. After the Second World War, Japan’s silk production was restored, with improved production and quality of raw silk. Japan was to remain the world’s biggest producer of raw silk, and practically the only major exporter of raw silk, until the 1970s. However, in more recent decades, China has gradually recaptured its position as the world’s biggest producer and exporter of raw silk and silk yarn. Today, around 125,000 metric tons of silk are produced in the world, and almost two thirds of that production takes place in China.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 9
Complete the notes below. 
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Early silk production in China
•Around 3000 BC, according to legend: 
- silkworm cocoon fell into emperor’s wife’s
1
 
- emperor’s wife invented a
2
to pull out silk fibres 
• Only
3
were allowed to produce silk 
• Only
4
were allowed to wear silk 
• Silk used as a form of
5
 
- e.g. farmers’ taxes consisted partly of silk 
• Silk used for many purposes 
- e.g. evidence found of
6
made from silk around 168 AD
Silk reaches rest of world
• Merchants use Silk Road to take silk westward and bring back
7
and precious metals 
• 550 AD:
8
hide silkworm eggs in canes and take them to Constantinople 
• Silk production spreads across Middle East and Europe 
• 20th century:
9
and other manmade fibres cause decline in silk production
Question 10 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage Number?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
10
Gold was the most valuable material transported along the Silk Road.
11
Most tradesmen only went along certain sections of the Silk Road
12
The Byzantines spread the practice of silk production across the West.
13
Silk yarn makes up the majority of silk currently exported from China.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
tea
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Với đoạn thông tin này dài, bạn nên áp dụng Linearthinking để thấy sự liên kết cũng như là nắm được ý chính nha:

 1 Lei Tzu, wife of the Emperor - who discovered silkworm 

 2 The story goes that as she was walking in gardens she discovered silkworm 

 3 She collected a number of cocoons

--> Main idea 1 + 2 + 3 : quá trình the wife tìm thấy silkworm như thế nào

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2
reel
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này khá dễ nên mình cùng đọc thông tin nha:

 She devised a special reel to draw fibres from the cocoon

--> Main idea: Cô ấy phát minh ra a special reel - để kéo sợ từ kén tằm

So sánh với câu hỏi: invented a special reel = devised a special reel

-> VÌ chỉ được chọn one word only nên đáp án reel

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3
women
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc thông tin trong bài ta có:  

 silkworm farming was solely restricted to women , and it was they who were responsible for growing, harvesting and weaving

--> Main idea: Chỉ phụ nữ mới được trồng silkworm, và nhiệm vụ của họ là trồng, thu hoạch và dệt tằm

So sánh với câu hỏi: only women were allowed = silkworm farming was solely restricted to women

→ Answer: women



Xem full giải thích
4
royalty
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài như sau:

 silk grew into a symbol of status , and only royalty were entitled to have clothes made of silk 

--> Main idea: Chỉ royalty mới được mặc quần áo làm từ silk

So sánh với câu hỏi: only royalty can wear silk = only royalty were entitled to have clothes made of silk

=> Chọn royalty



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5
currency
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Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc như sau:

 During 206 BC , silk was prized that it was used as a unit of currency .

 Government paid their salary in silk , and farmers paid their taxes in silk  

--> Main idea: silk được sử dụng như 1 đơn vị tiền tệ - ví dụ cụ thể - government trả lương bằng silk & farmers trả thuế bằng silk

So sánh với câu hỏi: silk used as a form of currency = it was used as a unit of currency

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6
paper
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin câu này có nhắc đến năm nên bạn locate thông tin và đọc nắm ý chính như sau:

 Fishing lines, bowstrings, musical instruments and paper were all made using silk. 

 The earliest indication of silk paper being used was discovered in the tomb of a noble who is estimated to have died around 168 AD

--> Main idea: Dấu hiệu sử dụng silk paper được tìm thấy trong ngôi mội của hoàng thân - mất vào khoảng 168 AD

So sánh với câu hỏi: evidence found of paper made from silk = The earliest indication of silk paper

Xem full giải thích
7
wool
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này sử dụng cấu trúc rút gọn nên bạn áp dụng Linearthinking nha:

 Demand for fabric created Silk Road , taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and wool to the East 

Main idea: Silk Road được sử dụng với 2 mục đích: taking silk west & bringing gold, silver and wool 

So sánh với câu hỏi: bring back precious metals and wool = bringing gold, silver and wool

→ Answer: wool



Xem full giải thích
8
monks
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc như sau:

 According to another legend , monks smuggled silkworm eggs to Constantinople in 550AD , concealed them inside hollow bamboo canes 

--> Main idea: monks giấu silkworm eggs bên trong gậy tre rỗng và chuyển chúng tới Constantinople vào 550 AD

So sánh với câu hỏi: monks hide silkworm eggs = monks smuggled silkworm eggs and concealed them inside canes

=> Answer: monks 



Xem full giải thích
9
nylon
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu hỏi đề cập cụ thể thời gian, nên bạn locate thông tin, đọc và nắm ý chính nha:

 Then in the twentieth century new manmade fibres such as nylon started to be used in what had traditionally been silk products 

-> Main idea: nylon and other manmade fibres được sử dụng thay thế silk

So sánh với câu hỏi: nylon and other manmade fibres = new manmade fibres, such as nylon

=> Answer: nylon



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10
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin dài và cấu trúc khó nên mình áp dụng Linearthinking nha:

 Demand for this fabric created the trade route now known as the Silk Road taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and wool to the East  

 It was named the Silk Road after its most precious commodity which was considered to be worth more than gold 

-> Main idea: Bởi vì nhu cầu sử dụng silk, con đường Silk Road được tạo ra; và silk có giá trị nhiều hơn gold

So sánh với câu hỏi: Gold is not the most valuable material # Silk is considered to be worth more than gold

Xem full giải thích
11
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc khá dài, nên bạn đọc theo Linearthinking để rút thành phần chính và nắm ý của câu nha:

 The Silk Road stretched over 6000 kilometres from Easten China to the Mediterranean Sea 

 Few merchants traveled the entire route ; goods were handled mostly by a series of middlemen 

-> Main idea: Silk Road rất dài --> Vì vậy, rất ít merchants đi hết cả con đường, giao dịch chủ yếu thông qua người trung gian (middlemen)

So sánh với câu hỏi: few merchants travelled along certain sections  + goods were handled by middlemen = Most tradesmen only went along certain sections 

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12
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Để nắm được ý chính trong thông dài, mình sử dụng Linearthinking nha:

 The Byzantines were as secretive as the Chinese , however , and for many centuries the weaving and trading of silk fabric was a strict imperial monopoly

 Then in the seventh century the Arabs conquered Persia , capturing their magnificent silks in the process

 Silk production thus spread through Africa, Sicily and Spain as  the Arabs swept through these lands 

Main idea: 3 câu kể về quá trình mở rộng sản xuất của silk khắp phương Tây, cụ thể:

Xem full giải thích
13
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc như sau:

 In more recent decades China has gradually recaptured its position as the world’s biggest producer and exporter of silk and silk yarn

-> Main idea: China là nhà sản xuất và xuất khẩu silk và silk yarn lớn nhất

So sánh với câu hỏi: Không có thông tin về silk yarn makes up the majority of silk (sợi tơ chiếm số lượng lớn của lụa)

=> Answer: NOT GIVEN



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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Great Migrations
Animal migration, however it is defined, is far more than just the movement of animals. It can loosely be described as travel that takes place at regular intervals - often in an annual cycle - that may involve many members of a species, and is rewarded only after a long journey. It suggests inherited instinct. The biologist Hugh Dingle has identified five characteristics that apply, in varying degrees and combinations, to all migrations. They are prolonged movements that carry animals outside familiar habitats; they tend to be linear, not zigzaggy; they involve special behaviours concerning preparation (such as overfeeding) and arrival; they demand special allocations of energy. And one more: migrating animals maintain an intense attentiveness to the greater mission, which keeps them undistracted by temptations and undeterred by challenges that would turn other animals aside. An arctic tern, on its 20,000 km flight from the extreme south of South America to the Arctic circle, will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird-watcher's boat along the way. While local gulls will dive voraciously for such handouts, the tern flies on. Why? The arctic tern resists distraction because it is driven at that moment by an instinctive sense of something we humans find admirable: larger purpose. In other words, it is determined to reach its destination. The bird senses that it can eat, rest and mate later. Right now it is totally focused on the journey; its undivided intent is arrival. Reaching some gravelly coastline in the Arctic, upon which other arctic terns have converged, will serve its larger purpose as shaped by evolution: finding a place, a time, and a set of circumstances in which it can successfully hatch and rear offspring. But migration is a complex issue, and biologists define it differently, depending in part on what sorts of animals they study. Joe! Berger, of the University of Montana, who works on the American pronghorn and other large terrestrial mammals, prefers what he calls a simple, practical definition suited to his beasts: 'movements from a seasonal home area away to another home area and back again'. Generally the reason for such seasonal back- and-forth movement is to seek resources that aren't available within a single area year- round. But daily vertical movements by zooplankton in the ocean - upward by night to seek food, downward by day to escape predators - can also be considered migration. So can the movement of aphids when, having depleted the young leaves on one food plant, their offspring then fly onward to a different host plant, with no one aphid ever returning to where it started. Dingle is an evolutionary biologist who studies insects. His definition is more intricate than Berger's, citing those five features that distinguish migration from other forms of movement. They allow for the fact that, for example, aphids will become sensitive to blue light (from the sky) when it's time for takeoff on their big journey, and sensitive to yellow light (reflected from tender young leaves) when it's appropriate to land. Birds will fatten themselves with heavy feeding in advance of a long migrational flight. The value of his definition, Dingle argues, is that it focuses attention on what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids, and therefore helps guide researchers towards understanding how evolution has produced them all. Human behaviour, however, is having a detrimental impact on animal migration. The pronghorn, which resembles an antelope, though they are unrelated, is the fastest land mammal of the New World. One population, which spends the summer in the mountainous Grand Teton National Park of the western USA, follows a narrow route from its summer range in the mountains, across a river, and down onto the plains. Here they wait out the frozen months, feeding mainly on sagebrush blown clear of snow. These pronghorn are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks. If they can't pass through each of the three during their spring migration, they can't reach their bounty of summer grazing; if they can't pass through again in autumn, escaping south onto those windblown plains, they are likely to die trying to overwinter in the deep snow. Pronghorn, dependent on distance vision and speed to keep safe from predators, traverse high, open shoulders of land, where they can see and run. At one of the bottlenecks, forested hills rise to form a V, leaving a corridor of open ground only about 150 metres wide, filled with private homes. Increasing development is leading toward a crisis for the pronghorn, threatening to choke off their passageway. Conservation scientists, along with some biologists and land managers within the USA's National Park Service and other agencies, are now working to preserve migrational behaviours, not just species and habitats. A National Forest has recognised the path of the pronghorn, much of which passes across its land, as a protected migration corridor. But neither the Forest Service nor the Park Service can control what happens on private land at a bottleneck. And with certain other migrating species, the challenge is complicated further - by vastly greater distances traversed, more jurisdictions, more borders, more dangers along the way. We will require wisdom and resoluteness to ensure that migrating species can continue their journeying a while longer.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 18
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
14
Local gulls and migrating arctic terns behave in the same way when offered food
15
Experts’ definitions of migration tend to vary according to their area of study.
16
Very few experts agree that the movement of aphids can be considered migration.
17
Aphids’ journeys are affected by changes in the light that they perceive.
18
Dingles aim is to distinguish between the migratory behaviours of different species.
Question 19 - 22
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
List of Endings
A
be discouraged by difficulties.
B
travel on open land where they can look out for predators.
C
eat more than they need for immediate purposes.
D
be repeated daily.
E
ignore distractions.
F
be governed by the availability of water.
G
follow a straight line.
According to Dingle, migratory routes are likely to
19
To prepare for migration, animals are likely to
20
During migration, animals are unlikely to
21
Arctic terns illustrate migrating animals’ ability to
22
Question 23 - 26
Complete the summary below. 
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
The migration of pronghorns
Pronghorns rely on their eyesight and
23
to avoid predators. One particular population’s summer habitat is a national park, and their winter home is on the
24
where they go to avoid the danger presented by the snow at that time of year.
However, their route between these two areas contains three
25
.
One problem is the construction of new homes in a narrow
26
of land on the pronghorns’ route.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Linearthinking works perfectly ở câu này vì nếu bạn nắm được cấu trúc thì từ vựng khó bạn cũng sẽ dễ dàng để giải quyết

 An arctic tern will take no notice of a nice smelly herring 

 While local gulls will dive for such handouts , the tern flies on 

→ Từ cấu trúc trên, bạn đã có 1 cơ sở kết luận an arctic ternlocal gulls không giống nhau

-> Main idea: Local gulls sẽ lao xuống để ăn đồ ăn # Arctic tern vẫn sẽ tiếp tục bay tiếp

Xem full giải thích
15
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc như sau:

 But migration is a complex issue , and biologists define it differently , depending in part on what sorts of animals they study 

-> Main idea: Việc di cư là 1 vấn đề phức tạp , nên các nhà sinh vật học định nghĩa việc này khác nhau, phụ thuộc vào động vật nào mà họ nghiên cứu.

So sánh với câu hỏi: Experts’ definitions of migration tend to vary according to their area of study = biologists define it differently, depending in part on what sorts of animals they study

=> Answer: TRUE 



Xem full giải thích
16
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin câu này nếu bạn đọc lướt hay dịch word by word sẽ rất khó cấu trúc phức tạp + từ vựng mới. Nếu áp dụng Linearthinking (Read in structure)

thì bạn sẽ nắm được ngay ý chính mà không phải gặp quá nhiều khó khăn.

 1 But daily vertical movements can also be considered migration.

 2 So can the movement of aphids when their offspring then fly onward to a different host plant with no one aphid ever returning to where it started

--> Cấu trúc: S-V so V-S -> khẳng định 2 vế 

Main idea: daily movements được xem là sự di cư, thì movement of aphids cũng được xem là sự di cư.

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17
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 They allow for the fact that for example , aphids will become sensitive to blue light when it's time for takeoff on their big journey , and sensitive to yellow light when it's appropriate to land. 

-> Main idea: aphids trở nên nhạy cảm với blue light khi bắt đầu hành trình, và nhạy cảm với yellow light khi đáp xuống

-> Vậy chứng tỏ: Aphids bị ảnh hưởng bởi sự thay đổi về light (blue & yellow) when they are on their journeys

So sánh với câu hỏi:

Xem full giải thích
18
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 The value of his definition , Dingle argues , is that it focuses attention on what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids  

Main idea: Dingle's focus: pay attention vào sự giống nhau giữa wildebeest migration the aphids migration

So sánh với câu hỏi: distinguish between the migratory behaviours of different species # what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids

=> Answer: FALSE 



Xem full giải thích
19
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc dài nên bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính của thông tin nha.



Tip: trong câu hỏi đề cập tới Dingle nên các bạn tìm thông tin liên quan đến Dingle

 Hugh Dingle has identified five characteristics that apply to all migrations. 

 They are prolonged movements ; they tend to be linear, , not zigzaggy ; ... ; ...

(writer sử dụng biện pháp listing nên đọc tới thông tin cần tìm có thể skip phần còn lại)

Xem full giải thích
20
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin trong bài đọc dài nên bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính của thông tin nha. (biện pháp sử dụng: listing)

 They are prolonged movements that carry animals outside familiar habitats ; they tend to be linear, not zigzaggy ; they involve special behaviours concerning preparation (such as overfeeding) and arrival ; they demand special allocations of energy

--> S3-V3 liên quan đến việc chuẩn bị cho migration

-> Main idea: Chúng có những hành vi đặc biệt cho quá trình chuẩn bị migration - ví dụ - ăn nhiều hơn (overfeeding)

So sánh với các câu trả lời: eat more than they need for immediate purposes = such as overfeeding

Xem full giải thích
21
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin sử dụng cấu trúc phức tạp, nên bạn sử dụng Linearthinking để phân tích và nắm ý chính của câu:

 And one more migrating animals maintain an intense attentiveness to the greater mission , which keeps them undeterred by challenges that would turn other animals aside 

Main idea: Động vật đang di trú - duy trì sự tập trung cao độ - để giúp chúng không bị nản chí bởi các khó khăn

So sánh với câu trả lời: are unlikely to be discouraged by difficulties = to be undeterred by challenges  

=> Chọn đáp án A - are unlikely to be discouraged by difficulties



Xem full giải thích
22
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đọc thông tin trong bài như sau:

 An arctic tern will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird-watcher's boat along the way. 

Main idea: An arctic tern sẽ không để ý đến mùi thơm của đồ ăn - được a bird-watcher's boat cung cấp

Vậy, an arctic tern sẽ không bị ảnh hưởng bởi các yếu tố ngoại cảnh (đồ ăn) khi trên đường đi di cư

So sánh với câu trả lời: ignore = will take no notice of ; distractions = nice smelly herring 

Xem full giải thích
23
speed
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Pronghorn , dependent on distance vision and speed to keep safe from predators , traverse high, open shoulders of land 

-> Main idea: Pronghorn dựa vào 2 thứ - tầm nhìn xa và tốc độ - để có sự an toàn trước kẻ ăn thịt - khi đi qua các dải đất cao

So sánh với câu hỏi: distance vision chính là eyesight --> đáp án cần tìm là speed

=> Answer: SPEED



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24
plains
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Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin nằm trong 2 câu nên các bạn áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính nha:

 One population which spends the summer in National Park follows a route from its summer range in the mountains across a river, and down onto the plains. 

 Here they wait out the frozen months feeding mainly on sagebrush blown clear of snow. 

-> Main idea: One population vượt núi -> vượt sông -> xuống đồng bằng (down onto the plains) --> chờ các tháng mùa đông trôi qua ở đồng bằng này

-> Vậy đích đến cuối cùng là on the plains để chờ qua hết các tháng mùa đông 

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25
bottlenecks
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 These pronghorn are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks. 

-> Main idea: These pronghorn - lưu ý về con đường di chuyển và sự thắt chặt tại 3 nút cổ chai (at three bottlenecks)

--> Giữa 2 areas (migration route + the severity of its constriction) có tồn tại three bottlenecks

=> Answer: bottlenecks



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26
corridor/passageway
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Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin được kéo dài ở 2 câu nên mình áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm nhanh ý chính của thông tin nha:

 1 At one of the bottlenecks , forested hills rise to form a V , leaving a corridor of open ground only about 150 metres wide , filled with private homes.

 2 Increasing development is leading toward a crisis for the pronghorn , threatening to choke off their passageway. 

-> Main idea: forested hills dâng cao lên để tạo thành một hình chữ V --> làm cho corridor hẹp lại ~ khoảng 150 mét - nhưng corridor này mọc lên rất nhiều nhà --> Việc phát triển nhiều nhà riêng như vậy gây ra 1 sự khủng hoảng cho pronghorn - cụ thể: gây cản trở cho passageway

-> vậy the construction of new homes được diễn ra ở narrow corridor / narrow passageway

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Adventures in mathematical reasoning
A
A. Occasionally, in some difficult musical compositions, there are beautiful, but easy parts - parts so simple a beginner could play them. So it is with mathematics as well. There are some discoveries in advanced mathematics that do not depend on specialized knowledge, not even on algebra, geometry, or trigonometry. Instead they may involve, at most, a little arithmetic, such as ‘the sum of two odd numbers is even’, and common sense. Each of the eight chapters in this book illustrates this phenomenon. Anyone can understand every step in the reasoning. The thinking in each chapter uses at most only elementary arithmetic, and sometimes not even that. Thus all readers will have the chance to participate in a mathematical experience, to appreciate the beauty of mathematics, and to become familiar with its logical, yet intuitive, style of thinking.
B
B. One of my purposes in writing this book is to give readers who haven’t had the opportunity to see and enjoy real mathematics the chance to appreciate the mathematical way of thinking. I want to reveal not only some of the fascinating discoveries, but, more importantly, the reasoning behind them. In that respect, this book differs from most books on mathematics written for the general public. Some present the lives of colorful mathematicians. Others describe important applications of mathematics. Yet others go into mathematical procedures, but assume that the reader is adept in using algebra
C
C. I hope this book will help bridge that notorious gap that separates the two cultures: the humanities and the sciences, or should I say the right brain (intuitive) and the left brain (analytical, numerical). As the chapters will illustrate, mathematics is not restricted to the analytical and numerical; intuition plays a significant role. The alleged gap can be narrowed or completely overcome by anyone, in part because each of us is far from using the full capacity of either side of the brain. To illustrate our human potential, I cite a structural engineer who is an artist, an electrical engineer who is an opera singer, an opera singer who published mathematical research, and a mathematician who publishes short stories.
D
D. Other scientists have written books to explain their fields to non-scientists, but have necessarily had to omit the mathematics, although it provides the foundation of their theories. The reader must remain a tantalized spectator rather than an involved participant, since the appropriate language for describing the details in much of science is mathematics, whether the subject is expanding universe, subatomic particles, or chromosomes. Though the broad outline of a scientific theory can be sketched intuitively, when a part of the physical universe is finally understood, its description often looks like a page in a mathematics text.
E
E. Still, the non-mathematical reader can go far in understanding mathematical reasoning. This book presents the details that illustrate the mathematical style of thinking, which involves sustained, step-by-step analysis, experiments, and insights. You will turn these pages much more slowly than when reading a novel or a newspaper. It may help to have a pencil and paper ready to check claims and carry out experiments.
F
F. As I wrote, I kept in mind two types of readers: those who enjoyed mathematics until they were turned off by an unpleasant episode, usually around fifth grade, and mathematics aficionados, who will find much that is new throughout the book. This book also serves readers who simply want to sharpen their analytical skills. Many careers, such as law and medicine, require extended, precise analysis. Each chapter offers practice in following a sustained and closely argued line of thought. That mathematics can develop this skill is shown by these two testimonials.
G
G. A physician wrote,'The discipline of analytical thought processes [in mathematics] prepared me extremely well for medical school. In medicine one is faced with a problem which must be thoroughly analyzed before a solution can be found. The process is similar to doing mathematics.’ A lawyer made the same point, “Although I had no background in law - not even one political science course — I did well at one of the best law schools. I attribute much of my success there to having learned, through the study of mathematics, and, in particular, theorems, how to analyze complicated principles. Lawyers who have studied mathematics can master the legal principles in a way that most others cannot.’ I hope you will share my delight in watching as simple, even naive, questions lead to remarkable solutions and purely theoretical discoveries find unanticipated applications.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 34
Reading Passage has seven sections, A-G. 
Which section contains the following information? 
Write the correct letter, A-G
NB You may use any letter more than once
27
a reference to books that assume a lack of mathematical knowledge
28
the way in which this is not a typical book about mathematics
29
personal examples of being helped by mathematics
30
examples of people who each had abilities that seemed incompatible
31
mention of different focuses of books about mathematics
32
a contrast between reading this book and reading other kinds of publication
33
a claim that the whole of the book is accessible to everybody
34
a reference to different categories of intended readers of this book
Question 35 - 40
Complete the sentences below. 
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
35
Some areas of both music and mathematics are suitable for someone who is a
9.....................

36
It is sometimes possible to understand advanced mathematics using no more than a limited knowledge of
10.....................

37
The writer intends to show that mathematics requires
11.....................
thinking, as well as analytical skills.
38
Some books written by
12.....................
have had to leave out the mathematics that is central to their theories.
39
The writer advises non-mathematical readers to perform
13.....................
while reading
40
A lawyer found that studying
14.....................
helped even more than other areas of mathematics in the study of law.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Với Linearthinking



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Trích dẫn từ sách cho rằng có sự thiếu kiến thức về toán học

Imagine: a lack of mathematical knowledge: may be trong bài sẽ đưa cụ thể là knowledge này sẽ bị thiếu cái gì ; hoặc provide gì đó nhưng not enough

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28
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Với Linearthinking

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

theo cách mà đây không phải là cuốn sách điển hình về toán học 

Imagine: this is not a typical book about mathematics : vậy maybe trong bài sẽ đề cập cuốn sách này thay vì về math thì sẽ tập trung về gì hơn

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29
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Với Linearthinking

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Đưa ví dụ cá nhân về toán học giúp đỡ bản thân như thế nào

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine & so sánh

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30
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Với Linearthinking

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Ví dụ về people who each had abilities mà nhìn có vẻ không thích hợp

Imagine:

Xem full giải thích
31
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Với Linearthinking

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Đề cập về nhưng focuses khác nhau về sách toán học

Imagine: different focuses: nếu như trong bài không paraphrase lại cụm này thì chắc chắn sẽ nêu ra những focuses đó là gì 

Xem full giải thích
32
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Sự tương phản giữa reading this book và reading other kinds of publication

Imagine: a contrast: may be trong bài sẽ miểu tả sự khác nhau này là gì giữa hai loại đọc sách

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33
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Với Linearthinking

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

a claim về cả cuốn sách được truy cập bởi tất cả mọi người

Imagine: the whole of the book is accessible to everybody: vậy thông tin sẽ có thể paraphrase lại cụm này bằng cách anyone can read it 

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34
F
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Giải thích chi tiết

Với Linearthinking

Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được bố cục bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.

Step 1: Đọc hiểu câu hỏi & imagine paraphrase

Trích dẫn về những categories khác nhau về việc mong đợi của readers đối với cuốn sách này

Imagine: different categories of intended readers: may be có thể kể ra các loại readers khác nhau khi đọc sách này

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35
beginner
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.





Apply Linearthinking để read in structure + nắm nhanh main idea của info: 

 Occasionally , in some difficult musical compositions , there are beautiful , but easy parts - parts so simple a beginner could play them

 So it is with mathematics as well. 

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36
arithmetic
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.





Apply Linearthinking để read in structure + nắm nhanh main idea của info: 

 There are some discoveries in advanced mathematics that do not depend on specialized knowledge

 Instead they involve, at most, a little arithmetic such as ‘the sum of two odd numbers is even’, and common sense. 

Xem full giải thích
37
intuitive
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.





Apply Linearthinking để read in structure + nắm nhanh main idea của info: 

 As the chapters will illustrate , mathematics is not restricted to the analytical ; intuition plays a significant role. 

=> Main idea: Mathematics yêu cầu kỹ năng analytical and intuitive (intuition) skills

Xem full giải thích
38
scientists
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.





Apply Linearthinking để read in structure + nắm nhanh main idea của info: 

 Other scientists have written books to explain their fields to non-scientists , but have necessarily had to omit the mathematics , although it provides the foundation of their theories. 

=> Main idea: scientists viết sách để giải thích lĩnh vực của họ tới non-scientists - but - phải bỏ qua phần toán học, mặc dù toán học là cơ sở cho theories của họ 

Xem full giải thích
39
experiments
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.





Apply Linearthinking để read in structure + nắm nhanh main idea của info: 

 1 the non-mathematical reader can go far in understanding mathematical reasoning.  

 2 This book presents the details that illustrate the mathematical style of thinking  

Xem full giải thích
40
theorems
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Ở dạng điền từ bạn cần chú ý xác định loại từ cần điền trước khi locate thông tin trong bài.





Apply Linearthinking để read in structure + nắm nhanh main idea của info: 

 1 A lawyer made the same point , Although I had no background in law I did well at one of the best law schools

 2 I attribute much of my success there to having learned , through the study of mathematics and in particular, theorems 

Xem full giải thích

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