Cambridge IELTS 10 - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Cambridge IELTS 10 - Reading Test 1 được lấy từ cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS 10 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Cambridge IELTS 10 - Reading Test 1 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Stepwells
A millennium ago, stepwells were fundamental to life in the driest parts of India. Although many have been neglected, recent restoration has returned them to their former glory. Richard Cox travelled to north-western India to document these spectacular monuments from a bygone era.
During the sixth and seventh centuries, the inhabitants of the modern-day states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in North-western India developed a method of gaining access to clean, fresh groundwater during the dry season for drinking, bathing, watering animals and irrigation. However, the significance of this invention – the stepwell – goes beyond its utilitarian application. Unique to the region, stepwells are often architecturally complex and vary widely in size and shape. During their heyday, they were places of gathering, of leisure, of relaxation and of worship for villagers of all but the lowest castes.Most stepwells are found dotted around the desert areas of Gujarat (where they are called vav) and Rajasthan (where they are known as baori), while a few also survive in Delhi. Some were located in or near villages as public spaces for the community; others were positioned beside roads as resting places for travellers. As their name suggests, stepwells comprise a series of stone steps descending from ground level to the water source (normally an underground aquifer) as it recedes following the rains. When the water level was high, the user needed only to descend a few steps to reach it; when it was low, several levels would have to be negotiated. Some wells are vast, open craters with hundreds of steps paving each sloping side, often in tiers. Others are more elaborate, with long stepped passages leading to the water via several storeys built from stone and supported by pillars, they also included pavilions that sheltered visitors from the relentless heat. But perhaps the most impressive features are the intricate decorative sculptures that embellish many stepwells, showing activities from fighting and dancing to everyday acts such as women combing their hair and churning butter. Down the centuries, thousands of wells were constructed throughout northwestern India, but the majority have now fallen into disuse; many are derelict and dry, as groundwater has been diverted for industrial use and the wells no longer reach the water table. Their condition hasn’t been helped by recent dry spells: southern Rajasthan suffered an eight- year drought between 1996 and 2004. However, some important sites in Gujarat have recently undergone major restoration, and the state government announced in June last year that it plans to restore the stepwells throughout the state. In Patan, the state’s ancient capital, the stepwell of Rani Ki Vav (Queen’s Stepwell) is perhaps the finest current example. It was built by Queen Udayamati during the late 11th century, but became silted up following a flood during the 13th century. But the Archaeological Survey of India began restoring it in the 1960s, and today it’s in pristine condition. At 65 metres long, 20 metres wide and 27 metres deep, Rani Ki Vav features 500 distinct sculptures carved into niches throughout the monument, depicting gods such as Vishnu and Parvati in various incarnations. Incredibly, in January 2001, this ancient structure survived a devastating earthquake that measured 7.6 on the Richter scale. Another example is the Surya Kund in Modhera, northern Gujarat, next to the Sun Temple, built by King Bhima I in 1026 to honour the sun god Surya. It’s actually a tank (kund means reservoir or pond) rather than a well, but displays the hallmarks of stepwell architecture, including four sides of steps that descend to the bottom in a stunning geometrical formation. The terraces house 108 small, intricately carved shrines between the sets of steps. Rajasthan also has a wealth of wells. The ancient city of Bundi, 200 kilometres south of Jaipur, is reknowned for its architecture, including its stepwells. One of the larger examples is Raniji Ki Baori, which was built by the queen of the region, Nathavatji, in 1699. At 46 metres deep, 20 metres wide and 40 metres long, the intricately carved monument is one of 21 baoris commissioned in the Bundi area by Nathavatji. In the old ruined town of Abhaneri, about 95 kilometres east of Jaipur, is Chand Baori, one of India’s oldest and deepest wells; aesthetically, it’s perhaps one of the most dramatic. Built in around 850 AD next to the temple of Harshat Mata, the baori comprises hundreds of zigzagging steps that run along three of its sides, steeply descending 11 storeys, resulting in a striking geometric pattern when seen from afar. On the fourth side, covered verandas supported by ornate pillars overlook the steps. Still in public use is Neemrana Ki Baori, located just off the Jaipur–Dehli highway. Constructed in around 1700, it’s nine storeys deep, with the last two levels underwater. At ground level, there are 86 colonnaded openings from where the visitor descends 170 steps to the deepest water source. Today, following years of neglect, many of these monuments to medieval engineering have been saved by the Archaeological Survey of India, which has recognised the importance of preserving them as part of the country’s rich history. Tourists flock to wells in far-flung corners of northwestern India to gaze in wonder at these architectural marvels from 1,000 years ago, which serve as a reminder of both the ingenuity and artistry of ancient civilisations and of the value of water to human existence.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Examples of ancient stepwells can be found all over the world.
2
Stepwells had a range of functions, in addition to those related to water collection
3
The few existing stepwells in Delhi are more attractive than those found elsewhere.
4
It took workers many years to build the stone steps characteristic of stepwells
5
The number of steps above the water level in a stepwell altered during the course of a year.
Question 6 - 8
Answer the questions below. 
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
6
Which part of some stepwells provided shade for people?
7
What type of serious climatic event, which took place in southern Rajasthan, is mentioned in the article?
8
Who are frequent visitors to stepwells nowadays?
Question 9 - 13
Complete the table below. 
Choose ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
False
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 most stepwells are found round areas of Gujarat (where they are called vav) and Rajasthan (where they are called baori) while a few survive in Delhi

→ Main idea: Ancient wells (vav + baori) được tìm thấy ở nhiều nơi ở India (Gujarat + Rajasthan + Delhi)

So sánh với câu hỏi: be found in India # be found all over the world 

→ Answer: FALSE 



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2
True
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 1 During their heyday , they were places of gathering, of leisure, of relaxation and of worship for villagers

 2 some were located in villages as public spaces for the community ; others were positioned beside roads as resting places 

Main idea: Liệt kê các công dụng của stepwells: public spaces for the community + resting places + gathering of leisure and relaxation

So sánh với câu hỏi: had a range of functions = public spaces for the community + resting places + gathering of leisure and relaxation

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3
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 most stepwells are found round areas of Gujarat (where they are called vav) and Rajasthan (where they are called baori) while a few survive in Delhi  

Main idea: Ancient wells (vav + baori) are found in some areas in India (Gujarat + Rajasthan + Delhi)

Không có thông tin - Stepwells ở Delhi are more attractive than those found elsewhere

→ Answer: NOT GIVEN 



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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 stepwells comprise a series of stone steps descending from ground level to the water source 

Main idea: Stepwells are made up of a series of stone steps 

Không có thông tin : workers build stone steps + mất thời gian bao lâu

→ Answer: NOT GIVEN



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5
True
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 when the water was high , the user needed only to descend a few steps to reach it  

 when it was low , several levels have to be negotiated  

Main idea: The water level có 2 mức: high & low

  • High: a few steps

  • Low: several levels 

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6
pavilions
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi

--> Meaning: phần nào của stepwells mang lại bóng râm

→ Bạn có thể đoán paraphrasing: provide shade = shelter sb from the sun để locate thông tin



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 they included  pavilions that sheltered visitors from the heat  

Xem full giải thích
7
drought
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu meaning câu hỏi:

--> Sự kiện khí hậu nghiêm trọng nào, diễn ra ở miền nam Rajasthan, được đề cập trong bài

--> Vì có đề cập tới southern Rajasthan nên các bạn dựa vào thông tin này để locate



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Their condition hasn’t helped by recent dry spells : southern Rajasthan suffered an eighth-year drought  

Xem full giải thích
8
tourists
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi

--> Ngày nay ai là khách thường xuyên đến thăm viếng stepwells?

→ Vì trong câu hỏi có nhắc tới “nowadays", nghĩa là đang chỉ về hiện tại, nên bạn cần chú ý khi locate 



Đọc thông tin với Linearthinking

 today many of these monuments have been saved by the Survey of India 

Xem full giải thích
9
Earthquake
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để trả lời dạng câu hỏi này nhanh, các bạn nên locate tên riêng của stepwells trong bài và đọc thông tin để trả lời câu hỏi



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Rani Ki Vav - in January 2001 this ancient structure survived an earthquake

Main idea: Rani Ki Vav - cấu trúc cổ đại này vẫn tồn tại qua khỏi an earthquake

So sánh với câu hỏi: Excellent condition despite the earthquake = survived an earthquake

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10
Four sides/4 sides
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Tip: Để trả lời dạng câu hỏi này nhanh, các bạn nên locate tên riêng của stepwells trong bài và đọc thông tin để trả lời câu hỏi1



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 another example is Surya Kund ... 

 it’s actually resembles a tank rather than a well including four sides of steps that descend to the bottom in a geometrical formation

Main idea: Surya Kund looks like a tank than well + 4 sides of steps tạo ra a geometrical pattern

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11
Tank
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để trả lời dạng câu hỏi này nhanh, các bạn nên locate tên riêng của stepwells trong bài và đọc thông tin để trả lời câu hỏi



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 another example is Surya Kund 

 it’s actually a tank rather than a well including four sides of steps that descend to the bottom in a geometrical formation

Main idea: Surya Kund looks like a tank than well

Xem full giải thích
12
verandas/verandahs
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để trả lời dạng câu hỏi này nhanh, các bạn nên locate tên riêng của stepwells trong bài và đọc thông tin để trả lời câu hỏi

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Chand Baori one of India’s oldest and deepest wells 

 On the fourth side verandas which are supported by ornate pillars overlook the steps

Trong câu này, có 3 nouns: verandas; steps và pillar

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13
underwater
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Để trả lời dạng câu hỏi này nhanh, các bạn nên locate tên riêng của stepwells trong bài và đọc thông tin để trả lời câu hỏi

Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Still in public use is Neemrana 

 Constructed in 1700 it’s nine storey deep with the last two levels underwater   

Main idea: Neemrana has 9 storeys deep, with the last 2 levels underwater

Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Trends and prospects for European transport systems
A
A. It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient transport system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase. There are two key factors behind this trend. For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.
B
B. As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20 years, as internal frontiers have been abolished, the EU has moved from a ”stock” economy to a ”flow” economy. This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from users.
C
C. The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular road haulage traffic. In 1998, some of these countries already exported more than twice their 1990 volumes and imported more than five times their 1990 volumes. And although many candidate countries inherited a transport system which encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour of road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998road haulage increased by 19.4%, while during the same period rail haulage decreased by 43.5%, although – and this could benefit the enlarged EU – it is still on average at a much higher level than in existing member states.
D
D. However, a new imperative-sustainable development – offers an opportunity for adapting the EUs common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years time, that is by 2040.
E
E. In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2 the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020 compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2 emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving energy efficiency is thus both an ecological necessity and a technological challenge.
F
F. At the same time greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such a change cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century of constant deterioration in favour of road. This has reached such a pitch that today rail freight services are facing marginalisation, with just 8% of market share, and with international goods trains struggling along at an average speed of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.
G
G. The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing. This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in the other modes of transport. In the short term it might curb the growth in road transport through the better loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates of passenger vehicles expected as a result of the increase in the price of transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalise other modes of transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport to take up the baton.
H
H. The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology). However, this approach does not include investment in new infrastructure, nor does it guarantee better regional cohesion. It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than the first approach, but road transport would keep the lions share of the market and continue to concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the modes. It is therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the balance.
I
I. The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans- European network. This integrated approach would allow the market shares of the other modes to return to their 1998 levels and thus make a shift of balance. It is far more ambitious than it looks, bearing in mind the historical imbalance in favour of roads for the last fifty years, but would achieve a marked break in the link between road transport growth and economic growth, without placing restrictions on the mobility of people and goods.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 21
Reading Passage has nine paragraphs, A-I. 
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E and G-I from the list of headings below. 
Write the correct number i-xi
List of Headings
I
A fresh and important long-term goal
II
Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
III
Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
IV
Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
V
The environmental costs of road transport
VI
The escalating cost of rail transport
VII
The need to achieve transport rebalance
VIII
The rapid growth of private transport
IX
Plans to develop major road networks
X
Restricting road use through charging policies alone
XI
Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission
14
Paragraph A
15
Paragraph B
16
Paragraph C
17
Paragraph D
18
Paragraph E
19
Paragraph G
20
Paragraph H
21
Paragraph I
Question 22 - 26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
22
The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.
23
To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers
24
Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries
25
The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago
26
By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
VIII
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 Sự cần thiết của một hệ thống giao thông hiệu quả cho sự phát triển kinh tế

 2 Yêu cầu về vận tải tăng mặc dù có những công nghệ hiện đại

Xem full giải thích
15
III
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Tip: Đối với dạng Matching Information, nên làm cuối cùng sau khi đã làm các dạng câu hỏi khác, vì lúc này bạn đã phần nào nắm được nội dung bài đọc => có thể tìm info nhanh hơn.



Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 Sự tăng trưởng là do những thay đổi trong nền kinh tế châu Âu và hệ thống sản xuất của nó

 2 Trong 20 năm qua, EU đã chuyển từ nền kinh tế “chứng khoán” sang nền kinh tế “dòng chảy”

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16
XI
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Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 The economic growth of candidate countries tăng lượng vận chuyển

 2 Năm 1998, candidate countries xuất khẩu nhiều hơn gấp đôi số lượng ở năm 1990 của họ

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17
I
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Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 2 a new fresh goal is set to adapt EUs policies (một mục tiêu mới mới được đặt ra để đáp ứng các chính sách của Châu Âu)

 3 4 this goal chỉ có thể đạt được vào năm 2020 nhưng các biện pháp là bước thiết yếu đầu tiên hướng tới một hệ thống bền vững được thực hiện trong thời gian 30 năm

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18
V
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Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 Tiêu thụ năng lượng trong giao thông vận tải chiếm 28% trong việc thải khí CO2

 2 Không đảo ngược xu hướng tăng trưởng --> CO2 từ giao thông vận tải sẽ tăng

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19
X
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Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 2 Cách tiếp cận đầu tiênchỉ tập trung vào vận tải đường bộ thông qua việc thu phí

 3 Cách tiếp cận đầu tiên giúp kiểm soát sự tăng trưởng trong vận tải thông qua giá cả

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20
II
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Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 Cách tiếp cận thứ 2 tập trung vào 2 điểm: road transport pricing + measures to increase the efficiency of other modes

 2 Cách tiếp cận thứ 2 không bao gồm: đầu tư vào cơ sở hạ tầng mới + đảm bảo sự gắn kết khu vực tốt hơn

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21
IV
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Sau khi đã đơn giản hóa câu, các bạn xem giải thích ý chính của các câu để hiểu đoạn văn và đưa câu trả lời đúng nha

 1 Cách tiếp cận thứ 3 bao gồm nhiều biện pháp: định giá ; phục hồi các phương thức vận tải ; đầu tư vào mạng lưới xuyên Châu Âu

 2 Cách tiếp cận này cho phép the market shares quay về với mức năm 1998 --> và tạo ra sự cân bằng

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22
True
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Although modern information technologies reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking , the requirement for transport continues to increase 

Main idea (cấu trúc tương phản): công nghệ hiện đại làm giảm nhu cầu physical transport # yêu cầu về vận tải vẫn tăng

So sánh với câu hỏi: Although S-V, S-V = S-V despite N - the need for transport is growing, despite technological developments

Chọn đáp án: TRUE



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23
False
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries , to reduce production costs , even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from users. 

--> Main idea (cấu trúc tương phản): để giảm chi phí sản xuất -> di dời một số ngành công nghiệp mặc dù địa điểm sản xuất cách xa người sử dụng hàng nghìn km

So sánh với câu hỏi: moved closer to their customer # thousands of kilometres away from users

--> Chọn đáp án FALSE

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24
Not Given
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows 

→ Main idea: Sự tăng trưởng kinh tế ở các nước ứng cử viên của EU sẽ làm tăng luồng vận tải

Không có thông tin về “cars are expensive in EU’’

Chọn đáp án: NOT GIVEN



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25
Not Given
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 1 This objective , agreed by the Gothenburg European Council , has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations and shifting the balance 

--> Main idea: Mục tiêu này phải đạt được bằng cách A và B

 2 The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020 , but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years time 

--> Main idea: Mục tiêu chỉ có thể đạt được hoàn toàn vào năm 2020, nhưng các biện pháp được đề xuất là bước thiết yếu hướng tới một hệ thống giao thông bền vững -> lý tưởng là sẽ có trong thời gian 30 năm

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26
False
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 According to the latest estimates , if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend , CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020 compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. 

→ Main idea: Nếu không làm gì để đảo ngược xu hướng tăng trưởng giao thông --> lượng khí thải CO2 từ giao thông có thể tăng khoảng 50% lên 1,113 tỷ tấn vào năm 2020 - so sánh với 1990: với 739 tỷ tấn

So sánh với câu hỏi: Are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes # can be expected to increase to 1,113 billion tonnes 

Chọn đáp án FALSE 



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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

The psychology of innovation
Why are so few companies truly innovative?
Innovation is key to business survivaland companies put substantial resources into inspiring employees to develop new ideas. There are, nevertheless, people working in luxurious, state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn’t make them feel at all creative. And there are those who don’t have a budget, or much space, but who innovate successfully. For Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, one reason that companies don’t succeed as often as they should is that innovation starts with recruitment. Research shows that the fit between an employee’s values and a company’s values makes a difference to what contribution they make and whether, two years after they join, they’re still at the company. Studies at Harvard Business School show that, although some individuals may be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the right circumstances. One of the most famous photographs in the story of rock’n’roll emphasises Ciaidini’s views. The 1956 picture of singers Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis jamming at a piano in Sun Studios in Memphis tells a hidden story. Sun’s ‘million-dollar quartet’ could have been a quintet. Missing from the picture is Roy Orbison’ a greater natural singer than Lewis, Perkins or Cash. Sam Phillips, who owned Sun, wanted to revolutionise popular music with songs that fused black and white music, and country and blues. Presley, Cash, Perkins and Lewis instinctively understood Phillips’s ambition and believed in it. Orbison wasn’t inspired by the goal, and only ever achieved one hit with the Sun label. The value fit matters, says Cialdini, because innovation is, in part, a process of change, and under that pressure we, as a species, behave differently, ‘When things change, we are hard-wired to play it safe.’ Managers should therefore adopt an approach that appears counterintuitive -they should explain what stands to be lost if the company fails to seize a particular opportunity. Studies show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened with a loss than when offered a reward. Managing innovation is a delicate art. It’s easy for a company to be pulled in conflicting directions as the marketing, product development, and finance departments each get different feedback from different sets of people. And without a system which ensures collaborative exchanges within the company, it’s also easy for small ‘pockets of innovation to disappear. Innovation is a contact sport. You cant brief people just by saying, ‘We’re going in this direction and I’m going to take you with me.’ Cialdini believes that this ‘follow-the-leader syndrome, is dangerous, not least because it encourages bosses to go it alone. ‘It’s been scientifically proven that three people will be better than one at solving problems, even if that one person is the smartest person in the field.’ To prove his point, Cialdini cites an interview with molecular biologist James Watson. Watson, together with Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the genetic information carrier of all living organisms. ‘When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array of highly accomplished rival investigators, he said something that stunned me. He said ”he and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren’t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest scientist was called Rosalind Franklin who, Watson said, “was so intelligent she rarely sought advice”.’ Teamwork taps into one of the basic drivers of human behaviour. ‘The principle of social proof is so pervasive that we don’t even recognise it,’ says Cialdini. ‘If your project is being resisted, for example, by a group of veteran employees, ask another old-timer to speak up for it.’ Cialdini is not alone in advocating this strategy. Research shows that peer power, used horizontally not vertically, is much more powerful than any boss’s speech. Writing, visualising and prototyping can stimulate the flow of new ideas. Cialdini cites scores of research papers and historical events that prove that even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the project. It is, he says, the reason why all those competitions on breakfast cereal packets encouraged us to write in saying, in no more than 10 words: ‘I like Kellogg’s Com Flakes because... .’ The very act of writing makes us more likely to believe it. Authority doesn’t have to inhibit innovation but it often does. The wrong kind of leadership will lead to what Cialdini calls ”captainitis, the regrettable tendency of team members to opt out of team responsibilities that are properly their’. He calls it captainitis because, he says, ”crew members of multipilot aircraft exhibit a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision”. This behaviour is not, he says, unique to air travel, but can happen in any workplace where the leader is overbearing. At the other end of the scale is the 1980s Memphis design collective, a group of young designers for whom ”the only rule was that there were no rule”. This environment encouraged a free interchange of ideas, which led to more creativity with form, function, colour and materials that revolutionised attitudes to furniture design. Many theorists believe the ideal boss should lead from behind, taking pride in collective accomplishment and giving credit where it is due. Cialdini says:”Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and simultaneously assure all concerned that every recommendation is important to making the right decision and will be given full attention” The frustrating thing about innovation is that there are many approaches, but no magic formula. However, a manager who wants to create a truly innovative culture can make their job a lot easier by recognising these psychological realities.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 30
Choose appropriate options A, B, C or D.
27
The example of the ‘million-dollar quartet’ underlines the writer’s point about
A
recognising talent
B
working as a team.
C
having a shared objective.
D
being an effective leader.
28
James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover the DNA code because they
A
were conscious of their own limitations
B
brought complementary skills to their partnership.
C
were determined to outperform their brighter rivals
D
encouraged each other to realise their joint ambition
29
The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an example of how to
A
inspire creative thinking
B
generate concise writing
C
promote loyalty to a group
D
strengthen commitment to an idea
30
In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees to
A
be aware of their company's goals
B
feel that their contributions are valued
C
have respect for their co-workers achievements
D
understand why certain management decisions are made
Question 31 - 35
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below. 
Write the correct letter, A-G
List of Endings
A
take chances.
B
share their ideas.
C
become competitive.
D
get promotion
E
avoid risk
F
ignore their duties
G
remain in their jobs
Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to
31
At times of change, people tend to
32
If people are aware of what they might lose, they will often
33
People working under a dominant boss are liable to
34
Employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to
35
Question 36 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In following statements below, choose
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
36
The physical surroundings in which a person works play a key role in determining their creativity
37
Most people have the potential to be creative
38
Teams work best when their members are of equally matched intelligence
39
It is easier for smaller companies to be innovative.
40
A manager’s approval of an idea is more persuasive than that of a colleague.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Sau khi áp dụng Linearthinking để simplify câu, bây giờ mình đi vào ý chính của từng câu để tìm đáp án đúng



 1 Bức tranh của 4 ca sĩ (Presley, Perkins, Cash and Lewis) vào năm 1956 có 1 sự thật ẩn đằng sau

 2 Bức tranh Sun’s ‘million-dollar quartet’ đáng lẽ phải có 5 người

 3 Bức tranh thiếu 1 người - Orbinson

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28
A
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Apply Linearthinking để đọc cấu trúc và nắm nhanh main idea như sau: 

 1 Watson together with Francis Crick , discovered the structure of DNA 

 2 When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array of accomplished rival investigators 

 3 He said he and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren’t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer .

→ Main idea: 

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29
D
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Apply Linearthinking để đọc cấu trúc và nắm nhanh main idea: 

 1 Cialdini cites scores of research papers that prove that even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the project

→ Main idea: Writing làm tăng sự tham gia của các thành viên vào dự án

 2 It is the reason why all those competitions on breakfast cereal packets encouraged us to write in no more than 10 words

→ Main idea: Đây là lí do tại sao those competitions on breakfast cereal packets khuyến khích họ viết nhiều hơn 

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30
B
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Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin trong bài đọc như sau:

 Cialdini says: Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and assure all concerned that every recommendation is  important to making the right decision and and will be given full attention 

Main idea: Leaders cần khuyến khích mọi người đóng góptất cả recommendation từ nhân viênrất quan trọng và sẽ được employers để tâm 100%

Hay nói cách khác: ý kiến từ employees sẽ được xem trọng nên khuyến khích mọi người contribute

Chọn đáp án B - feel that their contributions are valued



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31
G
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Hiểu câu hỏi

**Nếu bạn dịch để hiểu câu hỏi sẽ dễ bị rối, nên bạn nên phân tích cấu trúc câu hỏi:

 Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to _________ 

→ Employees có chung values với employers thì sẽ có khuynh hướng _____



Hiểu thông tin bài đọc với Linearthinking

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32
E
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Hiểu thông tin bài đọc với Linearthinking

 When things change , we are hard-wired to play it safe 

→ Main idea: when things change, chúng ta cần cẩn thận để tránh rủi ro 

So sánh với đáp án: play it safe = avoid risk

Chọn đáp án: E - avoid risk



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33
A
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Hiểu thông tin bài đọc

 Studies show that we take more gambles when threatened with a loss 

Main idea: Chúng ta thường mạo hiểm hơn khi mà sợ bị mất gì đó

So sánh với đáp án: take more gambles = take chance

--> Chọn đáp án: A - take chance



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34
F
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Hiểu thông tin bài đọc

 The wrong kind of leadership will lead to the regrettable tendency of team members to opt out of team responsibilities 

→ Main idea: Sự lãnh đạo sai sẽ dẫn tới team members choose not to take their responsibilities (không làm nhiệm vụ của họ)

So sánh với đáp án: opt out of team responsibilities = ignore their duty

Chọn đáp án  F - ignore their duty



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35
B
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Hiểu thông tin bài đọc với Linearthinking

  1 At the other end of the scale is the 1980s Memphis design collective a group of young designers for whom ”the only rule was that there were no rule” 

 2 This environment encouraged  a free interchange of ideas which led to more creativity 

Main idea: Working environment with fewer rules sẽ khuyến khích nhân viên trao đổi ý kiến --> giúp họ sáng tạo hơn 

So sánh với đáp án: encouraged a free interchange of ideas = share their ideas

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36
No
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 There are nevertheless people working in luxurious, state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn’t make them feel at all creative .

→ Main idea: Tuy nhiên, có những người làm việc trong các trung tâm sang trọng và hiện đại >> cũng không làm cho học cảm thấy sáng tạo hơn

So sánh với câu hỏi:  play a key role in determining their creativity # doesn’t make them feel at all creative

Chọn đáp án: NO



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37
Yes
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 although some individuals may be more creative than others , almost every individual  can be creative in the right circumstances 

Main idea: Hầu hết mọi người đều có thể sáng tạo trong những hoàn cảnh thích hợp, mặc dù một số có thể giỏi hơn những người khác

So sánh với câu hỏi: Most people can be creative in the right circumstances = Most people have the potential to be creative

Chọn đáp án YES 



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38
Not Given
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 1 The wrong kind of leadership will lead to captainitis

 2 He calls it captainitis because he says crew members of multi pilot aircraft exhibit a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision 

→ Bạn đọc hết câu này, nhưng các bạn có thể thấy trong đoạn thông tin dù có nhắc về team members & crews nhưng lại không đề cập tới việc “their members are of equally matched intelligence” 

--> Chọn đáp án: NOT GIVEN



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39
Not Given
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Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 And without a system which ensures collaborative exchanges within the company , it’s  easy for small pockets of innovation to disappear 

--> Main idea: Nếu không có hệ thống đảm bảo trao đổi cộng tác trong công ty, thì công ty nhỏ cũng dễ dàng biến mất.

--> Không có thông tin - it's easier for smaller companies to be innovative

→ Answer: NOT GIVEN 



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40
No
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng DOL’s Linearthinking

 Research shows that peer power is much more powerful than any boss’s speech. 

→ Main idea: Peer power (colleague’s power) mạnh hơn nhiều so với ý kiến của sếp

So sánh thông tin: Peer power (colleague’s power) is more powerful >< A manager’s approval of an idea is more persuasive

Chọn đáp án NO



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