Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 5 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 5 được lấy từ cuốn sách Actual Test 4 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 5 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Ants Could Teach Ants
The ants are tiny and usually nest between rocks in the south coast of England. Transformed into research subjects at the University of Bristol, they raced along a tabletop foraging for food - and then, remarkably, returned to guide others. Time and again, followers trailed behind leaders, darting this way and that along the route, presumably to memorize land- marks. Once a follower got its bearings, it tapped the leader with its antennae, prompting the lesson to literally proceed to the next step. The ants were only looking for food but the researchers said the careful way the leaders led followers - thereby turning them into leaders in their own right - marked the Temnothorax albipennis ant as the very first example of a non-human animal exhibiting teaching behavior. "Tandem running is an example of teaching, to our knowledge the first in a non-human animal, that involves bidirectional feedback between teacher and pupil," remarks Nigel Franks, professor of animal behavior and ecology, whose paper on the ant educators was published last week in the journal Nature. No sooner was the paper published, of course, than another educator questioned it. Marc Hauser, a psychologist and biologist and one of the scientists who came up with the definition of teaching, said it was unclear whether the ants had learned a new skill or merely acquired new information. Later, Franks took a further study and found that there were even races between leaders. With the guidance of leaders, ants could find food faster. But the help comes at a cost for the leader, who normally would have reached the food about four times faster if not hampered by a follower. This means the hypothesis that the leaders deliberately slowed down in order to pass the skills on to the followers seems potentially valid. His ideas were advocated by the students who carried out the video project with him. Opposing views still arose, however. Hauser noted that mere communication of information is commonplace in the animal world. Consider a species, for example, that uses alarm calls to warn fellow members about the presence of a predator. Sounding the alarm can be costly, because the animal may draw the attention of the predator to itself. But it allows others to flee to safety. “Would you call this teaching?” wrote Hauser. “The caller incurs a cost. The naive animals gain a benefit and new knowledge that better enables them to learn about the predator’s location than if the caller had not called. This happens throughout the animal kingdom, but we don’t call it teaching, even though it is clearly transfer of information.” Tim Caro, a zoologist, presented two cases of animal communication. He found that cheetah mothers that take their cubs along on hunts gradually allow their cubs to do more of the hunting -going, for example, from killing a gazelle and allowing young cubs to eat to merely tripping the gazelle and letting the cubs finish it off. At one level, such behavior might be called teaching -except the mother was not really teaching the cubs to hunt but merely facilitating various stages of learning. In another instance, birds watching other birds using a stick to locate food such as insects and so on, are observed to do the same thing themselves while finding food later. Psychologists study animal behavior in part to understand the evolutionary roots of human behavior, Hauser said. The challenge in understanding whether other animals truly teach one another, he added, is that human teaching involves a “theory of mind” -teachers are aware that students don’t know something. He questioned whether Franks’s leader ants really knew that the follower ants were ignorant. Could they simply have been following an instinctive rule to proceed when the followers tapped them on the legs or abdomen? And did leaders that led the way to food -only to find that it had been removed by the experimenter -incur the wrath of followers? That, Hauser said, would suggest that the follower ant actually knew the leader was more knowledgeable and not merely following an instinctive routine itself. The controversy went on, and for a good reason. The occurrence of teaching in ants, if proven to be true, indicates that teaching can evolve in animals with tiny brains. It is probably the value of information in social animals that determines when teaching will evolve rather than the constraints of brain size. Bennett Galef Jr., a psychologist who studies animal behavior and social learning at McMaster University in Canada, maintained that ants were unlikely to have a “theory of mind” -meaning that leader and followers may well have been following instinctive routines that were not based on an understanding of what was happening in another ant’s brain. He warned that scientists may be barking up the wrong tree when they look not only for examples of human like behavior among other animals but human like thinking that underlies such behavior. Animals may behave in ways similar to humans without a similar cognitive system, he said, so the behavior is not necessarily a good guide into how humans came to think the way they do.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 5
Look at the following statements and the list of people in the box below.
Match each statement with the correct person, A, B, C or D.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
List of Findings
A
Nigel Franks
B
Marc Hauser
C
Tim Caro
D
Bennett Galef Jr.
1
Animals could use objects to locate food.
2
Ants show two-way, interactive teaching behaviors.
3
It is risky to say ants can teach other ants like human beings do.
4
Ant leadership makes finding food faster.
5
Communication between ants is not entirely teaching.
Question 6 - 9
Choose FOUR letters, A-H
Which FOUR of the following behaviors of animals are mentioned in the passage?
A
touch each other with antenna
B
alert others when there is danger
C
escape from predators
D
protect the young
E
hunt food for the young
F
fight with each other
G
use tools like twigs
H
feed on a variety of foods
Question 10 - 13
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the Reading Passage?
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
10
Ants' tandem running involves only one-way communication.
11
Franks's theory got many supporters immediately after publicity.
12
Ants' teaching behavior is the same as that of human.
13
Cheetah share hunting gains to younger ones

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
C
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 In another instance, birds  watching other birds using a stick to locate food such as insects and so on

=> Vậy 'stick' 'object' mà những chú chim dùng để tìm thức ăn

=> Thông tin này được tìm thấy trong đoạn của Tim Caro

Xem full giải thích
2
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Ta có thể tìm thấy cụm 'teaching behavior' ở cuối đoạn 1 -> Thông tin chính nằm ở đoạn 2



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 marked the Temnothorax albipennis ant as the very first example of a non-human animal exhibiting teaching behavior 

 2 "Tandem running is an example of teaching , to our knowledge the first in a non-human animal, that involves bidirectional feedback between teacher and pupil," remarks Nigel Franks

=> Câu 1 + 2 : Loài kiến Temnothorax là minh chứng cho việc có bidirectional và interactive teaching giữa loài kiến (non-human animal)

Xem full giải thích
3
D
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

 It is risky to say ants can teach other ants like human beings do 

=> Việc nói ants có thể dạy cho ants như cách con người làm là risky (mạo hiểm) -> Ý là nói như vậy có khả năng cao là sai

  • 'risky to say' -> nghĩ về việc nói ra một ý kiến nào đó mà có nguy cơ cao sai

  • 'ants can teach other ants like human beings do' -> tìm các cụm nói về việc động vật có suy nghĩ/ hành vi giống con người

Xem full giải thích
4
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Câu này khá dễ vì các cụm paraphrase dễ hiểu, từ leader cũng quen thuộc với nhiều bạn

=> Chỉ cần xem phần Paraphrasing là có thể chọn được đáp án rồi

=> Phần này của Nigel Franks -> Chọn A



Xem full giải thích
5
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha

Tìm info: Dựa vào cụm 'is not entirely teaching', ta có thể tìm thấy cụm 'we don't call it teaching'

=> Với communication = transfer of information

=> Tìm thấy tên Hauser ở phía trước

=> Dễ dàng chọn được đáp án là B



Xem full giải thích
6
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: touch each other with antenna

=> Chạm vào nhau băng antenna

=> Với touch = tap

=> Chọn đáp án A



Xem full giải thích
7
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Consider a species that uses alarm calls to warn fellow members about the presence of a predator.

=> Sử dụng alarm calls để cảnh cáo các thành viên về sự hiện diện của kẻ thù/ thú săn mồi

=> Ứng với câu B



Xem full giải thích
8
E
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 cheetah mothers that take their cubs along on hunts gradually allow their cubs to do more of the hunting , for example, from killing a gazelle and allowing young cubs to eat

=> Báo mẹ đưa con của chúng đi săn và cho phép chúng ăn thịt

=> Đồng nghĩa với việc săn thức ăn cho con nhỏ

=> Chọn E



Xem full giải thích
9
G
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Với 'twigs' = 'stick' (que/gậy)

=> Ta dễ dàng chọn được đáp án G

>>> Nếu bạn nào không biết nghĩa từ 'twigs' -> Dựa vào từ 'tools' -> Tìm các ý liên quan tới việc động vật sử dụng vật gì đó

Xem full giải thích
10
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'tandem running' ta có thể dễ dàng locate được thông tin cần đọc

Phân tích info: Tandem running ... involves bidirectional feedback

=> Ta có tiền tố 'bi-' có nghĩa là 'hai/ đôi' -> bidirectional = two-way: 2 chiều

=> Ngược với 'one-way' của bài đọc

=> Chọn FALSE



Xem full giải thích
11
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 No sooner was the paper published , of course, than another educator questioned it

=> Ta có cấu trúc: No sooner S-V (đảo ngữ) than S-V

=> Cấu trúc này được dùng để chỉ hành động thứ 2 (sau 'than) sẽ xảy ra ngay sau hành động thứ 1 (sau no sooner)

=> Sau khi bài nghiên cứu được công bố, một educator đã nghi ngờ nó

Xem full giải thích
12
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Ants' teaching behavior is the same as that of human

=> Hành vi dạy học của kiến thì giống với con người

=> Ta có thể thấy 'similiar to humans' = 'the same as that of human' và có thể liên hệ 'animal' với 'ants'

=> Tuy nhiên, chỉ nói về behavior nói chung chứ không đề cập tới 'teaching behavior'

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
13
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Cheetah share hunting gains to younger ones

=> Báo chia sẻ thành quả đi săn với những con non

Phân tích info: cheetah mothers allow their cubs to do more of the hunting -going , for example , from killing a gazelle and allowing young cubs to eat to merely tripping the gazelle and letting the cubs finish it off.

=> Báo mẹ cho phép báo con đi săn chung, cho phép chúng ăn thịt và kết liễu con mồi

Xem full giải thích

Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

The Development of Plastics
When rubber was first commercially produced in Europe during the nineteenth century, it rapidly became a very important commodity, particularly in the fields of transportation and electricity. However, during the twentieth century a number of new synthetic materials, called plastics, superseded natural rubber in all but a few applications. Rubber is a polymer—a compound containing large molecules that are formed by the bonding of many smaller, simpler units, repeated over and over again. The same bonding principle—polymerization—underlies the creation of a huge range of plastics by the chemical industry. The first plastic was developed as a result of a competition in the USA. In the 1860s, $10,000 was offered to anybody who could replace ivory—supplies of which were declining—with something equally good as a material for making billiard balls. The prize was won by John Wesley Hyatt with a material called celluloid. Celluloid was made by dissolving cellulose, a carbohydrate derived from plants, in a solution of camphor dissolved in ethanol. This new material rapidly found uses in the manufacture of products such as knife handles, detachable collars and cuffs, spectacle frames and photographic film. Without celluloid, the film industry could never have got off the ground at the end of the 19th century. Celluloid can be repeatedly softened and reshaped by heat, and is known as a thermoplastic. In 1907, Leo Baekeland, a Belgian chemist working in the USA, invented a different kind of plastic, by causing phenol and formaldehyde to react together. Baekeland called the material Bakelite, and it was the first of the thermosets—plastics that can be cast and moulded while hot, but cannot be softened by heat and reshaped once they have set. Bakelite was a good insulator, and was resistant to water, acids and moderate heat. With these properties it was soon being used in the manufacture of switches, household items such as knife handles, and electrical components for cars. Soon chemists began looking for other small molecules that could be strung together to make polymers. In the 1930s British chemists discovered that the gas ethylene would polymerize under heat and pressure to form a thermoplastic they called polythene. Polypropylene followed in the 1950s. Both were used to make bottles, pipes and plastic bags. A small change in the starting material—replacing a hydrogen atom in ethylene with a chlorine atom—produced PVC (polyvinyl chloride), a hard, fireproof plastic suitable for drains and gutters. And by adding certain chemicals, a soft form of PVC could be produced, suitable as a substitute for rubber in items such as waterproof clothing. A closely related plastic was Teflon, or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). This had a very low coefficient of friction, making it ideal for bearings, rollers, and non-stick frying pans. Polystyrene, developed during the 1930s in Germany, was a clear, glass-like material, used in food containers, domestic appliances and toys. Expanded polystyrene—a white, rigid foam—was widely used in packaging and insulation. Polyurethanes, also developed in Germany, found uses as adhesives, coatings, and—in the form of rigid foams—as insulation materials. They are all produced from chemicals derived from crude oil, which contains exactly the same elements—carbon and hydrogen—as many plastics. The first of the man-made fibres, nylon, was also created in the 1930s. Its inventor was a chemist called Wallace Carothers, who worked for the Du Pont company in the USA. He found that under the right conditions, two chemicals— hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid—would form a polymer that could be pumped out through holes and then stretched to form long glossy threads that could be woven like silk. Its first use was to make parachutes for the US armed forces in World War H. In the post-war years nylon completely replaced silk in the manufacture of stockings. Subsequently many other synthetic fibres joined nylon, including Orion, Acrilan and Terylene. Today most garments are made of a blend of natural fibres, such as cotton and wool, and man-made fibres that make fabrics easier to look after. The great strength of plastic is its indestructibility. However, this quality is also something of a drawback: beaches all over the world, even on the remotest islands, are littered with plastic bottles that nothing can destroy. Nor is it very easy to recycle plastics, as different types of plastic are often used in the same items and call for different treatments. Plastics can be made biodegradable by incorporating into their structure a material such as starch, which is attacked by bacteria and causes the plastic to fall apart. Other materials can be incorporated that gradually decay in sunlight—although bottles made of such materials have to be stored in the dark, to ensure that they do not disintegrate before they have been used.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 20
Complete the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passages for each answer.
Question 21 - 26
Do the following statements agree with the information in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
21
The chemical structure of plastic is very different from that of rubber.
22
John Wesley was a famous chemist.
23
Celluloid and Bakelite react to heat in the same way.
24
The mix of different varieties of plastic can make the recycling more difficult.
25
Adding starch into plastic can make plastic more durable.
26
Some plastic containers have to be preserved in special conditions.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
photographic film
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào tên riêng 'Celluloid' + các thông tin đã có sẵn như '1860s' + 'US' , ta dễ dàng locate được thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Celluloid was made by dissolving cellulose in a solution of camphor dissolved in ethanol.

 2 This new material rapidly found uses  in the manufacture of products such as knife handles, detachable collars and cuffs, spectacle frames and photographic film.

 3 Without celluloid , the film industry could never have got off the ground at the end of the 19th century.

Xem full giải thích
15
Bakelite
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào con số '1907', ta dễ dàng khoanh vùng được thông tin cần đọc:



Áp dụng Linearthinking để rút ra đáp án:

 1 In 1907 , Leo Baekeland , invented a different kind of plastic 

 2 Baekeland called the material Bakelite

=> 1 + 2 : Loại nhựa thứ 2 được phát minh vào năm 1907 là Bakelite

Xem full giải thích
16
switches
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Khi thấy cụm 'can be cast and moulded while hot, but cannot be softened by heat' , biết phía sau sẽ là phần thông tin cần đọc



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Bakelite was a good insulator , and was resistant to water , acids and moderate heat. 

 2 With these properties it was soon being used in the manufacture of switches, household items such as knife handles, and electrical components for cars.

=> 1 + 2 : Vì các tính chất của Bakelite mà nó được dùng làm switches + household items + components for cars

Xem full giải thích
17
Britain/UK
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào các thông tin như 'Polythene' + '1930', ta nhanh chóng locate được thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 In the 1930s British chemists discovered that  the gas ethylene would polymerize under heat and pressure to form a thermoplastic they called polythene.

=> Các nhà hóa học British phát hiện ra Polythene

>>> Chú ý ta đang cần tìm một region (một vùng, một nơi) -> không thể điền 'British' vì đó chỉ là quốc tịch

Xem full giải thích
18
fireproof
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào 'PVC' ta có thể khoanh vùng được thông tin

>>> Ở đoạn này họ sẽ đề cập tới 2 loại PVC: hard PVC và soft PVC

>>> Tuy nhiên soft PVC chỉ là thông tin đánh lạc hướng, mình cần đọc về rigid PVC'rigid' = 'hard'





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
19
clear and glass-like
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Polystyrene , developed during the 1930s in Germany , was a clear, glass-like material , used in food containers, domestic appliances and toys.

=> Đặc tính của Polystyrene rõ ràng là 'clear' + 'glass-like'

=> Vì ta được điền 3 từ, nên ta có thể điền cả 2

=> Answer: clear and glass-like

Xem full giải thích
20
rigid
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Polyurethanes , also developed in Germany , found uses as adhesives, coatings , and—in the form of rigid foams  —as insulation materials.

=> Polyurethanes được phát minh ở Đức - được dùng làm chất kết dính, chất bao phủ - và khi ở dạng rigid foams - được dùng như vật liệu cách điện

=> Khi so sánh với table ở trên, với từ 'foams' đã được điền sẵn

=> Dễ dàng nhận ra đáp án là: rigid



Xem full giải thích
21
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu hỏi xoay quanh sự so sánh giữa plastic và rubber -> Đoạn 1 giới thiệu về rubber, sau đó nhắc tới 'a new synthetic materials' ở cuối đoạn -> Biết đoạn 2 sẽ bắt đầu đề cập tới plasticcó thể sẽ so sánh với rubber



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Rubber is a polymer - a compound containing large molecules  that are formed by the bonding of many smaller, simpler units , repeated over and over again.

 2 The same bonding principle polymerization underlies the creation of a huge range of plastics

=> Câu 1 cho biết: rubber là polymer, gồm molecules lớn - được hình thành từ sự bonding của smaller, simpler molecules

Xem full giải thích
22
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Hiểu câu hỏi: John Wesley was a famous chemist.

=> John Wesley là nhà hóa học nổi tiếng

=> Dựa vào tên riêng 'John Wesley', ta dễ dàng tìm được thông tin

=> Tuy nhiên sau khi nhắc đến John Wesley, bài đọc liền đi vào chi tiết về Celluloid - phát minh của ông

=> Không hề đưa thông tin về việc ông là famous chemist -> Chọn NOT GIVEN

Xem full giải thích
23
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Celluloid and Bakelite react to heat in the same way.

=> Celluloid và Bakelite phản ứng giống nhau khi gặp nhiệt





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Celluloid can be repeatedly softened and reshaped by heat and is known as a thermoplastic 

Xem full giải thích
24
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào từ 'recycling', ta locate được thông tin ở đoạn cuối



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: The mix of different varieties of plastic can make the recycling more difficult.

=> Sự trộn lẫn các loại plastic - có thể làm việc tái chế - trở nên khó khăn hơn

Phân tích info: Nor is it very easy to recycle plastics , as different types of plastic are often used in the same items and call for different treatments. 

Xem full giải thích
25
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Vì thông tin câu trước được xác định ở đoạn cuối, mà dạng T/F/NG đi theo thứ tự từ trên xuống dưới

=> Thông tin cần tìm chỉ năm trong đoạn cuối, ta không quá vất vả trong việc tìm thông tin nữa

=> Dựa vào từ 'starch', khoanh vùng được thông tin cần đọc





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
26
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Other materials can be incorporated that gradually decay in sunlight although bottles made of such materials have to be stored in the dark 

=> Những bottles - được làm bằng chất liệu phân rã dưới ánh nắng mặt trời - cần được bảo quan trong bóng tối

=> Nói cách khác, một vài containers nhất định cần được bảo quản đặc biệt

=> Chọn TRUE



Xem full giải thích

Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Global Warming in New Zealand
For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting warmer. As the nearest country of South Polar Region, New Zealand has maintained an upward trend in its average temperature in the past few years. However, the temperature in New Zealand will go up 4oC in the next century while the polar region will go up more than 6oC. The different pictures of temperature stem from its surrounding ocean which acts like the air conditioner. Thus New Zealand is comparatively fortunate. Scientifically speaking, this temperature phenomenon in New Zealand originated from what researchers call “SAM” (Southern Annular Mode), which refers to the wind belt that circles the Southern Oceans including New Zealand and Antarctica. Yet recent work has revealed that changes in SAM in New Zealand have resulted in a weakening of moisture during the summer, and more rainfall in other seasons. A bigger problem may turn out to be heavier droughts for agricultural activities because of more water loss from soil, resulting in poorer harvest before winter when the rainfall arrive too late to rescue. Among all the calamities posed be drought, moisture deficit ranks the first. Moisture deficit is the gap between the water plants need during the growing season and the water the earth can offer. Measures of moisture deficit were at their highest since the 1970s in New Zealand. Meanwhile, ecological analyses clearly show moisture deficit is imposed at different growth stage of crops. If moisture deficit occurs around a crucial growth stage, it will cause about 22% reduction in grain yield as opposed to moisture deficit at vegetative phase. Global warming is not only affecting agriculture production. When scientists say the country’s snow pack and glaciers are melting at an alarming rate due to global warming, the climate is putting another strain on the local places. For example, when the development of global warming is accompanied by the falling snow line, the local skiing industry comes into a crisis. The snow line may move up as the temperature goes up, and then the snow at the bottom will melt earlier. Fortunately, it is going to be favorable for the local skiing industry to tide over tough periods since the quantities of snowfall in some areas are more likely to increase. What is the reaction of glacier region? The climate change can be reflected in the glacier region in southern New Zealand or land covered by ice and snow. The reaction of a glacier to a climatic change involves a complex chain of processes. Over time periods of years to several decades, cumulative changes in mass balance cause volume and thickness changes, which will affect the flow of ice via altered internal deformation and basal sliding. This dynamic reaction finally leads to glacier length changes, the advance or retreat of glacier tongues. Undoubtedly, glacier mass balance is a more direct signal of annual atmospheric conditions. The latest research result of National Institute of Water and Atmospheric (NIWA) Research shows that glaciers line keeps moving up because of the impacts of global warming. Further losses of ice can be reflected in Mt. Cook Region. By 1996, a 14 km long sector of the glacier had melted down forming a melt lake (Hooker Lake) with a volume. Melting of the glacier front at a rate of 40 m/yr will cause the glacier to retreat at a rather uniform rate. Therefore, the lake will continue to grow until it reaches the glacier bed. A direct result of the melting glaciers is the change of high tides the serves the main factor for sea level rise. The trend of sea level rise will bring a threat to the groundwater system for its hyper-saline groundwater and then pose a possibility to decrease the agricultural production. Many experts believe that the best way to counter this trend is to give a longer-term view of sea level change in New Zealand. Indeed, the coastal boundaries need to be upgraded and redefined. There is no doubt that global warming has affected New Zealand in many aspects. The emphasis on the global warming should be based on the joints efforts of local people and experts who conquer the tough period. For instance, farmers are taking a long term, multi-generational approach to adjust the breeds and species according to the temperature. Agriculturists also find ways to tackle the problems that may bring to the soil. In broad terms, going forward, the systemic resilience that’s been going on a long time in the ecosystem will continue. How about animals’ reaction? Experts have surprisingly realized that animals have unconventional adaptation to global warming. A study has looked at sea turtles on a few northern beaches in New Zealand and it is very interesting to find that sea turtles can become male or female according to the temperature. Further researches will try to find out how rising temperatures would affect the ratio of sex reversal in their growth. Clearly, the temperature of the nest plays a vital role in the sexes of the baby turtles. Tackling the problems of global warming is never easy in New Zealand, because records show the slow process of global warming may have a different impact on various regions. For New Zealand, the emission of carbon dioxide only accounts for 0.5% of the world’s total, which has met the governmental standard. However, New Zealand’s effort counts only a tip of the iceberg. So far, global warming has been a world issue that still hangs in an ambiguous future.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
27
What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
A
The temperature in the polar region will increase less than that in New Zealand in the next century.
B
The weather and climate of New Zealand is very important to its people because of its close location to the polar region.
C
The air condition in New Zealand will maintain a high quality because of the ocean.
D
The temperature of New Zealand will increase less than that of other region in the next 100 years because it is surrounded by sea.
28
What is one effect of the wind belt that circles the Southern Oceans?
A
New Zealand will have more moisture in winds in summer.
B
New Zealand needs to face droughts more often in hotter months in a year.
C
Soil water will increase as a result of weakening moisture in the winds
D
Agricultural production will be reduced as a result of more rainfall in other seasons.
29
What does “moisture deficit” mean to the grain and crops?
A
The growing condition will be very tough for crops.
B
The growing season of some plants can hardly be determined.
C
There will be a huge gap between the water plants needed and the water the earth can offer.
D
The soil of the grain and crops in New Zealand reached its lowest production since 1970s.
30
What changes will happen to skiing industry due to the global warming phenomenon?
A
The skiing station may lower the altitude of skiing
B
Part of the skiing station needs to move to the north.
C
The snowfall may increase in part of skiing station.
D
The local skiing station may likely to make a profit because of the snowfall increase.
31
Cumulative changes over a long period of time in mass balance will lead to
A
Alterations is the volume and thickness of glaciers.
B
Faster changes in internal deformation and basal sliding.
C
Larger length of glaciers.
D
Retreat of glacier tongues as a result of change in annual atmospheric conditions.
32
Why does the writer mention NIWA in the sixth paragraph?
A
To use a particular example to explain the effects brought by glacier melting.
B
To emphasize the severance of the further loss of ice in Mt. Cook Region.
C
To alarm the reader of melting speed of glaciers at a uniform rate.
D
To note the lake in the region will be disappear when it reach the glacier bed.
Question 33 - 35
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Research date shows that sea level has a closely relation with the change of climate. The major reason for the increase in sea level is connected with 
33
. The increase in sea level is also said to have a threat to the underground water system, the destruction of which caused by rise of sea level will lead to a high probability of reduction in 
34
. In the long run, New Zealand may have to improve the 
35
 if they want to diminish the effect of change in sea levels.
Question 36 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the Reading Passage?
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
36
Farmers are less responsive to climate change than agriculturists.
37
Agricultural sector is too conservative and resistant to deal with climate change.
38
Turtle is vulnerable to climate change.
39
The global warming is going slowly, and it may have different effects on different areas in New Zealand.
40
New Zealand must cut carbon dioxide emission if they want to solve the problem of global warming.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
D
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để rút ra main idea:

 1 However, the temperature in New Zealand will go up 4oC in the next century while the polar region will go up more than 6oC. 

 2 The different pictures of temperature stem from its surrounding ocean which acts like the air conditioner.

=> 1 + 2 : Sau 100 năm, New Zealand sẽ tăng 4 độ, ít hơn polar region -> Điều này là nhờ có biển bao bọc xung quanh

=> Ứng với đáp án D

Xem full giải thích
28
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'wind belt that circles the Southern Oceans', ta dễ dàng locate được info



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 SAM” (Southern Annular Mode), which refers to the wind belt that circles the Southern Oceans  including New Zealand and Antarctica. 

 2 Yet recent work has revealed that changes in SAM have resulted in a weakening of moisture during the summer , and more rainfall in other seasons.

 3 A bigger problem may turn out to be heavier droughts for agricultural activities because of more water loss from soil , resulting in poorer harvest before winter

Xem full giải thích
29
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 If moisture deficit occurs around a crucial growth stage , it will cause about 22% reduction in grain yield as opposed to  moisture deficit at vegetative phase. 

=> Nếu 'moisture deficit' xảy ra trong 'growth stage' -> sản lượng giảm 22%

=> 'moisture deficit' gây khó khăn cho việc phát triển (growing) của crops

=> Chọn đáp án A - The growing condition will be very tough for crops



Xem full giải thích
30
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'skiing industry' ta có thể nhanh chóng khoanh vùng thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 it is going to be favorable for the local skiing industry to tide over tough periods since the quantities of snowfall in some areas  are more likely to increase.

=> Skiing industry có thể 'tide over' (vượt qua) các giai đoạn khó khăn lượng snowfall có thể tăng ở một vài khu vực

=> Ứng với đáp C - The snowfall may increase in part of skiing station



Xem full giải thích
31
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm ' Cumulative changes in mass balance' + 'over a long period of time' ta dễ dàng locate được thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 cumulative changes in mass balance cause volume and thickness change

=> Với change = alternation

=> Chọn đáp án A - Alterations in the volume and thickness of glaciers



Xem full giải thích
32
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The latest research result of National Institute of Water and Atmospheric (NIWA) Research shows that glaciers line keeps moving up because of the impacts of global warming.

=> Kết quả nghiên cứu của NIWA cho thấy - glaciers lines tăng lên - vì sự ảnh hưởng của biến đổi khí hậu

=> Global warming dẫn tới glacier lines move up

=> Vậy tác giả nhắc tới NIWA để chỉ ra tác động của global warming (nóng lên toàn câu -> glacier melting)

Xem full giải thích
33
high tides
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: The major reason for the increase in sea level is connected with ____

=> Đáp án là danh từ - điều dẫn tới sự tăng lên của mực nước biển

Phân tích info: A direct result of the melting glaciers is the change of high tides which serves the main factor for sea level rise.

=> High tides thay đổi - là nguyên nhân chính dẫn tới sea level tăng

Xem full giải thích
34
agricultural production
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào các cụm paraphrase đơn giản như 'increase in sea level' + 'have a threat to' + 'underground water system', ta dễ dàng locate được thông tin cần đọc



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: ....lead to a high probability of reduction in ____

=> Đáp án là một danh từ - thứ mà có khả năng cao bị giảm

Phân tích info: The trend of sea level rise will bring a threat to the groundwater system and then pose a possibility to decrease the agricultural production.

Xem full giải thích
35
coastal boundaries
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: New Zealand may have to improve the ______  if they want to diminish the effect of change in sea levels

=> Để giảm tác động của sự thay đổi mực nước biển, New Zealand phải improve cái này





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Many experts believe that the best way to counter this trend is to give a longer-term view of sea level change in New Zealand 

Xem full giải thích
36
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Farmers are less responsive to climate change than agriculturists.

=> Farmers không nhạy bén với climate change bằng agricultures

=> Ta có thể tìm thấy thông tin về farmers + agriculturist

=> Tuy nhiên không thể tìm thấy thông tin so sánh giữa 2 đối tượng

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
37
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Agricultural sector is too conservative and resistant to deal with climate change.

=> Với 'agricultural sector' (lĩnh vực nông nghiệp), ta có thể hiểu là họ đang đề cập tới 'farmers + agriculturists'

=> Tuy nhiên không hề có thông tin là họ bảo thủ (conservative) hay không muốn (resistant to) giải quyết climate change

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



Xem full giải thích
38
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Turtle is vulnerable to climate change

=> Rùa thì dễ bị ảnh hưởng bởi climate change

>>> Ở câu này bạn phải biết nghĩa của 'vulnerable' nhé, nếu không sẽ không hiểu được câu hỏi. Vulnerabledễ bị làm hại/ tổn thương, bạn nào chưa biết thì note lại nha







Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
39
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: The global warming is going slowly, and it may have different effects on different areas in New Zealand.

=> Global warming đang tiến triển chậm và sẽ tác động khác nhau đến các vùng khác nhau ở New Zealand

Phân tích info: Tackling the problems of global warming is never easy in New Zealand , because records show the slow process of global warming may have a different impact on various regions.

=> Quá trình chậm của global warming có thể để lại các tác động khác nhau đối với những vùng khác nhau

Xem full giải thích
40
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: New Zealand must cut carbon dioxide emission if they want to solve the problem of global warming

=> Nếu muốn ngăn global warming, New Zealand phải giảm khí C02 thải ra





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 For New Zealand,  the emission of carbon dioxide only accounts for 0.5% of the world’s total , which has met the governmental standard.

Xem full giải thích

Download PDF

Bạn có thể tải bản đẹp của đề và đáp án AT4 - Reading Test 5 tại đây